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The occupation of Navy Island by citizens of the United States 

and Canadian. outlaws. 

Mackenzie having fled to tlie city of Buffalo, in the 
United States^ and Bidwell having voluntarily left the 
province, in consequence of the proofs which the 
Lieutenant-governor had received of his conduct, all 
was, for a short time, peace and tranquillity. 

The agitator, assisted by those of his friends who 
had escaped from Buffalo, continued, by dint of con- 
stant public speechifyings and meetings, to enlist a 
large body of refugees and sympathisers at Buffalo and 
its neighbourhood; and, at length, a proclamation was 
issued, ^ constituting Upper Canada an independent 
State, and, in an inflated style, promising land and 
mighty guerdon to those who should join the " Army 
of Liberation,^^ under General Van Bensselaer. 

I have kept part of that person^s stiatement, referring 
to the invasion of the territory of Great Britain by 
citizens of the United States, which he made when 



placed at length in the State prison at Albany, where 
he was confined, /wo /onnrf, for a short period; and, as 
it gives some insight to Mackenzie's true character, 
before I enter upon a short detail of the invasion, I 
shall insert it as a curious document in itself, and as 
it forms a link in the . chain of the history of the 

• {From the Albany Daily Advertiser.) 

Sir, — You will confer a great favour by allowing me sufficient 
space in your paper to redeem a pledge given through the Onandaga 
Standard, a few weeks since, viz : — to produce facts enough to show 
that the abandonment of the late intended Patriot Expedition against 
Kingston was chargeable to no one but William Lyon Mackenzie. 
It is to be hoped your brother Editors, particularly those in the west, 
who have been so prodigal of their severe criticisms on my conduct, 
immediately after the affair, will also give it an insertion. The 
publication, under my present peculiar situation, is deemed highly 
impolitic by many, but as I am constitutionally better able to sustain 
myself under any quantity of merited rebuke — let it come in what . 
shape it may — than to endure the slightest lash of undeserved cen- 
sure, I fain must nm the risk. It should hav^ been forthcoming 
sooner, but for the de).ay in waiting replies to my correspondence ; 
and it should have been more explicit, in some cases, but my obliga- 
tions to others, forbid it at present. Hereafter more proof may be 
given, if necessary to sustain my position. 

Your obedient Servant, 

Renss. Van Rensselaer. 

Albany Jail, March 29^A, 1838. 

NarraiUm qf Fade ccrmeeted with the Frontier movements tf the Patriot 

Army qf Upper Canada* 

About 10th December last, while in BufiEalo, on private business, 
I was urged by Thomas J. Southerland, who brought me a general 
letter of introduction from Hon. John W. Taylor, late Speaker, &c. 
— to take command of the Patriot forces,, destined to act in libe- 
rating the oppressed of Upper Canada, and to establish a Re- 
publican form of Government in the province. , 

of the Council, organised before the rising, near Toronto, and 
William Lyon Mackenzie, member of the same, were the persons 


Navy Island is situated at that part of the great 
river Niagara, where, after leaving Lake Erie, it forms a 

from whom my authority was to be derived. Full and sole powers 
were to be invested in me to conduct all military operations in my 
own way and no one allowed to interfere. I required a stated time 
for reflection before my answer could be given. Pending this, the 
result of my more particular inquiries was a full confirmation of 
the opinions imbibed from previous notice of passing events in the 
Canadas, viz. : that the Canadas were only prevented by the strong 
arm of power from throwing off the yoke of foreign despots, and, ^ 
notwithstanding the unfortunate issde of the ilUconcerted battle of 
Toronto, that a vast majority of the people were in favour of a 
political reformation, that there was evejy encouragement for the 
belief, that if one successful battle was fought, and a good stand 
maintained for a short time, they would concentrate their forces and 
do their own fighting afterwards. With the hope of being instru- 
mental in hastening a crisis so desirable to all the republican world — 
my wish as a Northerner to see the chivalrous example of the South, 
in the case of Texas, emulated here — my innate detestation of tyranny 
and oppression wherever manifested — finally, relying upon number- 
less promises of being sustained, and trusting in the smiles of heaven 
itself, I agreed to accept the ofifer. At that dark period, when the 
Patriots were flying in dismay from the dangers which beset them at 
their own firesides, and when few indeed were disposed to jeopardise 
their liveis and prospects in their behalf— youth was not to be cavilled 
at Thir^-seven years then was considered age sufi&cient to mature 
the judgment of anyone who could resuscitate their drooping pros- 
pects, and the want of experience in actual service was deemed of no 
material consequence. Industry, zeal, management, prudence and 
determination were admitted to be every qualification expected, and' 
all I asked was freely granted. Dr. Rolph even went so far as to 
propose himself, and to insist that I should have power to arrest any 
member of the Executive Council, provided it became necessary 
to do so, in order to prevent his interference in my department ; 
Mr. Mackenzie, after a slight show of opposition, was obliged to 
acquiesce. . 

Shortly after this, word was brought me that a requisition had been 
made upon the American authorities by Governor Sir Francis B. 
Head, for the person of William Lyon Mackenzie, as a fugitive, 
murderer, robber, &c., from Canada. It was supposed at the time 
that it would have to be complied with, and our friends were solici- 
tous that he should be placed entirely beyond its reach. I therefore 



strait, in which are several islands and islets, dividing 
the strait into two channels on the British and Ame- 

took him under escort from his hiding-place, at ten o'clock at night, 
to White Haven, on Grand Island, ten miles helow the city, where the 
Canadian refugees and volunteers had assembled the day before for a 
descent upon Navy Island. These troops, represented to be 250 
strong, with two pieces of artillery, 400 or 500 stand of arms, pro- 
visions, munitions, &c., in abundance, had not yet left their ren- 
dezvous when we reached it. When mustered to embark, only 
twenty-four appeared, excluding Mr. Mackenzie and myselfl I had 
previously been informed, in consequence of the unavoidable delay, 
while making preparations for a movement connected with the diffi- 
culties which grew out of the seizure of the public arms at Buffalo, 
that many of the men had returned to their homes ; but I was 
not prepared for such an appalling falling off Mr. Mackenzie, on 
noticing it, sunk inert and spirit-broken upon the frame of a cannon, 
where he passively reclined until aroused by a false alarm. The idea 
of encamping on British territory, with such a paltry force, seemed 
hazardous enough to me, but considering this as the forlorn hope of 
the hunted Canadian — when I thought of his pitiable condition — of 
the immense interests at stake, of the unprepared state of the enemy, 
of speedy reinforcements promised me, and of the mortification inci- 
dent to a retrogade movement — trusting in tbe good faith of our 
friends, and in Providence, the word was given — "push off." 

The landing was effected lumoticed. The enemy did not reconnoitre 
the island until two days subsequently, when our first shot was fired 
ahead-of their boat. It drove them back, we then were sixty strong. 
Durli)g the period we remained on the island, of the thousands who 
visited us, for business or curiosity, all are witnesses of the extent of 
the duties, fatigues, and perils which devolved upon me. None can 
say I shrunk from any, or neglected any. But among all the per- 
plexities incident to the organization of a republican army for inva- 
sion — to a strict attention to its defences and protections against a 
powerful foe — to the reception of innumerable visitors, &c., &c., 
nothing was more perplexing than the conduct of William Lyon 
Mackenzie. I had known him long to have the reputation of a firm 
and consistent opposer of monarchical abuses ; as such, I respected 
him so much that many little disagreements occurred between us 
before my confidence in him could be shaken. A breach, however, 
eventually did occur, which grew wider as my knowledge of his dis- 
position and character increased. I found him governed by the 
impulses of the moment, fickle, arbitrary, and impatient He would 


rican shores. Navy Island is the last of these^ and was 
reserved by the British Government for the sake of its 

suggest fifty plans for effecting the object in view in as many minutes, 
and abandon them as often, but he could fix upon no. single one and 
follow it out If I presumed to differ or remind him of his stipu- 
lation not to interfere, his potent ire would immediately arise and 
a quarrel ensue. 

On one occasion we differed as to the policy of appointing a time 
and place for two friends to meet us with 100 armed Canadians each. 
I wished them to remain at home until they knew we had landed on 
the main shore of the enemy, particularly so as their march would not 
be a long one to join us, and circumstances might oblige us to foil 
them another time, about crossing over to the enemy's camp, when 
they were strong and we less than 200. He offered there to begone 
of fifty to do so ; but I heard nothing more of the project after giving 
him permission to get up a party for the purpose. The fears he 
openly expressed, in hearing of th« troops, at the probable effect upon 
the island of the enemy's firing their mortars and heavy batteries, was 
very discouraging, and we quarrelled about that ; — again, because he 
chose to consider himself , in the light of a nonentity, for the reason 
that I did not deem it proper to call him in as a military counsellor. 
I should have done this most willingly^ if I had not, by this time, lost 
all faith in his qualifications or discretion. I was well aware, that 
with so little actual experience as I possessed, a trusty counsellor 
would be a great acquisition. To keep his restless spirit quiet, how- 
ever, while our reinforcements were coming in, as well as to relieve 
myself of a most burthensome duty, the general correspondence was 
entrusted to his charge. How well, or how badly he performed the 
duty I am not able to judge, for he* scarcely ever thought it necessary 
to make any reports, and his course in this respect has assuredly been 
iletrimental to the service. 

It is not my purpose to go into a detail of occurrences connected 
with Navy Island now, or to explain the cause which compelled me 
to evacuate it for American territory. The proper moment for doing 
that will arrive within a few months ; when it shall be done, whatever 
the consequence may be. Then the faithful, hardy band, who stood 
their ground so long, notwithstanding ' the mighty efforts of Her 
Britannic Majesty's troops to dislodge us, and of the powerful 
American influences to dissuade us from the undertaking, shall have 
justice done them. Suffice it to say, that at the earliest day, when 
we found ourselves strong enough to act on the offensive, an immense 
array of teams were collected at Schlosser, Niagara falls, and the 


timber for naval purposes, and thus was never granted, 
and remained covered with forest trees of large size. 

▼icinity, to create a belief that we intended landing there for the 
purpo&e of being carried down to the mouth of the river, so as to cross 
orer to the enemy's shore at that point A show of chartering boats 
at BuiFalo and Black BrOck was simultaneously made to create a belief 
that that was our intended point of embarkation. The rtue took 
admirably well. Both friend and foe were deceived. The regular and 
militia force stationed at both points on the American shore were 
hastily called out, and kept under anns for hours to intercept us. 
Her Majesty's troops were marched to the neighbourhood of Fort 
George and Fort Erie, to prevent our landing there ; and then my 
real point of intended attack — Chippewa — was uncovered, except by 
perhaps 150 or 200 men left behind to keep up their harmless roar of 
artillery. The intention was-- and every man on the island was ready 
and eager for the fray— to have been towed by a steamer in our flats 
and yawl-boats across the river above that artillery — to have forced 
a march over it down to St George^— to have beaten the detachment 
of the enemy's army there, and to have taken passage in the British 
government steamer lying there that night for«Toronto, and, &c. But 
the men would not hazard the passage of the Niagara without the 
tow of the steamboat; and although we had the promise of one,?-^ 
although we stood under arms from sunset to midnight wailing for 
one ; — and although I had dispatched three different messages in due 
season to the proper sources, begging it to be sent that night " for 
God's sake! or all is lost," — it did not come. Why I have yet to 
learn. It is an act of equity, however, to say, I have the assurance 
of General Scott, that it was not owing to him. 

At this trying crisis, where was William Lyon Mackenzie? He 
left the island when the bombardment and cannonading was com- 
menced against us in real earnestness, and in spite of my remon- 
strances and entreaties to the contrary, he pushed off for Buffalo i 
where he remained safely ensconced in the house of a friend. On my 
arriva) at that city, after the evacuation, I understood he had been 
extremely abusive towards everything American on the occasion of 
his arrest by the United States marshal, and that he had disgusted all 
his benefactors in that quarter by his violent language. My know- 
ledge of his disposition induced me to believe this most readily. I 
knew he had previously made some of the most efficient, active, and 
influential Canadian reformers lukewarm, if not opposed to the cause, 
by a similar course ; and hiy contempt for the impolitic ingrate knew 
no bounds when he again showed himself among the members of the 


It is^ however^ a small spot^ of about a mile and a half 
in length and half a mile in breadth^ and is easily 
accessible in boats, either from the Canadian or the 
American shores, the channel being very wide on the 
latter, and not more than five or six hundred yards on 
the former, where is the village of Chippewa, celebrated 
as the scene of several warlike operations, during the 
war of 1812, 1813, and 1814. At tliis village is the 
mouth of the Welland River, one of the great arteries 
of the internal navigation by canal. 

The scene at this spot is singular and grand. The 
St. Lawrence, or Niagara as it is here called, after 
leaving Navy Island, spreads itself out into an 
enormous sheet of water, near a mile and a half in 
width, just above the great leap which it is swiftly, but 
almost imperceptibly, preparing to take, in order to 
throw its huge volume of waters into the seething gulf 
of the Falls. 

From Chippewa theire is a ferry across to a place 
called Fort Schlosser, which, however, is merely a 
tavern-stand and ferry-house in the United States, 
about the same distance above the Falls as Chippewa ; 
and steamers ascend and descend the river as far as the 
mouth of the Welland, about one mile and a half above 

Executive Committee, whom I had called together to consult upon 
further measures, — and attempted to direct my military operations. 
The most of my men, at the time, were quartered some two or three 
miles west of Buffalo, under orders to march westward, until hoats 
could he procured for their conveyance ; but he, in the plenitude of 
his wisdom, insisted that the order should be countermanded, — that 
the men should return in battle array, charge upon the State and the 
State forces, seize the boats required to carry them, the materiel, &c., 
to the Canadian shore, and to embark from the city." 


the caldron of Niagara, and within three quarters of a 
mile of the swiftest waters of the rapids. 

The mouth of the Welland is canalized and em- 
banked, so that once in it, a boat or a vessel is perfectly 
safe; nor do accidents happen often from their being 
caught by the descending current, which is moderate, 
until the slope of the substrata or bed of the mighty 
river becomes so inclined as to cause a succession of 
heavy rapids. 

The fall of the water from Lake Erie, just beyond 
the British village of Waterloo, in twenty-three miles 
to the first rapid, has been calculated at only fifteen 
feet, so that the velocity of the water in the strait of 
the Niagara may easily be inferred. After reaching the 
inclined plane which forms the rapids, the water falls, 
in half a mile, fifty-one feet, and then avalanches over, 
if I may use the term, into the cauldron below, 162 
feet at one pitch; and, after forming a scene which 
words and painting have ever failed to describe, it 
rushes, frets, foams, whirls, and plunges in a series of 
mysterious strugghngs and throes, through an inap- 
proachable, gloomy, rifted, and precipitous channel, 
until, after seven miles of incessant battlihgs, it joins 
another strait of the Niagara river at Queenstown, 
having descended 104 feet more, and then silently 
wends its way, in a magnificent stream, through a fairy 
scene of cultivation and woodland banks, reminding 
every Englishman of home, to Lake Ontario, having 
fallen two feet more in six miles. 

Thus the total fall of the Niagara from Lake ifirie, at 
Waterloo, or Fort Erie, to Fort Mississagua, in the 


town of Niagara^ on the borders of Lake Ontario, 
may be said, in round numbers, to be three hundred 
and thirty-four feet in thirty-six and a half miles.* 

Situated at the head of this fearful navigation, 
Mackenzie chose Navy Island as the depot from which 
he was to centre the conquest of Canada. He thought 
himself secure on this dangerously isolated spot, 
because he well knew that there were no British steam- 
boats to waft troops over, and because he also knew he 
could avail himself of two American steamers, which 
had been only just preparing to lay up for the winter; 
and that season proving, as we before observed, unu- 
sually mild, enabled these piratical vessels to earn a few 
dollars in the attempt to carry fire and sword into a 
country at peace with their owners. 

There must have been a better military calculator 
than either Mackenzie or Van Rensselaer in the camp; 
for at least there was a good show, and the semblance 
of a central blockhouse, and several batteries on Navy 
Island, deceived even the best telescopic judges. 

An extract from a BuflFalo paper of the 22nd Janu- 
ary, 1838, will afford a true character of the celebrated 
Rensselaer van Rensselaer, Generalissimo of the patriot 
forces under WilUam Lyon Mackenzie, written of 
course after all the sympathising schemes had failed.f 

♦ The Welland canal between Erie and Ontario, according to the 
recent Report of Lieutenant-colonel Phillpotts, of the Royal En- 
gineers, has 328 1 feet lockage in 28 miles : according to the American 
Commissioners the difference of level between Lake Erie ai\d Lake 
Ontario is 333 feet 


Buffalo f 22nd January ^ 1838. 
My dear Sir, — Since my last communication I have had the honour 



The island was, however, very formidable in appear* 
ance ; for covered as it was with wood, it was impossible 
for Colonel M'Nab to ascertain its strength. In the 
highest part of the centre trees had been cut down, 
and boughs put up, in the semblance of a strong block- 
house, and on various parts of the banks pseudo bat- 
tcries were erected, in which altogether thirteen pieces 
of ordnance, mounted upon all sorts of temporary car- 
riages^ had been erected, whilst the main camp of huts 
was on the safe side, next to the United States frontier ; 
and Grand Island, a large island ten miles long, belong- 
ing to the States, which was only separated from Navy 
Island by a very narrow channel, contained an army of 
sympathisers, and the general hospital and place of 

From this Island, the reconnoitring parties sent by 

of an interview with two of the greatest men of their day, or, indeed, of 
any day since the era of "Tom Thumb" and " Jack the Giant-killer;" 
you will at once perceive that the distinguished personages in question 
are no less than the Honourable William L. Mackenzie, Chair- 
man pro tem, of the State of Upper Canada, and the redoubtable hero 
and general, Rensselaer Van Rensselaer, or, as he is now more 
generally styled, Rip Van Winkle the Second. 

Of the first you already know enough to render it unnecessary for 
me to say more than that he is now the most unpopular man in 
Buffalo, and he knows it ; and as there is nothing too remarkable for 
occurrence in this wonderful wdrld, I should not be surprised to learn 
that in this revulsion of popular feeling, some of our calculating (we 
have more calculating than patriotic) citizens have taken the oppor- 
tunity to spirit the little mischief-maker back to your shores. 

Van Rensselaer is a giu-sling, sottish-looking genius of twenty- 
seven, but apparently much older from disease and dissipation. He 
is in a very destitute condition, and complains loudly of the conduct 
of his worthy colleague, the Chairman, who told him when he first 
took command, that in ten days they would have 3,000 brave Cana- 
dians on Navy ^Island, when it turned out, after a month's residence 
on that dreary spot, that only nine Canadians joined them, and they 

CANADA. 1 1 

M^Nab^ in such boats as he could get^ were always 
iired upon^ notwithstanding that it was asserted that 
strong parties of the United States Militia were upon 
duty there to maintain neutrality. Two thousand 
Canadian militia rushed to Chippewa^ and placed them- 
selves upon its celebrated battle-ground^ and M^Nab 
then threw up entrenchments to protect his troops 
from the desultory cannonade to which they were 
exposed on a level and continuous frontier. 

The Commander-in-chief^ Sir John Colbome^ after 
this fuss of battle and siege had lasted several days^ 
thought it high time to interfere^ and detached a 
Major of Artillery from Kingston with a Captain of 
Engineers^ and an adequate supply of guns^ mortars^ 
Congreve-rocketS; and stores. 

The best narrative of this event which I have seen 
is that of Sir Francis Head^ which^ as it is not pub- 
lished in his book (and he, ci-devant officer of Engi- 
neers, has viewed the whole transaction calmly and 
with a miUtary eye), I shall here give /for I think 
nothing can afford a better development of such 
extraordinary occun*ences than to let the actors speak 
for themselves, particularly when a state question, Uke 
that of the burning of the QaroUne, which ended this 
strange eventful history, is concerned.* 

were worthless wretches, that had fled from justice or their creditors. 
He gave me their names, such as Tim Parsons, Mantach, Baxter, 
Gorham, Doyle, Defield, &c., &c. The others, about 600 in all, were 
the worst population of our frontier, ready to cut any man's throat for 
a dollar. Such were the men our citizens dubbed patriotSf and sent 
to disseminate the principles of true liberty amongst you Canadians ! 
O tempera — mores ! 
* Copy of a Despatch, from His Excellency Sir Francis B. Head, 

1 2 CANADA. 

With respect to the Caroline, I have just to obserre 
that an officer of the Army, who was present and is 

Bart, Lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada, to His Excellency 
Henry S. Fox, Her Majesty's Minister at Washington, 

TorontOf Upper Canada, Sth January, 1838. 

Sir, — I have the honour to inclose you the copy of a special mes- 
sage, sent by His Excellency Governor Marcy to the Legislature of 
the State of New York, in relation to a matter on which your Excel- 
lency will desire the earliest and most authentic information. The 
message only reached this place yesterday, and I lose no time in 
communicating with your Excellency on the subject* 

The Governor of the State of New York complains of the cutting 
out and burning of the steam-boat CarolvMy by order of Colonel 
M'Nab, commanding Her Majesty's Forces at Chippewa, in the 
Province of Upper Canada, and of the destruction of the lives of some 
American citizens, who were on^ board of the boat at the time she 
was attacked. The act complained of was done under the following 
circumstances :— 

In Upper Canada, which contains a population of about 450,000 
souls, the most perfect tranquillity prevailed up to the 4th day of 
December last, although in the adjoining Province of Lower Canada, 
many of the French Canadian inhabitants had been in open rebellion 
against the Government for about a month preceding. 

At no time since the treaty of peace with the United States, in 
1815, had Upper Canada been more undisturbed. The real causes 
of the insurrection in Lower Canada, namely, the national antipathy 
of the French inhabitants, did not in any degree apply in the Upper 
Province, whose populaticm, like the British and American inhabi- 
tants of Lower Canada, were wholly opposed to the revolt, and anxious 
to render every service in their power in support of the Queen's 
authority. It had been reported to the Government, some time 
before the 4th of December, that in a remote portion of the Home 
District, a number of persons occasionally met and drilled, with arms, 
under leaders known to be disaffected, but it was not believed by the 
Government that anything more could be intended than to make a 
show of threatened revolt, in order to create a diversion in favour of 
the rebels in Lower Canada. The feeling of loyalty throughout this 
Province was known to be so prevalent and decided, that it was not 
thought unsafe to forbear, for the time at least, to take any notice of 
the proceedings of this party. 



now by my side, has told me that the orders were to 
ineet her on the river as she was plying between 

On the night of the 4th Decemher, the inhabitants of the city of 
Toronto were alarmed by the intelligence that about five hundred 
persons, armed with riiles, were approaching the city — that they had 
murdered in the highway a gentleman of great respectability, and 
had made several persons prisoners. The inhabitants rushed imme- 
diately to arms — there were no soldiers in the Province, and no 
militia had been called out. The home district, from which this 
party of armed men came, contains 60,000 inhabitants — the city of 
Toronto 10,000. In a few hours a respectable force, although undis- 
ciplined, was collected and armed in self-defence, and awaited the 
threatened attack. It seems now to admit of no doubt, that if they 
had at once advanced against the insurgents, they would have met 
with no formidable resistance, but it was thought more prudent to 
wait until a sufficient force should be collected, to put the success of 
an attack beyond question. In the meantime, people poured in from 
all quarters to oppose the Insurgents, who obtained no increase of 
numbers, but on the contrary, were deserted by many of their body, 
in consequence of the acts of devastation and plunder into which their 
leader had forced them. 

On the 7th of December, an overwhelming force of militia went 
against them, and dispersed them without losing a man — taking many 
prisoners, who were instantly released by my order, and suffered to 
depart to their homes. The rest, with their leaders, fled — some have 
since surrendered themselves to justice — many have been taken, and 
some have escaped from the province. 

It was reported about this time, tliat in the district of London a 
similar disposition to rise had been observed, and in consequence, a 
militia force of about 400 men was sent into that district, where it was 
speedily joined by three times as many of the inhabitants of the 
district, who assembled voluntarily and came to their aid with the 
greatest alacrity. It was discovered that about three hundred 
persons, under Doctor Duncombe, an American by birth, were 
assembled with arms ; but before the militia could reach them, they 
dispersed themselves and fled— of these, by far the greater number 
came in immediately and submitted themselves to the Government, 
declaring that they had been misled and deceived, and praying for 

In about a week perfect tranquillity was restored, and from that 
moment not a man has been seen in arms against the Government in 
any part of the province, with the exception of the hostile aggression 


Schlosser and Navy Island^ board her whilst under 
weighs and capture and destroy her. After rowing 

upon NaTy Island, which I shall presently notice ; nor has there been 
the slightest resistance offered to the execution of a legal process, in 
a single instance^ 

After the dispersion of the armed insurgents, near Toronto, Mr. 
Mackenzie, their leader, escaped in disguise to the Niagara river, and 
crossed over to Buf&lo. Reports had been spread there, and else- 
where along the American frontier, that Toronto had been burnt, and 
that the rebels were completely successful : but the falsehood of these 
absurd rumours was well-known before Mackenzie arrived on the 
American side. It was known also that the ridiculous attempt of four 
hundred men to revolutioniise a country containing nearly half a 
million of inhabitants, had been put down by the people instantly and 
decidedly, without the loss of a man. 

Nevertheless, a number of American citizens in Buffalo, and other 
towns on the frontier of the State of New York, enlisted as soldiers, 
with the avowed object of invading Canada, and establishing a Pro- 
visional Government. Public meetings were held to forward this 
design of invading a countiy with which the United States were at 
peace. Volunteers were called for ; and arms, ammunition, and pro* 
visions, were supplied by contributions openly made. All this was 
in direct and flagrant violation to the express laws of the United 
States, as well as of the Law of Nations. 

The civil authority of Buffalo offered some slight show of resistance 
to the movement, being urged to interpose by many of the most 
respectable citizens, but no real impediment was offered ; and on the 
13th of December, some hundred of the citizens of the State of New 
York, as an armed body, imde/ the command of a Mr. Van B«ns« 
selaer, an American citizen, openly invaded and took possession of 
Navy Island, a part of Upper Canada, situate in the River Niagara. 
Not believing that such an outrage would really be committed, no 
force whatever was assembled at the time to counteract this hostile 

In a very short time this lawless band obtained from some of the 
arsenals of the State of New York, clandestinely as it is said, several 
pieces of artillery and other arms, which in broad daylight were 
openly transported to Navy Island, without resistance from the Ame- 
rican authorities. The people of Buffalo and the adjacent country 
continued to supply them with stores of various kinds, and additional 
men enlisted in their ranks. In a few days their force was variously 
stilted from five to fifteen hundred, of whom a small proportion were 


about a long while in the dark^ they saw her Bres fix)m 
the chimney near the American shore^ and gallantly 

rebels, who bad fled from Upper Canada. They began to entrench 
themselves, and threatened that they would, in a short time, make a 
landing on the Canadian side of the Niagara River. 

To prevent this and keep them in check, a body of Militia was 
hastily collected and stationed on the frontier, wider the command of 
Colonel Cameron, Assistant-a^jutant-general of Militia, who was 
succeeded in this command by Colonel M'Nab, the Speaker of the 
House of Assembly, an officer whose humanity and discretion, as well 
as his activity, have been proved by his conduct in putting down the 
insurrection in the London district ; and have been acknowledged in 
wann terms of gratitude by the misguided persons who have sur- 
rendered themselves into his hands. He received orders to act on 
the defensive only, and to be careful not to do any act which the 
American Government could justly complain of as a breach of 

An official statement of the unfriendly proceedings at BufSiIo 
was without delay (on the 13th of December) made by me to 
His Excellency the Governor of the State of New York, and after 
this open invasion of our territory, and when it became evident 
that nothing was effected at BufQilo for preventing the violation of 
neutrality, a special Messenger was sent to your Excellency at 
Washington, to urge your interposition in the matter. Sufficient 
time has not yet elapsed to admit of his return. Soon after his depar- 
ture, this band of outlaws on Navy Island — acting in defiance of the 
laws and government of both countries — opened a fire from several 
pieces of ordnance upon the Canadian shore, which in this part is 
thickly settled : the distance from tlie Island being about 600 yards, 
and within sight of the populous village of Chippewa. They put 
several balls (six poimd shot) through a house, in which a party of 
Militia-men were quartered, and which is the dwelling-house of Cap- 
tain Ussher, a respectable inhabitant They killed a horse on which 
a man at the time was riding, but happily did no further mischief^ 
though they fired also repeatedly with cannon and musketry upon our 
boats. They continued daily to render their position more formidable ; 
receiving constant supplies of men and warlike stores from the State 
of New York, which were chiefly embarked at a landing-place on the 
American mainshore, called Fort Schiosser, nearly opposite to Navy 
Island. This place was once, I believe, a military position before 
the conquest of Canada from the French ; but there is now neither 
fort nor village there, but merely a single house, occupied as a tavern, 


made up to her. It was fortunate for them she was 

not actually under weigh ; for if they had boarded her 


and a wharf in front of it, to which boats and vessels are moored. 
The tavern had been, during these lawless proceedings, a rendezvous 
for the band, who cannot be called by any name more appropriate 
than pirates ; and was, in fact, openly and notoriously resorted to as 
their head- quarters on the mainland, and is to this time. On the 
28th December, positive information was given to Colonel M'Nab, 
by persons frQm Buffiilo, that a small steamboat, called the Caroline, 
of about fifty tons burthen, had been hired by the " Patriots," and 
was to be employed in carrying down cannon and other stores, and in 
transporting men and anything else that might be required between 
Fort Schlosser and Navy Island. 

He resolved, if she came down and engaged in this service, to take 
or destroy her. She did come down, agreeably to the information he 
received. She transported a piece of artillery and other stores to the 
Island, and made repeated passages during the day between the Island 
and the main shore. In the night he sent a party of Militia in boats 
with orders to take or destroy her. They proceeded to execute the 
order. They found the Caroline moored to the wharf, opposite to the 
inn, at Fort Schlosser. In the inn there was a body of armed men to 
protect her, part of the pirate force, or acting in their suj9port. On 
her deck there was an armed party, and a sentinel who demanded the 
countersign. Thus identified as she was with the force, which, in 
defiance of the law of nations and every principle of natural justice, 
had invaded Upper Canada, and made war upon its unoffending inha- 
bitants, she was boarded, and after a residtance, in which some 
desperate wounds were inflicted upon the assailants, she was carried. 

If any peaceable citizens of the United States perished in the con- 
flict, it was and is unknown to the captors ; and it was and is unknown 
to them whether any such were there. Before this vessel was thus 
taken, not a gun had been fired by the force under the orders of 
Colonel M'Nab, even upon this gang of pirates, much less upon any 
peaceable inhabitants of the United States. It must, therefore, have 
been a consciousness of the guilty service she was engaged in that led 
those who were employing her to think an armed force necessary for 
her defence. Peaceable citizens of the United States were not likely 
to be found in a vessel so employed at such a place and in such a 
juncture : and if they were there, tlieir presence, especially unknown 
to the captors, could not prevent, in law or reason, this necessary act 
of self-defence. Fifteen days had elapsed since the invasion of Upper 
Canada by a force enlisted, armed, and equipped openly in the btate 

CANADA. 1 7 

whilst moving so near the Falls, in the hurry of the 
action the engines would have been neglected or 

of New York. The country where this outrage upon the law of 
nations was committed, is populous. Buffalo alone contains 15,000 
inhabitants. The public authorities, it is true, gav6 no countenance 
to these flagrant acts, but they did not prevent them, or in the slightest 
degree obstruct them, farther than by issuing proclamations, which 
were disregarded. Perhaps they could not; but in either case the 
insult and injury to the inhabitants of Canada were the same, and 
their right to defend themselves equally unquestionable. 

No wanton injury was committed by the party who gallantly effected 
this service. They loosed the vessel from the wharf, and finding they 
could not tow her against the rapid current of the Niagara, they 
abandoned the effort to secure her, set her on fire, and let her drift 
down the stream. 

The prisoners taken were a man who, it will be seen by the docu- 
ments accompanying this dispatch, avowed himself to be a subject of 
Her Majesty, inhabiting Upper Canada, who had lately been traitor- 
ously in arms in that province. And having fled to the United States, 
was then on board for the purpose of going to the camp at Navy 
Island, and a boy, who being bom in Lower Canada, was probably 
residing in the United States, and who, being afraid to land fix)m the 
boat in consequence of the firing kept up by the guard on the shore, 
was placed in one of the boats under Captain Drew, and taken over to 
our side, from whence he was sent home the next day by the F^Us 
Ferry, with money given him to bear his expenses. 

I send with this letter, — 1st. A copy of my first communication to 
His Excellency Governor Marcy, to which no reply has reached me. 

2nd. The official reports, correspondence, and Militia general order 
respecting the destruction of the Caroline, with other documents. 

3rd. The correspondence between Commissary-general Arcularius, 
of the State of New York, respecting the Artillery belonging to the 
Government of the State of New York, which has been, and is still 
used in making war upon this province. 

4th. Other correspondence arising out of the state of things on the 
Niagara frontier. 

5th. The special message of Governor Marcy. 

It will be seen from these documents, that a high officer of the 
Government of the State of New York has been sent by His Excel- 
lency the Governor, for the express purpose of regaining possession 
of the Artillery of that State, which is now employed in hostile aggres- 
sions upon this portion of Her Majesty's dominions, and that being 


injured^ and all would have gone down the cataract 

As the strongest proof that can be brought as to the 
fallacy which has been urged in the House of Commons 

aided and favoured as he acknowledges by the most friendly co-opera- 
tion which the Commanding-officer of Her Majesty's forces could give 
him, he has been successfully defied by this army of American citi- 
zeoB, and has abandoned the object of his mission in despair. 

It can hardly fail to be also observed by Your Excellency, that in 
the course of this negotiation between Mr. Van Rensselaer and the 
Commissary-general of the State of New York, this individual, Mr. 
Van Rensselaer, has not hesitated to place himself within the imme- 
diate jurisdiction of the Government whose laws he had violated, and 
in direct personal communication with the officer of that Government, 
and has, nevertheless, been allowed to return unmolested, to continue 
in command of American citizens engaged in open hostilities against 
Great Britain. 

The exact position then of affitirs on our frontier may be thus 
described : 

An army of American citizens joined to a very few traitors from 
Upper Canada, and under the command of a subject of the. United 
States, has been raised and equipped in the State of New York, 
against the laws of the United States and the treaties now subsisting, 
and are using artillery plundered from the arsenals of the State of 
New York, in carrying on this piratical warfare against a friendly 

The officers and Government of the United States, and of the State 
of New York, have attempted to arrest these proceedings, and to con- 
trol their citizens, but they have failed. Although' this piratical 
assemblage are thus defying the civil authorities of both countries. 
Upper Canada alone is the object of their hostilities. The Govern- 
ment of the United States has failed to enforce its authority by any 
means, civil or military, and the single question— if it be a question — 
is, whether Upper Canada was bound to refrain from necessary acts of 
self-defence against a people whom their own Government either 
could not or would not control. 

In perusing the message of His Excellency Governor Marcy to the 
Legislature of the State of New York, your Excellency will probably 
feel some degree of surprise, that after three weeks' continued hosti- 
lity carried on by the citizens of New York against the people of 
Upper Canada, His Excellency seems to have considered himself not 


and elsewhere, that it was only the disaffected Cana- 
dians who composed the invading force on Navy Island, 
and that the people of the United States were at least 
neutral, we may quote from public records the follow- 
ing despatch of the United States' Marshal to the 

President : 

" Buffahy December 28M, 1887. 


" Sir, — ^This frontier is in a state of commotion. 
I came to, this city on the 22nd instant, by direction of 
the United States Attorney for the Northern district of 
this State, for the purpose of serving process upon indi- 
viduals suspected of violating the laws of the United 
States, enacted with a view to maintain our neutrahty, 
I learned on my arrival that some 200 or 300 men, 
mostly from the district of country adjoining this 
frontier and from this side of the Niagara, had con- 
gregated upon Navy Island, Upper Canada, and were 
then in arms, with Rensselaer Van Rensselaer, of 
Albany, as their Commander-in-chief. From that time 
to the present they have received constant accessions of 
men, munitions, provisions, &c., from persons residing 
within the States. Their whole force is now about 
1,000 strong, and, as is said, are well suppUed with 
arms, &c. Warrants have been issued, in some cases, 

caUed upon to make this aggression the subject of remark for any 
other purpose than to complain of a solitary act of self-defence on the 
part of Her Majesty's Province of Upper Canada, to which such 
unprovoked hostilities have unavoidably led. 

I have, &c., 
(Signed) F. B. Head. 

His Excellency Henry S. Fox, 
Her Majesty* 8 Ministerf Washington, 

(A true Copy.) J. Joseph. 


but no arrests have as yet been made. This expedition 
was got up in this city^ soon after Mackenzie's arrival 
upon this side of the river ; and the first company that 
landed upon the island was organized^ partially at 
leasts before they crossed from this side to the island. 

^^ From all that I can see and leam^ I am satisfied^ 
that if the Government deems it their duty to prevent 
supplies being furnished from this side to the Army on 
the island^ and also the augmentation of their forces 
from among the citizens of the States, an armed force, 
stationed along the Une of the Niagara, will be abso- 
lutely necessary to its accomplishment. 

" I have just received a communication from Colonel 
M^Nab, commanding Her Majesty's forces now at 
Chippeway, in which he strongly urges the public 
authorities here to prevent supplies being furnished to 
the army on the island ; at the same time stating that, 
' if this can be eflFected, the whole affair could be closed 
without effusion of blood.' 

'^ M^Nab is about 2,500 strong, and constantly 
increasing. I replied to him that I should communi- 
cate with you immediately, as also with the Governor 
of this State, and that everything which could would 
be done to maintain a strict neutrality. 

" I learn that persons here are engaged in dislodg- 
ing one or more steamboats from the ice, and, as is 
supposed, with a view to aid in the Patriot expedition. 
^^ I am, with great consideration, 

^^ Your obedient Servant, 

" N. Garrow, 
^^ United States' Marshal, Northern District 

of New York." 


Colonel M^Nab confined himself, after he took 
the command from Lieutenant-colonel Cameron — an 
able and retired ofl&cer of the 79th Regiment, who 
had at first been appointed to it — to mere precau- 
tionary measures, without firing upon the island. 
This state of things lasted until the 28th of Decem- 
ber, when Captain Drew, of the Royal / Navy, was 
ordered by him to destroy the pirate steamboat 
Caroline, which he gallantly efifected as she lay moored 
to the wharf at Schlosser, and sent her blazing down 
the Falls ; a fitting fate for a vessel eagerly employed 
in the invasion of a territory at peace with the nation 
it belonged to. Van Rensselaer and his vagabond 
crew tnight, with impunity, invade Canada, might kill 
the peaceable inhabitants, and commit any sort of 
horrors under the Medusan shield of patriotism ; but 
Great Britain must be silent. Not so the United 
States ; a pirate vessel is cut out from a ferry wharf, 
which is magnified into a fort, and destroyed, after she 
had landed guns and men and ammunition and pro- 
visions for a self-constituted army of real invaders, 
and the whole nation is up in the extremity of sensi- 
tiveness at this outrage on national rights. It 
remained a question on which peace or war between 
the most mighty empire in the world, and a new one 
just started into immense importance, hung upon a 
mere thread for five years. 

A person named M^Leod, who had been Deputy- 
sheriff of the Niagara district, and who had no 
more to do with the burning of the Caroline than 
the reader who was in England at the time, was 
forcibly arrested, tried for his life by a Court which 


had no jurisdiction in his case^ and very narrowly 
escaped hanging. 

The affair of the Caroline, magnified ten milhons of 
timeS; and distorted in every possible way^ was at length 
settled in 1842^ by Lord Ashburton^ having been 
cleverly included amongst other grievances; but if 
Colonel M^Nab (who ordered the vessel to be destroyed), 
Captain Drew of the Royal Navy, lieutenant Elmsley, 
and Mr. M^Cormack, or any of the brave men who 
so distinguished themselves in the gallant action, by 
cutting her out during a dark night, with a swift cur- 
rent which must, if any accident had occurred to their 
small tow-boats, have hurled them to the gulf of the 
caldron, were, at any period of excitement, to show 
themselves upon the territory of the Lake border of 
New York, it was until very lately questionable whether 
a new M^Leod . ease might not arise, or whether that 
Lynch law would not settle the outstanding account. 

The most melancholy result on the part of the 
Canadian Militia of this winter siege of Navy Island, 
was in the death of a fine young man, Mr. Smith of 
Hamilton, who was lying in a bam on some hay when 
a red-hot shot &0m the island struck him, carrying 
away the upper part of his thigh and some of his ribs. 
A man serving our guns, under the direction of Cap- 
tain Luard, also lost his leg by a cannon ball.* In 
short, the brigands kept up -a desultory cannonade, 
chiefly against the houses near Chippewa, until the 
fioyal Artillery, under Major Cameron, made its 

* This fine fellow, whose name was Millar, died after he had his leg 
cut o£ He desired to see it, gave three cheers for the Queen, and 
after a few hours expired. He had heen in the Navy. 


appearance^ when a 24-pounder was mounted on a 
scow and taken up the river, and battered the point 
where the guns of Van Rensselaer had been most active. 

Two days before the evacuation, on the 12th of 
January, after the 24th Regiment had made thdr 
appearance, Captain Glasgow, of the Royal Artillery, 
• kept up a brisk cannonade of 283 rounds from heavy 
guns and mortars, and on the 13th he fired 130 more. 
Three schooners were also armed and fitted out, which 
effectually kept the brigands within their breastworks. 

A gentleman, with the euphonious name of Colonel 
Ironayre,* who had a charge of foot in the Regular 
Militia of the New York State, figures in the corre- 
spondence of this time. He displayed the American 
flag on Grand Island, just opposite, and close to Mac- 
kenzie's camp. One Seth Conklin, whose name is 
equally remarkable, deposed that this CumeVs party 
of the military of the State of New York made him 
prisoner when he quitted the patriots on Navy Island. 
His deposition is so curious, and so completely like many 
others of the same nature which I noticed in those 
eventful days, that I have extracted it from a mass of 
papers. It is of interest, as it corroborates the state- 
ment of Lieutenant Elmsley, of the Royal Navy, who 
had been repeatedly fired upon by people on Grand 
Island, where this colonel held command, whilst in the 
execution of his duty in boat actions, or in reconnoitring 
Navy Island. 

I prefer, at the risk of being attacked for using the 

* Shakspeare's far-fetched Latin in ** Cymbeline," about MollU 
Aer, comes into one's mind as the reverse of this cognomen and 


scissors and paste system, to place this' highly inter- 
esting document in the body of the Narrative, instead 
of in an Appendix ; for, excepting very literary or very 
political readers, few people trouble appendices in a 
book read pour passer le temps. Besides, in so 
national an aflFair as that of the Caroline^ the British 
readers who have not seen, generally, the State Papers 
in which these depositions and correspondence are 
contained, cannot be too well informed. 

District of Niagara, to wit: 

" Seth Conklin, late of Syracuse, in the state of New York, but 
now of Chippewa, in the Province of Upper Canada, miller, deposeth 
upon oath, and saith, that he went to ^avy Island on Sunday, the 
7th of January, instant ; that he left the island on the following 
morning ; that he was taken up by a party of the military of the 
State of New York, stationed on Grand Island ; that he was accused 
by said militia of being a spy on Navy Island, when a sergeant of 
said Militia held a pistol to deponent's breast and threatened to shoot 
him, and at the same time five or six of his men sei:Q^d deponent and 
dragged him to a boat, in which they attempted to put him, for the 
purpose of taking him over to the patriots upon Navy Island ; that at 
the earnest entreaty of deponent, he was taken back to the Com- 
manding Officer on Grand Island, Colonel Ayer, by whom he was 
questioned as to where he had been, and why he had been at the 
island ; that Colonel Ayer then ordered him to be searched, upon 
which he claimed protection of Colonel Ayer, as an American 
citizen ; and Colonel Ayer said he should be protected, and gave him 
in charge of a sergeant, who kept him a prisoner till after dark ; that 
Major Chase, of the Navy Island Patriots, then came from the island, 
to sup with the United States Militia ; a tall man, with a dark com- 
plexion, told deponent that he must return to the island ; that 
deponent again claimed from this officer protection, as an American 
citizen, but that he replied, " You shall go immediately ; and if you 
hesitate we will force you." He said further, that if deponent 
remained on Grand Island, he would be shot, and that if any disturb- 
ance occurred concerning him, he, the Colonel, would shoot him with 
his own hand. That when Major Chase, of the Navy Island Patriots, 
demanded deponent, the last-mentioned Colonel said that he might 
take him ; that deponent again claimed protection as an American 


citiEen, when Major Chase said, if deponent was allowed to remain on 
Grand Island, he would escape and inform the British of the state 
of Navy Island ; that upon this, fifteen or twenty of the United States 
Militia declared that deponent should go, hut that the sergeant who 
had him in charge wished,'to satisfy General Van Rensselaer, he might 
he sent to Buffalo gaol, to which deponent consented ; that the rest 
of the Militia insisted upon his going to Navy Island, and that he 
entreated of them not to send him there, alleging that he would cer- 
tainly he shot before he got there ; that the sergeant then proposed 
for him to choose three men of the guard to accompany him. Deponent 
fearing that he should he murdered before he got there, did choose 
three men to accompany him ; and he was taken by five Militia-men, 
— namely, a sergeant and four men of the United States Militia, in 
company with Major Chase, — and deKvered by them at General Van 
Rensselaer's quarters, in charge of Major Chase. Major Chase told 
the sentries at the head of the Island, to allow the boat which brought 
over deponent to pass, as it was a friendly boat That deponent 
remained a prisoner upon Navy Island, until the Patriots evacuated 
it, during which time he was kept in close confinement, in a house on 
the south front of the Island, which was open to the fire of the British 
guns ; and that three of their shots passed through the house whilst 

he wa$ confined there. 

Seth Conklin. 

Sworn before me at Chippewa, this 18th day of January, 1838, 
Samuel Street, J. P. 

Another American citizen^ of the name of James 
Wood, of the city of Buffalo, in the State of New York, 
deposed also that he saw the Caroline cut out of the 
ice, and that it was no secret that she was destined 
to supply Mackenzie on Navy Island; and whilst not 
less than a thousand volunteers assisted in freeing her 
from her frozen dock, and in loading her with muskets, 
swords, and flour; that he asked her master, one 
Appleby, where she was going, who told him westward 
to Dunkirk, which is forty-five miles above Buffalo, on 
Lake Erie, but that Wood said, "You mean eastward 
to Navy Island V The skipper smiled, but made no 
reply; but Wood had heard it repeatedly said, by 

VOL. II. c 


many rich men in the city^ that if the Patriots would 
fight, they would find (American expression for pro- 
viding food, &c.,) them. 

As soon as the schooners and gun-boats, under 
Captain Drew, were manned and armed, they began 
cruizing about the river, to intercept these suppUes : 
and as one-half of that river, in its deepest channel, is 
by treaty the property of the United States, — although 
that treaty recognizes the right of both nations to its 
free navigation, — ^the Americans began to think that the 
au' and the water might both be outraged by British 
shot and shells flying through the one or sinking into 
the other ; and a most singular forgetfulness appears to 
have come over them respecting the shot of the Patriots 
having actually passed only through British atmosphere 
and into British water from Navy Island and from the 
United States territory and military posts on Grand 
Island. In short, the patriots and American Militia 
were free to fire upon the subjects of a power at 
peace with the United States, and which power had 
just most magnanimcmsly preserved the Republic from 
a fierce and bloody war with France. 

General Winfield Scott, who commanded on the 
United States frontier, is one of the most accomplished 
and the best known of the American military com- 
manders; and there can be little doubt that when 
it became seriously necessary for the Cabinet of Wash- 
ington to act, and that his hands were unfettered, he 
did indeed act, as he afterwards acted respecting the 
Boundary question ; that is to say, he fully exerted his 
energies and talent to prevent his nation being em- 
broiled with Great Britain. 


He is mucli respected by every British officer who 
has made his acquaintaQce^ or who knew him when he 
first displayed his military talents on the Niagara 
frontier in the last American war. 

His correspondence with Colonel M^Nab and Cap- 
tain Drew, on the occasion about which we are 
engaging the attention of the reader^ is singular 
enough and worth preserving. He was in fact, placed, 
as the Americans say, in a very '^ awkward &l/' 
for the supreme majesty of the border people kept 
him in check on the one hand and his own real 
masters, the Cabinet, had not declared peace or war 
on the other. 

General Scott is a highly educated gentleman, and 
a soldier who has seen much of foreigners, and yet 
the language of his diplomacy is shrouded in words 
purely Americanisms, which disfigure the English 
acceptation of those words in a strange manner, and 
evince a national desire to adapt the most correct 
language of modem times to a new and by no means 
an improved standard, as we also observe in some of 
the best American novelists, who introduce such out- 
rageously un-English words, as sparse, quite a quantity, 
our waters, day before yesterday instead of the day,^ &c. 
into their best writings; an afi^ectation of natiabalism 
which scratches poor Friscian^s head sadly, and dis- 
fig^xres the noble stock which satisfied the master- 
minds of Milton and of Shakspere, whose dictionaries 
will afibrd a hving and flourishing tree, when Webster 
and his grafts shall be remembered only to be again 

Our readers will at once perceive the singular situ- 

c 2 


ation in wliich General Scott was placed^ and the 
uncertainty whether the will of the people would not 
have hurried his Government into an unnecessary 
renewal of the attempt to conquer Canada : 

To the Commanding- officer of the Armed British Vessels in the 


Head-quarters^ United States Army, 
Eastern Division, 2 miles below Black Rock, 
January 15, 1838. 
Sir, — ^With His Excellency the Governor of New York, who has 
troops at hand, we are here to enforce the neutrality of the United 
States, and to protect our own soil and waters from violation. 

The proper civil officers are also present, to arrest, if practicable, 
the leaders of the expedition on foot against Upper Canada. 

Under these circumstances, it gives me pain to see the armed 
vessels mentioned anchored in our waters, with the probable intention 
to fire upon that expedition moving within the same waters. Unless 
that expedition shall first attack, in which case we shall interfere, we 
shall be obliged to consider a discharge of shot or shells from or into 
our waters, from the armed schooners of Her Majesty, as an act 
seriously compromitting the neutrality of the two nations. I hope, 
therefore, that no such unpleasant incident may occur. 

I am, Sir, respectfully, your most obedient, 

WiNFiELD Scott. 

The manly, concise, enei^etic, and officer-Uke reply 
of Captain Drew, will be read with admiration : 

Head-quarters, Chippewa, January 16, 1838. 

Sir, — I have had the honour to receive your letter of the 15th 
instant, in which you state " it gives you pain to perceive the armed 
vessels of Her Majesty anchored in your waters, with the probable 
intention to fire upon that expedition moving within the same waters." 

The object I have in view is to prevent the rebels who have lately 
been in arms' against Her Britannic Majesty upon Navy Island, and 
who have now taken shelter upon Grand Island, a territory of the 
United States, &om effecting a landing in any part of the province of 
Upper Canada ; and for this purpose I have made such a disposition 
of the force under my command as will most effectually perform 
that service. 

With reference to the vessels of Her Majesty being anchored in 


your waters, I have always understood, that so long as Great Britain 
and the United States were at peace and amity, that the right of the 
full navigation of the River Niagara helonged to each power ; and if 
I have suffered an infringement upon any International law, I heg you 
will do me the favour to refer me to it 

I have the honour to he. Sir, your most ohedient humble Servant, 

Andrew Drew, 

Commander in the Royal Navy, Commanding 

Naval Brigade. 

To General Scott, &c. Commanding the Forces of the United States, 8ie. 

Then follows Colonel M'Nab's notice of the above, 
which is somewhat lengthy, to use another Ameri- 
canism, but highly to the purpose. 


Head-quarters, Chippewa, January 18, 1838. 

Sir, — ^The correspondence which has taken place between you and 
Captain Drew of the Royal Navy, during my short absence from this 
frontier, where I have the honour of commanding Her Majesty's 
Naval and Militia Forces, having been laid before me by that officer, 
I beg to ofier a few observations upon it. 

You state that you, with His Excellency the Governor of New York, 
are near Black Rock, with troops at hand, to enforce the neutrality of 
the United States, and to protect your own soil and waters from 
violation — that the proper civil authorities are also present to arrest, 
** if practicable," the leaders of " the expedition " on foot against 
Upper Canada — that, under these circumstances, it gives you " pain" 
to perceive the armed vessels of Her Britannic Majesty anchored in 
your waters, with the probable intention to fire upon that "expedition" 
moving within the same waters — that unless that expedition shall first 
attack, in which ease you will interfere, you will be obliged to con- 
sider a discharge of shot or shell "fix)m or into" your waters, from 
the armed schooners of Her Majesty, as an act seriously compr omit- 
ting the neutrality of the two nations — that you hope, therefore, that 
no such unpleasant incident may occur. 

With regard to your views of the right of the expedition referred to, 
to pass up the Niagara River, near your shore, unmolested by the 
forces under my command, I beg to enter my most decided protest 
The waters of the Niagara River, for the purposes of navigation, are, 
as Captain Drew has very properly said, common to the inhabitants 
of Great Britain and the United States, so long as these powers are at 
peace with each other ; and that being the case, I cannot understand 
why the schooners under my command, and anchored in the river, 


have not the right to captiire and destroy any expedition on foot 
against Upper Canada, and moving upon the waters of that river, 
whether on the one side or the other, or exactly in the centre of the 
stream* My own opinion is that they have that right, and had it not 
heen for an unfortunate misapprehension of the orders given by 
Captain Drew, to the officer in command of the schooners, that right 
would most assuredly have been exercised. 

The second paragraph of your letter appears to me so much at. 
variance with that neutrality which, in my humble opinion, should be 
observed upon the present occasion by officers of the United States, 
that I cannot refrain from making a remark or two upon it 

I cannot understand why it should give an officer of a neutral 
power ** pain '* to observe an intention on our part to punish Ihe 
actors in an ** expedition on foot " against this Province. It appears 
to me, that such an intention should rather give pleasure than, pain to 
an officer situated as you are, who really desired to see the rebellion 
against the constituted authorities of Upper Canada put down ; more 
particularly as the majority of the persons concerned in the hostile 
expedition were citizens of your own country, and were in fact in the 
situation of mere banditti. 

I regret to observe an evident intention on the part of the United 
States officers stationed on the Niagara Frontier, to screen the guilty 
actors in this disgraceful outrage against the laws, as well of Great 
Britain as of the United States, otherwise we should not hear those 
authorities speak of the *' practicability " of arresting the leaders (^ 
that expedition, when so completely in their power as those men 
are who lately occupied Navy Island. 

I had, (fti the 11 th instant, the honour to address Commissary- 
general Arcularius, or the officer in command of the United States 
Militia Forces, on the Niagara Frontier, upon the subject of an out- 
rage committed by the Militia force of the United States, stationed 
upon Grand Island, on Lieutenant Elmsley, of the Royal Navy, and 
the boat's crew under his command, but I have not as yet received 
any answer to my communication upon this matter. I may now 
briefly state, that the outrage complained of was the firing upon 
Lieutenant Elmsley, by the Militia force alluded to, and directly 
under the American flag. 

I trust that you will cause an investigation of this serious charge 
to be made — ^and I have the honour to request that the result of your 
inquiries into this matter may be communicated to me with as little 
delay as possible. 

I beg also to refer you to the correspondence that took place on 
the 13th instant, between Colonel Iron Ayre, of 48th Regiment, 


47th Brigade, New York Militia, in relation to certain complaints 
made by that officer to me ; in order that the same may be laid before 
the proper authorities in the United States for investigation — as I 
have no desire to conceal from the world any part of my conduct, whilst 
in command of Her Mtjesty's Forces upon this frontier. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your most obedient humble Servant, 

Allan N. M'Nab. 
Colonel Commanding Militia and Naval Forces, Niagara Frontier. 
To Major-general Scott, United States, Army, &c. 

An oflScer was sent to Buffalo with tliis letter, and 
his account of his reception is here given; Lieu- 
tenant-colonel Donald Bethune appears to have fully 
understood that General Scott found himself in a 
predicament which required both policy and foresight 
to manage cleverly : 

Head-qnarterSf Chippewaf Friday Night, January 19. 

Sir, — I have the honour to report to you, that I proceeded to 
Buffalo with your despatch to General Scott, of the United State* 
Army, where I had the honour of an interview with that officer this 

After General Scott had perused the despatch, he desired me to 
hiform Colonel M'Nab, that at a convenient time he would answer 
his despatch in writing — that at present he could only do so verbally* 
General Scott then remarked, that it was evident that Colonel M'Nab 
was desirous of drawing him into a correspondence, for which he had 
no leisure at present, as his time was wholly occupied in endeavouring 
to preserve the neutrality of the United States during the existing dis- 
turbances on our frontier ; — that Colonel M'Nab might have leisure 
far maintaining such correspondence, but he (General Scott) had 
not; — and that he had been so employed in maintaining the neutrality 
of the United States, two officers of the British Army then in the 
house (American Hotel) could testify. 

I beg leave to remark, that General Scott appeared very much 
agitated on perusing your despatch, and while he made the above 
verbal communication. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your obedient humble Servant, 

D. Bethune. 
To Colonel the Hon. Allan N. M'Nab, Commanding MiUtia and NaVal 

Forces, Niagara Frontier, 


Captain Drew having settled the buainesa in a more 
summary manner than in violating the American 
waters^ by sending the pirate ship to perdition amidst 
the roar of Niagara's rapids, this patriotic storm in a 
washhand basin soon subsided, as far as Navy Island 
was concerned, and some Companies of the 24th Regi- 
ment having appeared on the theatre, it was thought 
high time to shift the scenery. 

President Mackenzie, Generalissimo BenseUaer Van 
Sensellaer, et hoc genus omne, beat a retreat under 
cover of border sympathy, and retired into the United 
States, if not with ^^ bag and baggage,^' at least, as 
Touchstone says, with ^' scrip and scrippage/' 

The island was inunediately taken possession of by 
the 24th, and found in the state I shall now describe, 
from official miUtary, and private miUtary reports, 
letters, and conversations. 

The Lieutenant-governor, Sir Francis Head, visited 
it on the 17th of January, and an officer of 
[Engineers made a special representation of its con- 
dition. One person describes the soUtariness and 
wretchedness of this forest-wilderness as truly oppres- 
sive, and the appearance of the trees in the situations 
exposed to the fire of the cannon, mortars, and rockets 
of the Canadian amy,* as evincing the great destruc- 
tion of life which must have occurred. 

The vaunted blockhouse citadel, the barracks, and 
the formidable batteries, dwindled into huts made of 
branches of trees and sods, and to hasty and ill- 
constructed embankments. Two women were found 

* Ably directed by an old Artillery-officer, Captain T. Luard. — 


on this Barataria^ and they informed the British that 
Mackenzie's hospital, to which the wounded were 
always removed, was on the American territory, at 
Grand Island. Quantities of boots and shoes, and 
some stores, with plenty of fragments of American 
newspapers, were found in the hovels, and every 
appearance indicated the terrible visitation of the 
bursting shells, those most awful messengers of 

The body of one man was exhumed by order of the 
lieutenant-governor, in order to ascertain if it could 
be recognized. This unfortunate individual had fallen, 
however, imder the merciless Lynch law of the Patriot 
mob, for his arms were pinioned and he had been 
shot by a rifle, probably suspected as a spy. 

The border newspapers had invested Navy Island 
with the character of a second Gibraltar, as perfectly 
impregnable, and so much industry had actually been 
employed in cutting down trees and brushwood round 
the edge of the water, to form an abbatis to prevent 
boat invasion, and the batteries and hovels were so 
masked with wood, that it really looked formidable 
from Chippewa. 

But, as one gentleman observed, '^ Such a bugbear 
never before existed in military parlance ; and such a 
spectacle of ^ looped and windowed' wretchedness and 
unutterable filth surely never existed before, as must 
have been displayed by the mob of sympathisers in 
their wiater bivouacs, for the scene of dirt was abso- 
lutely sickening.'^ The hovels termed barracks, were 
the most miserable beyond conception, that ever afforded 
shelter to even the most abandoned and degraded of the 



human race ; and even so bad^ that where these psendo* 
patriots herded like sheep in a pen^ no humane person 
would have ccmstrained his swine to occupy^ so open 
were they to the inclement air^ and so filled with all the 
abominations that can be conceived. 

Their clothings which wan of that of the lowest of 
the people^ was found so insufficient^ that the charity of 
the Bufialonians was drawn on for a supply^ which 
proved inadequate ; and every bush was found eloquent 
as to the excess of misery they had endured^ by the 
filthy rags with which they were encumbered. 

Nor was their food better provided; without money, 
credit, or means, the leaders had, by a promise of 
dollars and land, induced the lazzarcmi of Buffiilo to 
venture on Navy Island, with the assurance, that a few 
hours would find them masters of the fertiUty and 
riches of the opposite shores, where they might revel in 
the fat of the land. 

A whole month these deluded wretches, who were not 
permitted to retreat, and who could not retire across 
the broad river at will, continued to suffer the biting of 
the pitiless rain-storms of December and January. And 
what was their principal food? Why, that which the 
carrier complains of at the inn in Rochester, — " Peas 
and beans as dank as a dog.'' They had, however, 
occasional feasts, as there were large piles of bones 
found, and pieces of bread and meat were scattered in 
some of the hovels. 

And here female affection found its way. Mrs. 
Mackenzie, the mother of a large and helpless family, 
who, it is generally believed in Canada, disapproved of 
the senseless ambition of her husband,^ although she 


was^ as all her family are^ or were^ attached to the 
Reform side of the Canadian politics^ dauntlessly visited 
and remained by that husband in this abode of 
wretchedness and guilt. Her sleeping-place^ in a 
rough log-built' shanty (as hovels built of rudely-hewn 
timber are called in Canada) was shown^ as an evidence 
of what woman is capable of enduring. It was a mere 
recess^ like a berth on board of ship. In this cabin^ — 
with a shelf covered with straw^ and exposed to wet and 
elemental warfare not less than it was to the wretched- 
nesa, unholy clamour^ the filthy and the coarseness of 
the crew within^ from whom she could not evai be 
separated by a partition^ Uved this faithful wife^ such 
was the crowded state of every place affording the 
sUghtest shelter from the cold. 

Thus ended the farce of Navy Island^ which was 
evacuated on the 14th January^ 1838; and this was 
first known by a man with a white flag appearing on 
the shore next to Chippewa. He had concealed himself 
in the woods. 

The American sympathy, however, did not rest here ; 
for as soon as the Patriots had landed their thirteen 
pieces of cannon at Schlosser, and placed them under 
the guardianship of thfe State oflScer, they were 
conveyed to Bufialo, and there disbanded ; and, imme- 
diately afterwards, the cannon were taken from the 
officer in charge of them by a fresh band of sym^ 

Samuel Hayes, — ^who figured as High-constable 
of Toronto, in Mackenzie or Morrison^s mayoralty, 
and who had been a sergeant in the 15th Regi- 
ment, — surrendered himself as a prisoner just before 


the evacuation. This unworthy soldier^ who had been 
most conspicuously employed^ after his discharge from 
his regiment, in disseminating his venom among the 
soldiers and citizens of Toronto, had been employed in 
drilling the Patriot forces on the island, and deserted 
from them when the place became too hot to be held. 
What became of him afterwards, excepting that he was 
tried, I forget ; nor is it of much consequence ; and I 
only mention him to show the tools which Mackenzie 
had adapted to his use. 

Nearly at the same time, Samuel Lount, the black- 
smith, and late M.P.F., a great leader in the rebel- 
hon, was taken at a hiding-place near Dunham, on 
the Grand River, by Mr. Goldie, and with Dr. Mor- 
rison, the ex-mayor and M.P.P., was safely lodged in 
Toronto gaol; also several others, Bidwell was per- 
mitted to leave Toronto, and went to Albany. 

The Upper Canadian Republic, having thus lost its 
chiefs, stood in abeyance; and all further annoyance 
from Navy Island was afterwards put a stop to by 
the orders of Sir John Colbome to clear it, as far as 
was necessary, of its timber. 



The actaal Invasion of Upper Canada by the Sympathizers and 
Brigands, and a simultaneous attempt on both Provinces 

Mackenzie and Van Benssellaer were arrested by 
order of the State-government of New York, and the 
former held to bail in 5,000 dollars ; but this show of a 
4esire to put down sympathy was indeed a ^'passing 
show/' for they were immediately released upon bail, 
although charged with levying war and stealing cannon 
and arms from the Arsenals of the RepubUc. 

The word Arsenal in the American Mihtary Diction- 
ary, is of very various meaning, and the reader must 
not suppose that Mackenzie took a second Woolwich 
by storm when he ransacked an arsenal, or when it 
was so frequently done afterwards by his followers, 
Au contraire, this sounding designation on the frontier 
of the United States, generally means a wooden-house 
of two or more rooms, built Uke any other wooden-- 
house, with perhaps a shed for the state-cannon adjoin- 
ing, all as convenient and as patent to the plunder, or 
use of any mob, as the soverign people could possibly 
desire, the keys being usually kept by some civil officer 
pf the village or town in which it is situated. 


Whilst upon this subject we may just allude to the 
extreme anomalies in the American mode of conducting 
miUtary affairs^ which the want of a sufScient army in- 

A gentleman of the name of Arcularius flourishes as 
a very miUtary character^ in the correspondence of the 
day^ respecting the use made of the cannon and arms 
of the State of New York^ and in the border papers he 
was always called General. So he was^ but it was a 
Commissary-general^s situation that he held. In short 
everybody you meet in a Uttle ''poking'^ village, on the 
borders, holds some title or official employ. Generals 
keep stores; Colonels shoe horses; Majors serve the 
bar of a tavern ; and Captains and Subs hold any and 
every situation whereby money can be turned. 

General Arcularius particularly distinguished himself 
by writing a Despatch to Colonel M'Nab, respectfully 
soliciting a suspension of an attack on Navy Island 
until he, Arcularius, could persuade the invaders to 
deliver up the United St^-tes' cannon and arms they 
had stolen, and which of course ended in smoke. 
Never such despatch was before or since read or 
thought of, as to matter, manner, and object. But it is 
not worth extracting, and it is only equalled by another 
from Mr, Garrow, who declares to the President he 
cannot enforce neutrality, and by the President's 
declaration that the laws of the United States were 
imequal to it also. 

I am foiid of telling anecdotes, because, as I said 
before, they reUeve the tedium of narrative. 

An officer, employed on the Canadian frontier, bought 
a horse of a Captain of Militia from the Empire State, 

' CANADA. 39 

which proved, after some time, not to be exactly the 
charger he required. The horse-dealer, who also dealt 
in everything smuggUabky came over the river, on his 
usual avocations, a few months subsequent ^o the 
purchase, and the subaltern, seeing his Mend, asked 
him to take th& horse back, as it did not suit him. 

'^ Ouess I will,'' says Harmonious Tuke, " when I 
feel sUck in cash.'' 

'^ The mare is just as good and as sound as the day 
I bought her of you, and you may have her for five 
poimds less." 

" You're a considerable smart man, I predicate. 
It's a trade." 

Harmonious pidlecL out a bundle of notes of the 
thousand-and-one banks of the State of New York, 
but he had not enough even of these rags. 

The subaltern preferred Canada money, and shook 
his head. 

'' Don't be stumped, I'll get 'em changed; I a'nt 
difficult, the mare is as tall a critter as ever had 
hair on." 

The subaltern looked impatient. 

^^ Don't get riled ; I'll fix the shin-plasters,* and as 
for the balance, here's a silver watch, just the tot. 
Guess the Captain keeps a store, and can trade it." 

But setting aside jest, let us pursue the thread of 
narrative. Sympathizing had now spread itself along 
the whole frontier of the United States, from Michigan to 
Vermont, and Greneral Sutherland, a person of Scottish 
extraction, had departed from Bufialo for Cleveland, in 
Ohio, ^ Lake Erie, to organize an attack simultane- 

* Anglice — Bank-notes of doubtful yalue. 


ously with that on Navy Island^ upon the small ifiland 
of Bois Blanc^ which occupies a part of the Strait or 
Detroit^ near the commencement of Lake Erie at 
Maiden or Amherstburgh, being exactly opposite to 
that Canadian town and fort^ and one of the weak 
points on the frontier^ which the reader will recollect 
had always been selected by American officers in the 
war, to invade Canada from. 

The position of Bois Blanc is much the same as that 
of Navy Island, namely, a small isle covered with forest, 
and holding command of the channels of the river. 

It was moved upon by bodies of American sympa- 
thizers from Lake Erie and from Detroit at the same 
time. The men from Cleveland in Ohio, imder the 
command of a self-styled Colonel, named Dodge, left 
Monroe, on the 7th of January, in a schooner, and 
were joined at Gibraltar, on the 8th, by General 
Sutherland, with several boats and scows (a large kind 
of flat-bottomed boat, like the coal-barges on the 
Thames) with 3 field-pieces, 250 stand of arms, and 
a very large stock of provisions. 

The object of this movement was to surprise the 
Mihtia at Amherstburgh and then to invade Canada, 
in the same manner as was done during the war, by 
marching upon Maiden and Sandwich, and to the in- 
terior as far as London, where they expected to be 
received with open arms by the settlers of American 

During their progress the schooner, on board of 
which all the valuable military materiel and stores were, 
was separated from the fleet, and ran close in« shore ; 
whereupon she was hailed by a Mihtia sentry, who told 


them that if they persisted in closing with the land 
they would be fired into. An answer, couched in the 
most gross terms, was made, out of contempt for the 
Militia, and a tiraittade immediately opened on both 
sides, which obUged the Patriots to haul off, but not 
until their cannon had done some injury to the un- 
offending inhabitants. 

This schooner, the Anne, was a fine vessel, and had 
been openly loaded with her cargo of men, arms, and 
provision by the Detroit, a steamer belonging to the 
American city of that name, opposite to Sandwich, in 
Upper Canada, the cannon, the powder and ball, having 
previously been stolen, or rather taken, from the 


United States' Arsenal at Dearborn, about ten miles 
from the city, and five or six hundred muskets were 
also as deliberately stolen from the gaol d^pot at the 
same time, without an effort on the part of the autho-* 
rities to prevent such wholesale levying of war in a 
country at peace with England, and then recently 
imder a deep moral obligation to that nation from her 
desire to avoid a war with France. 

No effort was made to seize either the Erie steam- 
boat, which was actually taken from a pretended civic 
guard during the night, or the Anne, although the 
latter remained quietly at anchor, receiviag her men 
and stores from the former for a whole day, within 
two miles of the seat of government of the State of 

Two steamboats, in fact, were constantly engaged in 
conveying troops and stores to Bois Blanc. The Dis- 
trict-attorney refused to interfere ; and a Deputy United 
States Marshal, who wished to prevent bloodshed, was 


denied the requisite power to arrest the patriotic 
enthusiasm. At lengthy however^ a show of inter- 
ference was made ; and a ferry-boat^ called the United, 
sent to capture the field-pieces and arms from the 
schooner. The United, however, soon sheered off, for 
the brigands threatened to treat her with a broadside ; 
and the high-constables and legal posse, judging that 
the better part of valour was discretion, and "con- 
siderably'^ inclined towards the cause, as they reported 
to their superiors, ^^ turned about face and went hum 
again,'^ no doubt, as a Canadian observed, ^^ tarnation 
scared.^^ However, after the reconnoitring attempt, 
Boisblanc was evacuated; and Colonel Prince, of the 
Canadian Militia, a member of the Parliament, and a 
lawyer of eminence, judged it was quite time to give 
Mr. Sutherland and his heroes a useAil lesson ; and 
accordingly he, with 250 gallant Volunteers, embarked 
at twelve o'clock at night and quietly took possession of 
the island in the same United ferry-boat which had 
run away from the Anne, 

The proceedings at Amherstburgh were now rife 
with interest, and the Militia began to collect rapidly 
from the neighbouring country. What followed is 
best explained in the statement of an eye-witness, and 
in the despatch of Colonel Badcliffe, who commanded 
the Militia on the Western District frontier. 

The result of this affair, one of the most glorious in 
which the Militia were engaged, was that 1 schooner, 
8 pieces of cannon, 200 stand of arms, and a vast 
quantity of ammunition were taken; 1 brigand was 
killed, 8 wounded, and 12 made prisoners. The name 
of the man killed was David Anderson, whilst the 


notorious leaders, Dr. Theller, Robert Davis, Walter 
Chase, and Colonel Dodge, who lost an eye, Thayer, 
Smith, and Colonel Brophey, were amongst the captured 
Patriots. The Militia fought in the icy water with 
pitchforks, and whatever else they could muster, old 
and young, able and weak, the strong in health and 
the sickly, all vied in courage and loyalty, notwith- 
standing that the schooner was supported by a large 
steam-boat, the Erie, full of sympathizers, who however 
sheered off, and left Theller to his fate.* 

♦ At three o'clock in the afternoon of Monday the 8th instant, just 
as the Militia had been dismissed from their parade in the Garrison at 
Maiden, an alarm was given by the sentries posted at Bois Blanc, 
that the brigands and pirates, about 400 in number, were leaving 
Sugar Island in the schooner, scows, and boats, with the view^of 
invading Bois Blanc instanter, and that they would reach the shore 
in half an hour. It is perhaps well to observe that Sugar Island 
belongs to Michigan, and that it had for some days past been the 
rendezvous of the brigands. Bois Blanc is the British Island, and at 
the lower or southern end of it stands the lighthouse. As soon as the 
alarm was given, the Militia and their officers, aided by Captain 
Woodward's gallant troop of cavalry from the London district (dis- 
mounted), hurried to the boats, and to a schooner then lying at the 
wharfs in Amherstburgh, and the island was invested as expeditiously 
as possible by about 300 well-armed men. They were stationed at 
three several points of the island, so as to command and watch 
the brigands' movements, and to annihilate or take them if they 
attempted to eifect a landing. The brigand forces were arrayed as 
follows : 

The schooner, with a sloop, — which has since turned out to be the 
George Strongs apparently her tender, — hovered about the lower end 
of the Island, at the distance of a mile below the Lighthouse, some- 
times lying to, and sometimes apparently hugging our shore at 
Elliot's Point (about two miles below Amherstburgh), as if inclined 
to land her men there. Their main body was seen being towed in 
scows, by two boats up the river towards Grosse Isle, taking care not 
to come within musket-shot of Bois Blanc. They fired two cannon 
shots of canister and grape at us, which did no injury. This was the 
first hostile shot fired on this frontier, and after that there was " no 


General Sutherland^ the leader of this exploit^ 
escaped to Detroit, where, notwithstanding the piracy 

mistake" in their intentions. After waiting for the pirates about 
two hours, and perceiving that so far from attempting to attack us^ 
they pulled in their scows above Bois Blanc, and that the schooner 
and the tender, apparently made sail for our shore at Elliot's Point, 
the officers held a consultation together, and as it was deemed not 
improbable that the brigands' object was to effect a landing on the 
main shore, and to take the town of Amherstburgh (which had not 
100 effective men left to defend it), orders were instantly given to quit 
Bois Blanc, and to return in the boats to Amherstburgh, with the least 
possible delay. The men were all landed in about an hour, leaving the 
island undefended (because a force could not be spared to remain there), 
and everything was removed from the house of the Lighthouse- keeper, 
Captain Hackett, except some trunks containing his and Mrs. 
Hackett's clothes. In an hour after the men had landed in the town, the 
pirate schooner sailed up the channel (a good breeze favouring her), 
between Bois Blanc and the town. Her consort lay to under Bois Blanc 
Island. The Militia kept up a constant firing at her with their rifles, 
but as the distance was not less than 400 yards, it had but little 
effect It was, however, afterwards ascertained that upon this occa- 
sion one man was killed, and several slightly wounded ; she fired an 
occasional cannon shot, and she was fairly beaten ofl^ and sailed, as was 
supposed, for the scows and boats which had disappeared, and were 
conjectured to have returned to Sugar Island. 

On the following morning, Tuesday the 9th, the sloop was made to 
come in without a shot being fired, and she was secured. The 
pirate schooner was seen at anchor near the upper end of Bois 
Blanc, and almost opposite the King's Store. She cruised about for 
some hours, nevertheless taking care to keep out of the range of 
musketry or rifle shots, and occasionally firing' grape and can- 
ister into the town. A large number of the banditti were seen 
scampering about Bois Blanc, as if from curiosity. They quitted it 
in a few hours ; and it is fair to admit that they did no injury what- 
ever to the Lighthouse, or the residence of Captain Hackett, or to a 
schooner which lay ashore upon the island. They, however, carried 
off the whole of Captain and Mrs. Hackett' s wearing-apparel, and 
also a valuable gold ring; — and that was all the injury they did. 
Our people, of course, resumed possession of the island on the 
following day, and brought the schooner just mentioned to the wharf 
at Amherstburgh ; and we have had possession of the island ever 


committed by him, and the taking of the arms of the 
State, he was permitted to go at large, and issue his 

But to proceed. The pirate schooner had, of course, been narrowly 
watched through the day, but at sundown she sailed slowly and 
steadily from the head of Bois Blanc, between that island and the 
town, hugging the island as closely as she could for fear of our 
musketr}' and rifles, and firing about a dozen shots of ball, grape, 
and canister, into the very heart of Amherstburgh. The houses 
sustained but little damage, and the inhabitants none. Our men 
followed her (first leaving a force of about 150 men to defend the 
upper part of the town near the King's Store, upon which a descent 
from the brigand scows and boats was expected every minute), and 
as she neared Elliot's Point, a rifle ball killed the helmsman, and the 
wind blowing very strong, the schooner came ashore. They were 
called on to surrender, and to take their colours down; but they 
declined, or neglected to do so, and several shots were exchanged, and 
two of the pirates were killed after she had stranded : she was about 
eight or ten rods from the shore. Our men then plunged into the 
water and boarded her ; and a jolly little man of the name of 
Lighton, climbed up the mast and hauled down her colours. 

The prisoners were brought on shore, and the wounded treated with 
every kindness, humanity, and consideration. Indeed, we need only 
refer to, the spontaneous declaration of W. W. Dodge, who is by far 
the most respectable among them, as evidence of their treatment. 

The capture consisted of a schooner, called the Ann of Detroit — 
21 prisoners (most- of them American citizens), 3 pieces of cannon, 
and upwards of 200 stand of arms, and a large quantity of ammu- 
nition, besides some stores and provisions. The Militia engaged in 
this capture were all volunteers, and behaved most gallantly. 

Thus ended an expedition which was to have terminated in the 
plunder of our property, the massacre of our faQiilies, and the total 
subversion of our Constitution and Government We can, tell Mr. 
Sutherland and his crew (who by this time are hungrily seeking 
what they can devour), that if he wants to have another set-to, we 
are prepared with 1,200 ''gallant souh," as Mr. Bates called the 
pirates, — who are eager for something to do to keep them warm this 
cold weather. 

Letter of Colonel Radclifie, Commanding Western District Frontier, 
to Lieutenant-colonel Strachan, Military Secretary. 

Amherstburgkf January 10, 1838. 
Sir, — I beg to state, for the information of His Excellency the 


proclamations for another invasion; and to cap the 
climax^ the Editor of a Detroit Newspaper^ the Post, 

Lieutenant-governor, that on the 9th of January, 1838, the schooner 
Anne of Detroit, in the service of the rehels occupying Bois Blanc 
Island, was lying in the channel between the Island and Fort Maiden ; 
at dark it was perceived that she neared the shore. On receiving 
this information I reinforced the guard and pickets, and called the 
garrison to arms ; the vessel then got under way and passed the town, 
into which she threw some round shot and grape ; I immediately 
expected she would land men at a place called the Point, and exactly 
opposite the Lighthouse at Bois Blanc, and ordered the men to pro- 
ceed to that point, where I had a guard of twenty placed, and rein- 
forced by an out-lying picket of forty men. The vessel came close 
up to the shore and commenced firing grape and round shot, and 
musketry ; the Militia opened a brisk fire, and the schooner ceased 
firing, when it was thought by some that she was willing to sur- 
render ; however, as she would not pull down the flag our men 
boarded her, although up to their arms in water. 

The General (Dr. Theller) was at that moment in the act of re- 
loading the six pounder they had on board— Captain Lang, of the 
Lake^ Merchant Navy, took the cartridge out of the mouth of the 
gun — Mr. Ironside, acting Captain of Militia^ took the flag. We 
found on board 21 persons, I killed, 12 wounded, 3 pieces of cannon, 
in good order, about 200 stand of arms, buff cross-belts, and ammu- 
nition (of this but a small supply). When I receive a return, you 
shall be informed more at length. 

I have given directions to set fire to the schooner, as soon as all 
the stores are taken out of her. I have just been informed thi^ the 
enemy have got a steamer from Detroit, called the Erie, The rebels 
seized her ; and the Mayor or Governor ordered her to be re&tken, 
but the rebels refused. The city guards did not give them any further 
trouble, in fact everything is done in this way ; the rebels have taken 
six pieces of cannon at Detroit in the same way, and they are now on 
board the Macomb steamer at Detroit, and of course will be employed 
against us to-morrow. 

One of our scouts has just come in to say, that he supped in com- 
pany with some rebels at Gibraltar Point last night, and they there 
said that it was their intention to attack Sandwich this night ; that 
they would divert us by a show of passing about the channel, but the 
object was Sandwich. 

I am now informed that the Erie steamboat has passed between 
Bois Blanc and Sugar Island, and has discharged some cannon. I 


very gravely and formally demanded of the General on 
his arrival^ in writing, whether the Banks of Upper 

haye ordered reinforcements to this point, and if I hear they are 
coming nearer I shall beat to arms. This seems to be our weakest 
point, and I wish His Excellency would send a company or two of 
the line to assist. I have just had a letter from Colonel Hamilton, 
at Windsor, that he had been well informed that the rebels intended 
to attack Chatham this night ; and if the water was not sufficient to 
take them up, that they would try Windsor or Sandwich. 

This end of the country is very much exposed, and should be 
attended to in time. I have- issued orders to send 100 men to Sand> 
wich, to assist there in case of attack. 

I should be glad to know if His Excellency wishes to employ the 

I have sent the prisoners to London Gaol. 

Your obedient Servant, 

Thomas Radcliffe. 
Colonel Commanding Western District Frontier. 

N.B. — The Anne of Detroit is aground, but have not yet burned 

Lieutenant- colonel Strachan, Military Secretary. 


Government-house, Toronto, January 25, 1838. 

Sir, — I am commanded by His Excellency the Lieutenant-governor 
to acknowledge the receipt of your despatch of the lOtli instant, and 
to express his high sense of your conduct and that of the gallant men 
tmder your command, in capturing the schooner Anne, in the service 
of the pirates with their guns, and a large quantity of the munitions 
of war. 

This gallaiit exploit reflects the highest credit upon those employed 
on the occasion, and proves that the Militia of the Western District 
required Only an opportunity to show the same readiness to defend 
the Queen's Government, and protect their homes from the depreda- 
tions of lawless invaders, which has been exhibited by the Militia in 
other parts of the Province. 

I have the honour to be, Sir 

Your most obedient humble Servant, 
(Signed) J. M. Strachan, 

Military Secretary. 


Canada were solvent^ and what were the intentions of 
the Patriots relative to those banks^ should they succeed 
in their plan of '^ redeeming'' the Province ; to which 
the General replied by transmitting the Editor of the 
Post copies of his despatches to Generalissimo Van 
Rensselaer^ and enclosed his Proclamation to the 
citizens of the new republic of Canada; on which 
subject, the Commercial Advertiser of New York, 
one of the leading papers of the United States, in an 
article upon the Michigan outbreak, dated January 
26th, 1838, and headed " Captain Bobadil outdone,*' 
says, '^ the whole * forms about as magnificent a piece of 
vaffabond impudence as ever fell within our observation." 
A great deal of talk about violating the neutrality 
of the United States; and a farcical exhibition of anger 
against the robbers of the public military stores took 
place in the capital of Michigan; and thus ended 
Major-general Sutherland's attempt to carry flame, 
famine, and destruction into Canada simultaneously 
with Mackenzie, whose Canadian land-office and presi- 
dentiary establishments were thus knocked on the head 
by a handfal of raw volunteers, unprovided with arms, 
undisciplined, and possessing no knowledge whatever 
of the withering designs of their abandoned invaders. 
And these brave men were not only Canadian gentle- 
men, farmers, and farm-labourers, but they were also 
the poor despised Negroes, who had made Amherst- 
burgh their asylum fix>m slavery and persecution ; and 
last, but not least, the ranks of the defenders of the 
soil showed those honourable descendants of the original 
French settlers, who are found now in Upper Canada 
only along the margin of the Detroit. Several of these 


excellent loyalists^ of all classes^ sujQPered severely after- 
wards^ and some lost their lives from the exposure they 
undement in the depth of winter, in carrying on their 
duties of watching so open a frontier^ and in fighting 
amidst ice and freezing water to capture the Anne, 
Peace be to thar manes! 

Immediately this event became known, the Militia 
were organized, and such arms as could be sent from 
so great a distance as Kingston were forwarded to them, 
whilst the Commander-in-chief put the 24th and 32nd 
Regiments in motion to garrison the frontier posts, and 
continual reinforcements of troops from the Lower 
Province, as fast as they could be spared, on the arrival 
of others from the neighbouring provinces, were sent to 
Upper Canada. 

The British reader can form very'little idea of a mid- 
winter march from Halifax, in Nova Scotia, on the 
borders of the Atlantic, to Lake Erie, a distance of 
nearly two thousand miles by the ordinary water-routes 
in summer, but shortened a good deai in overland 

After leaving the settled parts of New Brunswick, 
beyond its capital, Fredericton, the route proceeded 
across an unbroken line of forest and frozen lake, in a 
climate Uttle inferior in severity to Siberia. 

Log-huts were cpnstructed, by order of Sir John 
Colbome, at intervals along this line, and these were 
generally large buildings of rude logs, with a wide 
opening in the roof to let out the smoke of a huge 
central fire. Everywhere, except upon the beaten 
track, the snow lay many feet deep ; and any one 
wandering from the prescribed line, would entail 



inevitable destruction on himself^ as nothing is so 
easy as to lose your way^ even in sununer^ in the 
endless American forest. Near Penetangueshene, our 
most northern post on Lake Huron^ I have lost my 
way, even with an experienced Bois Brule guide, who 
really became alarmed, until he recovered the trail, — a 
track invisible to European eyes, consisting often only 
of marks, designated by small sUces cut out of the bole 
of a tree, or of « leaves pressed by the Ught foot of an 
Indian, or of the delicate ends of the minute branches 
of shrubs broken off during the rapid and swinging 
trot at which the secure walk of the Indian usually 
is peformed. 

Many fine stories have been told of the unerring 
accuracy with which the Indians thread hundreds of 
miles of the dark and trackless forest. There can be 
no doubt, that the Indians, and all other savage men, 
possess the faculties of sight, hearing, and smell in a 
much more acute and developed manner than civilized 
people, simply because they have them in constant 
exercise; just the same as an Irish labouring-woman 
can carry a tremendous weight on her head without the 
use of her hands ; or as a blacksmith^s arms become 
muscular and more powerful than ordinary mens^ arms, 
from his using the sledge-hammer constantly ; but that 
any Indian could go straight to his object, hundreds of 
miles off, through a forest never before trodden, 
abounding with quagmires and lakes, is as unlikely as 
that he would find his way in any part of London, the 
first time he set his foot in that human labyrinth. 

The fact is, that the Indians do not take very long 
land journeys ; their hunting-grounds are circumscribed. 


and have been so long used by the tribes they belong 
to, that every landmark is familiar; and, in passing 
through ^^ the bush/' as the stately forests of America are 
absurdly called^ the Indian follows a track more or less 
known and beaten ; otherwise, he follows the direction 
of the planetary bodies and the stars ; and, in a country 
so full of great rivers and lakes, the landmarks about 
their shores and borders have become familiar sights to 
the sons of the forest. 

The moss on the northern sides of the trunks of 
trees, — ^the inclination of many of the trees from the 
prevailing wind, with the comparative absence of 
branches on that side from which the strongest and most 
constant gales blow, are aU points of the forest com- 
pass, and the migration of animals, north and south, 
is conducted upon a system which affords numerous 
lessons to the wood-ranger. 

Fancy yourself, gentle British reader, starting, 
instead of in a comfortable mail-coach, or the swift 
railway-carriage, on a road smooth as a bowling-green, 
and through a country smiUng even in winter,— fancy 
yourself seated in a long open box, placed upon 
nmners, shod or unshod, as the case may be, with 
iron, and drawn by a horse, large or small, as can 
be procured, with a fur cap on your head, if you 
can get one, with a pair of mittens, or fingerless 
worsted gloves, on your hands, a great coat over your 
ordinary dress, and a pair of mocassins, or undressed^ 
deer-leather shoes on, and the thermometer at twenty 
or thirty degrees below Zero, with a dense, dark, lofty, 
interminable, and noble forest before you, uninhabited 
by man and knee-deep in snow. Your box holds two^ 

D 2 


four^ six, or eight, as the case may be, and a hundred 
of you set off in a long string together, plunging 
into waves of snow, called cahots, every five seconds or 
minutes, and expecting every now and then to be 
pitched over into some river far below your precipice 
road, and so rapid that even the frost has not bound 
it. Fancy an eternal, black, gloomy pine forest, 
whose giant tops woo the clouds, and in which the 
silence of its dark glades and glens remains unbroken 
by any sound save that of your rushing sleighs, for 
even the animals, its usual denizens in summer, have 
forsaken its horrible depths. Fancy all this, and that 
the only hope of succour left to you for hundreds 
of miles is to be found in rude hovels built of logs, 
which you can only reach at long intervals, and that 
such is the nature of the road, that you must often 
get out to reUeve your horse, and then, I think, you 
will have a pretty good idea of what the 43rd and 
85th, the Boyal Artillery, and many other regiments 
and corps, had to encounter in their journey from 
Halifax and Fredericton in the winter of 1837, 1838, 
and afterwards. An officer of the 85th, describing 
the " portage,'' says : ^' Never in my life did I see such 
a road; it was a succession of precipices, flanked by 
a dark, gloomy, and boundless forest.'' In another 
place, in crossing a river, he observes : " The driver 
of my sleigh certainly tempted fate to the utmost 
verge, driving over alone at a furious rate, whilst the 
tfhole sheet of ice undulated like the representation 
of the sea on a stage." 

Amongst the cahots of Temiscouata Portage he is 
equally descriptive r "These are a succession of deep 


holes^ which are formed^ when the snow is on the 
ground^ by the bad construction of the carioles, the 
shafts of which are fastened on to the very runners, 
and having a broad board to connect them, sloping at 
an angle of forty-five degrees, the snow is thereby 
scraped up into mounds, between three and four feet 
high ; so that, really, the motion of our sleigh was 
precisely that of a boat in a heavy sea, only its 
effects were ten times more violent ; and this idea 
suggested to me the name which I gave to the portage, 
viz., passage des ondes glades. It was dark when we 
got to the camp, a number of large log-huts, erected 
on purpose for the troops. We passed a very uncom- 
fortable night, owing to the smoke of our fire, which 
also, at times, was large enough to roast an ox by, 
and obliged us to rouse out and put snow upon the 
flames, when, shortly after, it would get so low, 
that we were in danger of fireezing. The thermometer 
was four degrees below zero.^^ 

They then crossed the Temiscouata Lake where the 
ice was full of holes and very dangerous, and soon 
afterwards, near the Grand Portage, his horse, un- 
accustomed to the jerking and strain of the cahots, 
gave way and he was obliged to leave him, and going 
on with the Commissary * in another sleigh, the horses 
also broke down, from the violent concussions they 
received from the sleigh pitching into holes ; when they 
floundered and fell into the deep snow, broke the 

• This commissariat-officer was Mr. Wilson, to whose exertions the 
troops owed so much, and who lost the use of his arm for a time from 
absolute fatigue and exposure. Captain Ingall, of the Quartermaster- 
general's Department, was also most active and useful. — Editor. 


shafts^ and left the travellers to cool their vexations in 
the middle of the forest. However, a reinforcement 
came up, and the writer describes the incessant pain 
he suffered from the imevenness of the roads, which 
actually were so full of these cahots as to baffle all his 
exertions to keep his seat. Any one who has ridden 
in a French cariole, over a French Canadian winter 
road, can sympathise with him : and yet, rather than 
put the shafts of their carioles eighteen inches higher 
than the ground, the French Canadian endures this 
torture, because his father and grandfather did, or from 
some vague notion of antiquated customs being always 
preferable to new-fangled ones. I am persuaded that 
one of Jean Baptiste's master grievances, which would 
lead him to do strange freaks, will be the attempt, on 
the part of the Upper Canadian British, to force him 
to put his shafts on the line of draught of his horse. 
It was tried in Sir Charles Bagot^s first Parliament; 
and, like any attempt at innovation upon seignorial 
rights, the old feudal laws, the coUtume de Paris, 
or the thorough introduction of the English laws and 
language in a British Colony, it was found to be im- 
practicable. It has been attempted by many Governors 
without a shadow of success ; and I caii only say, that 
when I see the bonnet rou^e, the capote, the red worsted 
sash, the queue, and the short pipe, disappear in Lower 
Canada, then perhaps there will be an end of pitching 
and tossing in Lower Canadian berlins and carioles. 
It makes ones bones " ache to think on't.'' It is as 
bad as an Upper Canada wooden-spring wagon on a 
corduroy road. And yet, notwithstanding all these 
difficulties and dangers fronr frost and flood, — from 


tempest and forest/ — very few casualties occurred 
amongst the many i^giments whicli crossed from 
Nova Scotia or New Brunswick to Quebec ; whilst few 
cases of frost-bite, or, as the Newfoundlanders more 
feelingly call it, '^ frost-burnt,'' occurred in these 
winter marches, which are wonderfully improved as to 
means since the last American war; as the road is 
a mail-route, — if it can be so termed, — now, and the 
troops have no longer tq bivouac or hut themselves 
" under the shade of melancholy boughs/' Formerly, 
too, they had to march actually on snow-shoes, 
and to draw their provisions themselves, in little 
light sleighs, called taubaugins; for road there was 

Major-general Sir John Harvey, on the breaking out 
of the last war, having landed at Halifax from England, 
was one of the first that ever crossed this wilderness, 
which he accomplished in safety ; Lord Edward Fitz- 
gerald had attempted it in 1789, in the month of 
Marchy by a more southerly and western route. 

Sir John has twice distinguished himself by the same 
spirited adventure. In India, as before-mentioned, he 
passed on horseback over an immense tract of country 
in possession of the enemy, who had got between two 
divisions of the army; and by thus communicating 
with both, he performed a service of the most hazard- 
ous nature, requiring presence of mind, resolution, and 
hard and skilful riding; whilst, in traversing the 
boundless expanse of forest in the dead of winter in 
Canada, he had to encounter the extremity of bad 
weather and cold, and to trust to his snow-shoes and 
his own feet. 


The march of the 85th from St. John^s, New Bruns- 
wick, after crossmg Nova Scotia to Windsor and the 
Bay of Pundy, lasted from the 16th of December, 1837, 
to January 5th, 1838; and they had to pass the St. 
Lawrence in canoes. 

The winter of 1837 was a most singular one, and, 
contrary to all former precedent, the lakes of Upper 
Canada and the St. Lawrence, at Quebec, remained un- 
fit)zen till February, and thus permitted water commu- 
nication for heavy guns, and stores, and troops, in 
Upper Canada; whilst, on the line of road by which 
the reinforcements came from New Brunswick and 
Nova Scotia, the rivers and lakes were frozen long 
before the usual season ; thus rendering the march of 
troops secure by land. At the same time, the St. Law- 
rence was so free from ice, that the 83rd Regiment 
actually moved from Quebec to Montreal (180 miles), 
on the 11th of December. 

But we must again break away from anecdote, and re- 
turn to General Sutherland and his myrmidonst Having 
taken shelter, after their defeat at Amherstburgh, on 
Sugar Island, a small isle in Lake Erie, or rather in the 
Strait, belonging to the United States, they were visited 
by the Gk)vemor of Michigan, Mr. Mason, who per- 
suaded them to retire to the main shore^ where Suther- 
land, as we have already observed, was nominally 

The exertions of the inhabitants of the Niagara, 
London, and Western Districts of Upper Canada, or 
of those districts -bordering on Lakes Erie, Huron, 
St. Clair, the rivers Detroit and Niagara, were beyond 
all praise. 


As soon as the excitement on the American side at 
Buffalo, Cleveland, and Detroit became known, a 
public meeting was held at Sandwich, opposite to 
Detroit, on the 26th of December, 1837, when it was 
resolved to organise companies of volunteers, and place 
them along the exposed frontier, to send expresses to 
Chatham, and all along the shores of Lake Erie, to put 
the people on the alert, and then to organize a local 
commissariat for the supply of provisions, as a great 
portion of the land bordering on the lakes had been 
overflowed, and the inhabitants unable consequently to 
supply the Militia with food. William Anderson, 
' Esq., of Sandwich, was appointed Commissary, and 
William Paxton, Esq., of Amherstburgh, and James 
Beid, Esq., of Chatham, Assistants, by whose exertions, 
before the navigation closed, an adequate supply was 
derived from the Americans themselves in Detroit, 
through the distinguished conduct of Mr. Dougall, a 
merchant of the little town of Windsor, nearly opposite 
to the American capital of Michigan. This gentleman, 
jQnding that nothing but hard dollars would be taken, 
came forward and placed twelve thousand in the hands 
of the Commissary; Colonel Prince, M.P.P., and Colonel 
Hamilton, the Sheriff of the London district, also came 
nobly forward and offered to endorse drafts, which gave 
so much satisfaction to the American merchants that 
flre-arms, ammunition, pork, flour, and other necessary 
supplies soon came over, although the mob threatened 
the suppliers with popular vengeance, and stigmatised 
them as traitors to the cause of Republicanism. Inde- 
pendant, however, of the usual mercantile feeling which 
pervades all classes of society in the United States, and 

D 3 


which renders such transactions comparatively easy to 
mens^ minds^ there were many of the ancient and 
respectable inhabitants of Detroit who had no sympathy 
with the sympathizers ; in fact^ the feeling was not 
general beyond the mere borders of the lakes^ whose 
population, Uving upon summer labour on their vast 
expanse, is always thrown into comparative idleness in 
winter; and however glad the mass of the American 
nation would no doubt be to see the Canadas an addi- 
tional star upon their banner, yet I firmly belive the 
people of large property, the people of cultivated 
intellect, the great merchants of New York and Boston, 
and the Atlantic ports, cursed the hour when Fapineau 
and Mackenzie unfurled the foolish flag of rebellion in 
Canada, for they knew well that the power of England 
was too great to trifle with ; they knew also that their 
own institutions were not such as the French Canadians, 
all Roman CathoUcs, could possibly desire, and they 
well knew that British feeling had not by any means 
ceased in Upper Canada. 

The Canadas will never be an integral portion of the 
North American Union. They compose, with New 
Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and the 
islands of the St. Lawrence, an empire of themselves; 
and if ever it should be so unfortun^e as to cease to 
be an appanage of the British Crown, it will be by 
and with the consent of England only, as soon as it is 
able to withstand the system of territorial aggrandize- 
ment which pervades the American mind, and which, 
if pushed much farther, will dissolve the Union itself, 
and scatter the bundle of rods. It is not within the 
compass of human reason to fancy that if the United 


States pursues with insatiable avidity the conquest of 
the Pacific shores^ and colonizes the vast regions of 
California and the Columbia^ that a race^ living 2^000 
miles from Washington^ and practising democracy in 
its most absolute form^ will long remain subject to a 
nominal President. If Canada then^ with her mixed 
French and British population^ the latter increasing every 
year by some forty or fifty thousand, ever becomes rich 
and ripe enough to manage her household, it will not 
be as a second Texas, a mere football to play with, but 
as a great North American power, in strict alliance 
with England, andpn fact, another British empire in 
the New World. 


I do not go altogether, so far as Sir Francis Head, 
who^ like most Colonial governors, could not see all or 
hear all of the real people of the country ; yet I am 
persuaded that that energetic man, who knew more of 
the Canadian character in the two years that he ruled 
than has fallen to the lot of most people, justly remarked 
that the Upper Canadians are sound, loyal, and £ar from 
being blinded by or attached to the republican ideas or 
the republican institutions of their neighbours ; whilst 
the French Canadians, urged as the peasantry were by 
designing politicians, whose chief hope was to advance 
themselves into a premature rebellion, would to-mor- 
row, if there was a war between the United States and 
Great Britain, come forwa^ as freely and as fearlessly 
in defence of their soil and of the monarchy as they 
did before. One must not judge of Jean Baptiste by 
the acts of a parcel of madmen who set the young 
French lawyers and shopkeepers of Montreal in a 
blaze of revolutionary fury, and brought all the natural 


high-spirited blood of the young Canadian into play 
to suit their own sordid purposes^ which the very 
publication of Dr. Nelson^s proclamation soon after 
cooled most wonderfully^ as the people saw that they 
were to be governed by parvenus upon the American 
models and their religion, laws, customs, education and 
manners were all to be swept away in one flood of 
democracy. Believe me, English reader, the French 
Canadian yeoman and the French Canadian peasant 
are not bad fellows after all; and that if properly 
governed they are as reasonable people to deal with, 
(setting apart some ancient prejudices, derived from 
their ancestors,) as you could wish; but more of this 
by-and-by. It has been suggested to my mind now, 
because the scene of the narrative is at present the 
Western District of Canada, the only part of Western 
Canada in which the French Canadian is found. There 
gentleman, yeoman, peasant, all were devotedly loyal, 
and all aided to crush the invasion of the Republicans. 

Applications were made to the Lieutenant-governor 
for a Commissariat officer to be sent, but this could not 
be immediately complied with ; and thus the frontier 
was indebted for its sole preservation to the loyalty of 
its inhabitants, and particularly to those gentlemen 
already named. 

Three hundred militiamen were enrolled to do duty 
at Windsor, Sandwich, and Amherstburgh, and that 
duty was constant and imremitting, day and night ; 
and as at other places on the Canadian frontier, many 
of them never took a whole night^s rest for a fortnight 
at a time, for the preparations in Detroit were visible 
both to their eyes and to their understanding. 


The invasion was delayed by the uncommon occur- 
rence of the river Detroit remaining navigable ; for the 
usual season of ice would have made the commencement 
erf January a better period. 

The Magistrates and Militia officers^ relieved by the 
delay of the pirates, collected all the powder and lead 
they could obtain, and the Militia were reinforced by 
the men of Kent, imder Captain Bell, and Lieutenant 
Baby, a gentleman of French Canadian birth, and by 
Lieutenant M^Crae, who nobly sent 120 fine fellows 
to their brethren in arms; whilst the St. Thomas 
Cavalry, sixty strong, came in also just as the Patriots 
were robbing the American Arsenals and preparing for 
the attack. The command of the Militia of the 
Western District devolved on Colonel B/adcliffe, of 
Adelaide, who brought an increased force with him; 
and the coloured population enrolled themselves in the 
true cause of British freedom to a man, and were at 
once officered by Upper Canadian gentlemen. 

The first rendezvous of the brigands was at Gibraltar 
Point, on Lake Erie ; and the Governor of Michigan, 
Mr. Mason, having received intelligence that they 
numbered 700 men, with five pieces of cannon and 
1,200 stand of arms, gave due notice that he should 
proceed against them, disperse them, and take the 
United States^ material of war from them. He sent a 
steam-boat, with a body of Militia, pompously styled 
'^ The Brady Guards'' after the schooner, as we have 
already related, and then went himself with the same 
steam-boat, the Erie, and another called the Brady^ 
with a force of 250 men against the brigands, but on 
arriving at Gibraltar Point they had sailed for Canada, 


and several of his men^ with their arms and ammuni- 
tion^ left him. He returned to the seat of hifi govern-^ 
ment ; and such was the animus against the Canadians^ 
that even his presence could not restrain the men on 
board his steamer from firing upon the small steam 
ferry-boat which was proceeding with Colonel Badcliffe 
and a party of the Essex^ Kent^ and Windsor Militia 
to strengthen the post of Amherstburgh, then threat* 
ened with an attack. 

We have shown the attempt to occupy Bois Blanc^ 
and then the firing twice upon the town of Amherst- 
burgh and the projected landings so well defeated by 
the Militia and Volunteers, who it is said, upon good 
authority, amounted only to 400, scarcely armed ; for 
since the war of 1814 the arms of the Militia had been 
stored in Kingston, with only a few rounds of powder 
and ball for a few muskets and fowling-pieces, and the 
grand total of three bayonets to swell the list, which 
was indeed the whole that the Lake Shore District of 
Amherstburgh could then afibrd, so completely had 
the ploughshare and the reaping-hook occupied the 
place of the sword and the lance. 

The attack of the schooner Amie, on her first passage 
in front of the town, was on the 8th of January, and 
merely a scattered cannonade ; but on the 9th she kept 
out of rifleshot, and poured for two hours a heavy fire 
of round, grape and canister (belonging to the military 
stores of the United States) upon the devoted town, 
without however, owing to the want of knowledge of 
the gunners, doing much harm. In the interval 
between the two attacks upon the town. Colonel Prince 
withdrew his 300 men from Bois Blanc, to reinforce. 


Colonel Radcliffe. General Sutherland then took 
possession of the island^ with all the pomp of brigand 
war, marching round its borders, opposite to Am- 
herstburgh, with drums, trumpets, and flags, in order 
to show the Canadians that the first step had been 
taken upon their soil. 

The final attack on Amherstburgh was made after 
sunset on the same day as the two hour's cannonading, 
when the Anne again bore down and opened her guns 
on the town. The cavalry from St. Thomas followed 
her motions, and fired into her, carrying all the volun- 
teers, excepting 150, ' who remained at the landing- 
place expecting (xeneral Sutherland and the pirates in 
the brig, scows, and boats from Bois Blanc. The Anne 
came abreast, at length, of a place called Elliott's 
Point, and here her fortunes failed her; for the wind 
was dead on shore and blowing hard, and several bullets 
had pierced her sails and rigging from the muskets and 
rifles and fowling-pieces of the Kent and Windsor 
Volunteers, under Lieutenants Baby and Hall, who 
kept guard at the Point, whilst a lucky shot disabled 
the steersman, upon which the patriot vessel broke 
away and grounded. Here the Essex Mihtia and the 
<»loured people rushed towards her and kept up a 
galling discharge of fire-arms, which was returned for 
a time with energy, until the Militia, no longer 
able to restrain their ardour, jxunped into the water 
and boarded her, wading up to their necks. One of 
these brave young men, Mr. Ogilvy, of Montrose in 
Scotland, died a few days afterwards from this exposure 
to the icy element, and several others sunk under their 
exertions subsequently, whose names I do not recollect. 


The vessel thus boarded yielded at discretion^ and 
General Theller^ with Colonel Dodge and Captain Davis^ 
of the Brigand Infantry^ and Colonel Brophey^ of the 
Pirate Engineers^ surrendered^ with sixteen others^ in* 
eluding Anderson^ an Upper Canadian traitor^ from the 
London District^ who died next day of his wounds; 
and two or three others were drowned or killed. 

The Militia^ in addition to the victory^ found what 
they most needed^ — ^muskets^ bayonets^ and cannon^ one 
nine and two six-pounder guns^ 350 stand of arms^ and 
accoutrements complete^ a very large quantity of am- 
munition^ and 630 dollars in the chest. Thus the 
Volunteers assumed a warlike attitude from the mili- 
tary arsenals of the United States^ — a just retribution ; 
and two of the cannon being mounted on the old Fort 
Maiden^ then in ruins^ the other was placed on board 
a schooner, fitted up by Captain Vidal, of the Bioyal 
Navy, who resides on Lake St. Clair, at Samia, and 
who is well known in Canada as a most active, enter- 
prising officer, and a most useful and energetic settler. 

Thus terminated an invasion of Upper Canada, which, 
if it had been successful, would have created immense 
outlay and difficulty, as arms and provision on that 
exposed frontier could then only be had from the 
United States, and would have been freely suppUed to 
the adventurers. 

We have already said that Governor Mason suc- 
ceeded in dispersing the brigands ; but not before they 
had become obnoxious to the Americans themselves; 
for the Bank at Gibraltar Point actually petitioned the 
Michigan Legislature for permission to remove to the 
capital, as '^ their concern" was rendered rather unsafe 


by the "presence of the Patriot Army." Bat the 
judgment of Judge Wilkins deserves a more than pass- 
ing notice. When Sutherland was brought before this 
Judge on the serious charge of " violating the laws of 
the United States^ in setting on foot a miUtary expe- 
dition against the dominions of Great Britain^^^ the 
learned Judge refused to hear any evidence respecting 
the transactions upon the Island of Bois Blanc^ as that 
island was not within the territories of the United 
States ; and then actually dismissed the case altogether^ 
stating that there was no evidence before him connect- 
ing the miUtary expeditions set on foot by Sutherland 
with the invasion of the British dominions ! 

Such^ indeed^ were the usual results of all arrests of 
the pseudo-patriots along the whole frontier^ from 
Maine to Michigan ; and the stolen cannon and arms 
of the Republic were no sooner delivered up every- 
where^ than they were again taken out of the public 
stores by new sets of adventurers^ eager for the lands 
of Canada, and the com, wine, and oil of British plun- 
der. But they reckoned without their host. One 
spirit of British honour arose throughout the Empire, 
and in the far comers of the London and Western 
Districts, the shores of Huron, St. Clair, and Erie, 
which had forgotten the echo of a warrior's tread, 
again became covered with armed men, animated with 
the one resolve, to drive the robbers into their Medi- 

Opposite to Detroit, the focus of the plundering 
hordes, the Canadian shores were guarded by about 
3,500 brave settlers, under Colonel Radcliffe, who be- 
came well provided with the implements of war and 


with provisions; and of this force the Six Nations 
sent from Delaware 200 Indian warriors, under Colonel 
Clench, who had long been connected with the Indian 
Department, and who knew perfectly how to manage 
and direct these civihzed children of the soil. 

Colonel Dunlop, a name perhaps as well known as 
any in Canada, commanded 650 fine fellows on the St. 
Clair frontier, and Colonels Askin and Hamilton kept 
up a continual line of cavalry expresses, so that every 
movement of the enemy was known and prepared for. 
But the horrors of invasion were not to visit this beau- 
tiful portion of Western Canada at this time; and 
Sutherland having absconded with what remained of 
the miUtary chest, and his followers from Cleveland in 
Ohio, having placarded him as a cheat, after ^^ raising the 
wind '' themselves to reUeve them from positive starva- 
tion, the camp broke up, and all returned to their 
homes, or to the employments they had left to realize 
a vision of conquest and plunder. And this was the 
more speedily effected when the Government of the 
United States found it was time to interfere; and as 
the Brady Guards and Mihtia of Michigan could not 
effect a palpable duty, on the 27th of January General 
Scott landed from the steam-boat Fulton, 300 men of 
the regular army, to preserve the neutrahty of the 

General Scott, leaving Colonel Worth in command' 
in this district, returned to Albany, to take further 
measures with respect to the extended line of opera- 
tions. And thus the month of January, 1838, passed 
off, in the west, without anything more occurring than 
much talk and many threatenings from Van Rensselaer, 


Mackenzie, Sutherland, M'Leod, and other leading 
"Patriots/^ who were nursing the Borderers into a 
combined system of oflFence against British supremacy, 
by simultaneously attacking the whole frontier, of 
nearly a thousand miles in length, from Yermont to 
Lake Huron. 



The projected capture of the key of Upper Canada, Kingston, 
lately the capital of the Canadas, and the behaviour of the 

The reader has now arrived at a very curious portion 
of the history of the rebellion, when affiliated societies 
were forming in every section of the United States 
within a hundred miles of the Canadian frontier, and 
throughout Upper Canada, for the purpose of making 
a grand attempt, by the power of sympathy , to uproot 
British institutions, and supply their place with others 
founded on the bloody code of laws which the French 
Revolution had taught mankind ; and it was astonish- 
ing, to a person residing within the sphere of action, 
to observe the rapidity with which these secret societies 
were proceeding to carry out their views. 

Even in the most loyal towns and neighbourhoods 
in Upper Canada, men who had never been sxispected 
of wavering in their allegiance began to discuss the 
probabilities of a dissolution of the bond between Great 
Britain and Canada ; and such was the universal opinion 
in the States bordering on the Lakes of the certainty 
of such an event, that farms in Canada were played 
for as stakes, as securely as if they were represented 


by money in hand. Diagrams^ or outline plans^ were 
made of the townships which were to be invaded, and 
the Patriots were to choose amongst themselves the 
farm-lots which suited them best; whilst Lynch-law 
would set aside, for ever, troublesome claims on the 
part of theit real owners. 

No pains were spared by that most indefatigable of 
all agitators, Mackenzie, to represent the certainty of 
success, and of the co-operation of his friends in 
Canada, who were represented as eager for the appear- 
ance of the Patriot hosts, and as well prepared to 
receive them with open arms and with cordial assist- 

In order to carry this game on successfully, it was 
necessary to employ numerous well-paid agents ; who, 
under pretence of mercantile, or other business, traversed 
Canada from end to end; whilst Mackenzie himself, 
and other leaders, occasionally ventured to expose 
themselves to the gibbet by crossing the frontier. 

The reader will recollect that Kingston was alone the 
depot of warlike stores in Upper Canada ; and accord- 
ingly, Kingston, one of the most loyal towns in the 
province, and possessing the only fortress to which 
the rebel and brigand prisoners were always sent as 
soon after their capture as possible, was selected as 
the main theatre upon which the success of the in- 
vasion and occupation of Upper Canada was to be 
played off. 

If I speak of myself more than is usual for a modest 
author to do so, in pursuing the subject of this chapter, 
the reader must forgive me ; for I cannot go a-head, 
as the Americans say, without so doing in a suflSciently 
explanatory manner; and the conduct of the Militia 


deserves^ from one who knew them well, all that I 
can say as connected them. 

Kingston is situated just opposite to that part of 
the State of New York where Lake Ontario, beginning 
to narrow its immense boundaries, divides itself into 
two channels, before these unite to form the Cataraqui, 
as the St. Lawrence was here called by the ancient 
Indian inhabitants. 

The island which principally causes these two chan- 
nels is called Long Island, and is crossed at its broadest 
or western end by a road nearly six miles long, to gain 
which from Kingston is a ferry of about three miles 
across the open roadstead called Kingston Harbour; 
and from Long Island to Gravelly Point, Jefferson^s 
County, in the State of New York, is another ferry 
of about a mile in length. 

These channels, ferry, and road are the ordinary 
mail routes from New York to Kingston ; and in mid- 
winter the ferries are usually frozen over so solidly, 
that all the traffic for provisions and the mails are 
carried on and over the ice. Thus Kingston, being 
fronted by a solidly-frozen barrier, is more assailable ' 
at that period of the year than at any other; for, 
although the expanse of Lake Ontario never entirely 
freezes, yet, for many miles at its narrow end near 
Kingston, it has a solid coating in winter, so that an 
enemy can land far away from the guns and defences, 
both above and below the town. 

Below the town the river commences ; and, although 
very broad, is much broken by a continuation of large 
and of small islands and islets, known to travellers as 
the Thousand Islands of the St. Lawrence, the most 
picturesque and the most beautiful portion of its scenery. 


After leaving Long Island^ opposite to which, on 
the Canada shore, is another large one called Howe 
Island, the river gradually decreases in breadth, but 
maintains an expanse of open water, at the foot of these 
two large islands, of upwards of six miles. And here we 
reach the mouth of a small Canadian stream, called the 
Grananoqui, about sixteen miles from Kingston, where 
the frontier of the United States is not further distant 
than about two and a half miles ; then another 
large island, called Grindstone or Gore Island, begins, 
and occupies the centre of the St. Lawrence, leaving 
an equal expanse of water on each side towards Canada 
and the United States. 

West of Grindstone Island, and within a very short 
distance of its shore, which is divided from it by the 
deep water channel (the boundary of the two countries), 
is a httle islet called Hickory Island, belonging to 
Great Britain, but uninhabited, save by one poor widow. 
Hickory Island is therefore nearly half-way on the St. 
Lawrence between the British village of Gananoqui and 
the United States village of French Creek in JeflFerson^s 

Gananoqui is celebrated fpr one of the finest and 
largest flour-mills in Canada, driven by the rapids of 
its pretty river ; and which supphes flour in great quan- 
tity for exportation and home use. 

French Creek is celebrated as the abode and rendez- 
vous of British deserters, as the scene of Buccaneer 
Bill Johnson^s exploits, and as a centre whence all the 
idle river and lake men find a home whenever war or 
rebellion needs their services in Canada, and whence 
the shelter of the intricate labyrinths of the Thousand 
Islands is always ready to afibrd harbour and security 


to mail robbers and pirates. It was this delectable 
abode that was chosen as the head-quarters of General 
Van Rensselaer upon the second attempt of Mackenzie 
to invade and revolutionize Upper Canada.* 

I was then in command of the Militia^ and a respec- 
tive officer of the Ordnance^ as well as Commanding 
Officer of Engineers. Mihtary men can fancy how one's 
time was employed. Night and day were the same; 
neither a season of rest, relaxation, nor of social enjoy- 
ment. The whole of Upper Canada, a thousand miles 
of frontier, had to be supphed with arms, ammunition, 
camp-equipage, blankets, and the numberless et ceteras 
incidental to a state of actual war. 

The day was passed in reviewing, organizing, drilUng 
and disciplining the Militia; in ordering great guns 
and Uttle guns, bedding, cartridges, powder, flints, and 
firelocks ; in strengthening the batteries and Fort Henry, 
bringing old sand-bags into use, which had rotted in 
obhvion of war. In mounting traversing platforms, 
and drying damp casemates, building ovens, and pre- 
paring safe places for the specie of the Commissariat 
and the PubUc Banks; in meeting the wishes of the 
rich inhabitants by providing bomb proof vaults to put 
their plate and deeds in, and in arranging secure places 
in the event of the worst ; in palisading, picketting, 
drawbridging, and, in short, in all the pomp and circum- 
stjance of war, with an infinity of its littlenesses. 

During the night, in visiting the sentries, forwarding 
dispatches by the express dragoons, listening to the 
feai^s of those who would not be quieted, expecting 

* The Editor visited French Creek, in pursuit of deserters in 184S, 
found it as is here described, and made the acquaintance of t^he cele- 
brated Bill Johnstone. 


conflagration and murder and attack ; and in attending 
the meetings and conclaves of the energetite and excel- 
lent Magistrates (a quorum I, at leasts shall never for- 
get), who spared neither time, nor rest, nor health, nor 
comfort, to uphold the glorious cause of Britain, — ^thus 
for six winter months knowing not rest, either of mind 
or body. There we sat, truly by the midnight lamp, 
receiving the information of spies and informers, paid 
on both sides ; examining witnesses, receiving evidence, 
searching the suspected, granting passports, and often 
eliciting from people of the greatest respectability from 
the United States, almost an avowal that they were 
treasonable travellers. I shall long remember some of 
the magnates of Watertown, in Jefferson county, and 
I dare say the recollection will be reciprocal. 

One of these gentlemen, — a man of consideration, and 
withal of property too, ^' Justice of the Peace, and coram, 
and custalorum, ay, and ratulorum too /^ but who could 
not say, " Master Parson, that he was a gentleman 
bom, and could write himself in any bill, warrant, quit- 
tance or obligation, Armigeroy any time these three 
hundred years, as all his successors before him had 
done,^^ — ^was brought before us, and had been boasting 
in the streets of Kingston, to an admiring multitude, 
that we ought to be dreadfully frightened at the pre- 
paration of our friendly adversaries. 

Now this fellow — for I cannot in sober judgment, 
after several years of deliberate thinking, call him any- 
thing else — was a Peace-ofl&cer of the United States, in 
charge of an arsenal, which had been plundered under 
his nose, came over to Kingston upon the plea of 
mercantile business, and proceeded to Bellevillej where, 



or rather in the vicinity of which town^ he had plenty 
of abettors. I saw through him at once; for I had 
been carefully informed of his designs^ and I knew that 
he had brought another person of some mihtary know- 
ledge with him. 

Before he left the town on his secret mission, which 
had been in the meantime well counteracted, I marched 
a body of the Mihtia, who had been clothed in uniform 
and excellently drilled, under the windows of the inn 
where this sympathizer and his mihtary Mend lodged; 
and, as if upon an ordiiuay drill, I made them practise 
street-firing. A £riend of mine, who was casually look- 
ing out of the window with this mihtary spy, engaged 
him in conversation. 

" Are these the British Infantry ? '^ says his col- 

" Oh no, not at all,'* observed my Mend, " they are 
only the Frontenac MiUtia.*' 

" Then if they are MiUtia,'* retorts the American 
officer, ^^ all I can say is, they mu^t be the Regular 

Our sympathizing friends never made their appear- 
ance afterwards. The hint was sufficient — ^the Jlegtdar 
Militia was quite enough for them. 
. ^ut Mackenzie had poisoned the minds of almost 
every man in the United States frontier; and such was 
the national border enthusiasm, that to resist the opi- 
nion of the free and enhghtened citizens was a service 
deserving Lynch law. 

It was fortunate for the poor loyal ELingstonians that 
they had such an enemy as Mackenzie. Had he been 
a man of resources, I have no doubt that harassing 


would not have been his main weapon ; but he always 
puts me in mind of the quack doctor on the Boulevards 
at Paris, who says, — 

" J'ai guerie le Roi de Terre Neuve, 

J*ai guerie le Roi de Maroc, 

J*ai guerie le Eoi de NinSve, 

J'ai guerie dix Rois en Bloc, 
Demain, je pars pour Constantinople." 

The power of the Queen of England was nothing to 
the agitator Mackenzie, and he too fatally succeeded by 
ius displays on his platfonn, in drawing into his toils 
many of the aged and more of the youth of the Ame- 
rican Republic. 

To give the British reader some idea of the indefa- 
tigable activity of Mackenzie and his myrmidons, I 
shall mention two or three facts. The spies and 
informers, paid on both sides, kept up a very constant 
stream of inteUigence. The Magistrates knew all the 
movements he was making, and thus were enabled to 
counteract them. At one time I was told, upon infor- 
mation which had never failed before, that Mackenzie 
was about to visit his relatives, who lived about two 
miles from Kingston, and I was in possession of the 
exact hour at which he would be found. 1 accordiugly 
dispatched my two adjutants and a smaU weU-armed 
party of Militia in - two sleighs to apprehend him. 
These were all young men, and, with the natural vivacity 
of youth, they were too careless. They arrived at the 
tarm-house, situated in a lonely place, as the nigbt set 
in, and had gained the door unobserved and unheard ; 
but as they were entering, they ordered arms, and the 
dang of the butts of their muskets alarmed the inmates. 

E 2 


The door was opened after the Militia had duly sur- 
rounded the house^ and they found two men from 
French Creek sitting by a blazing fire in the kitchen^ 
whom they apprehended and brought to me ; but their 
most vigilant examination was inefiectual after the 
object of their search^ who had, after all, not ventured 
to visit the place. 

After due searching and sifting, we discharged these 
men, who declared they had come over the lines to find 
work at wood-chopping. One of them, — a notorious 
villain, who had been confined in a prison of the United 
States for a supposed murder, or some equally heinous 
crime, and who was recognized by the authorities, — ^I 
told, that if ever I caught him again on this side of the 
lines I should hang him. He coolly thanked me, and lost 
no time in getting back to French Creek. It so hap- 
pened that a few weeks afterwards he was taken prisoner 
on Hickory Island, in an attempt at invasion, and 
brought again to me. I suffered his fears to prevail, 
although Martial Law had not been declared in Upper 
Canada, and he confessed that Mackenzie did intend to 
visit his relations, and that he had brought a letter 
from him, for which he had been largely paid in dollar 
notes, but that the moment he heard the clang of the 
arms, he threw the pocket-book containing all evidence 
of his mission into the blazing wood fire; but that 
Mackenzie might have been easily concealed, as there 
was a large drain under part of the house which the 
Militia could not dream of. This man, a thorough 
rascal, afterwards was pardoned, and his wife and large 
family coming over to seek him, were taken care of. 

Mackenzie^ made another attempt to visit his allies 


in the townships in the rear of Kingston, and was very 
nearly caught. The ice had formed suddenly six weeks 
later than the ordinary season, and as he had numerous 
friends in the back parts of the townships adjoining Kings-^ 
ton, he proposed to pay them a visit, in order to concert 
measures together. With this view he got a sleigh and 
a span of horses from some of his sympathizing friends 
near Watertown, a town of the United States^ frontier. 
A span of horses in America is what we usually call a 
pair. I soon heard of his intention, and had accurate 
information as to the time of his departure, and there-* 
fore immediately detached a small party of sailors under 
an oflScer of the Queen^s Marine Artillery, who had 
commanded one of the lake steamboats and knew the 
locaUties well, to take up a position, after traversing 
several miles of ice, at the Lighthouse Point, where 
Mackenzie must pass either in going to or in returning 
from the shore of Canada, ne£br Bath, where, under 
cover of some bold woody banks, he intended his drive 
across nearly twenty miles of the frozen waters of 
Ontario, to terminate. 

Bath is a pretty Canadian village at the entrance of 
the. Bay of Quinte, on the mainland, opposite to a fine 
island of Lake Ontario, belonging to Lord Mountcashel, 
called " Isle of Tanti,^' or " Amherst Island,^' and at 
Bath various roads lead to the interior of the Midland 

The Bay of Quinte is a strip of Lake Ontario, con- 
torted into all sorts of windings by the numerous deep 
bay& and inlets of the Presqu^ile of Prince Edward, the 
most picturesque and fertile spot in Western Canada, 
and inhabited by a race of loyal farmers, who have been 


domiciled there from the times of the earliest setde* 
ments. On it Mackenzie knew he could not travel, a9 
he was known^ and would have been immediately appre- 
hended^ He therefore chose the mainland near Bath, 
because in that neighbourhood he had well-known 
alhes, whose motions were, however, strictly watched. 

The entrance of the Bay of Quinte is close to Bath, 
where the Isle of Tanti and other smaller isles form two 
rather dangerous narrow channels, called the Gaps, 
through which, in stormy weather, the whole force of 
Lake Ontario is thrown in tremendous seas, which 
frequently obUge the steam-boats to pause. In winter 
many accidents happen in this vicinage from the lake 
ice not being sufficiently strong, owing to the great 
ground-swell and agitation of the water, and it was by 
the Lower Gap that Mackenzie and his span of horses, 
nearly reached the Canada frontier, after passing wide 
of the Lighthouse, in a snow-storm, — ^and thus escaping 
certain doom from man, to run into a nearly equal 
danger from Nature. 

Close to the completion of his hopes, achieved during 
a painful and alarming night, when the thermometer was 
unusually low and the ice promised at least a safe footing 
to his horses, — in a moment they were engulfed in 
the raging waters underneath; and how the man 
escaped with his driver is known only to themselves. 
They however managed to retrace their steps; and 
passed my look-out party, in a continuation of the 
snow-storm, which alone saved them. 

At other times, spies from Lower Canada would 
arrive at Kingston; and either Van Rensselaer, or one of 
his reconnoitring party escaped, by almost a hairbreadth. 


fn)m a hut close to the Artillery Barracks^ where he 
had ensconced himself. But after all, such was the 
loyalty of the inhabitants of Kingston that very few 
domiciliary visits were ever necessary ; and these were 
made only to those on whom certainty and not sus- 
picion rested. 

But the accuracy and extent of the information 
obtained of all the hostile movements, within and 
without, was surprising, and such was the secrecy 
observed that even on some occasions the very Magi- 
strates could not be informed by the Military officers of 
the circumstances, as the informers were men well- 
known as traders on the other side, or as people 
mixing freely and unsuspicioualy in society, and were 
sometimes of such standing that the development of 
their information would have been fatal to their future 

At length the pent-up storm broke forth, and we 
were placed in clear possession oS the views of the 
insurgents and of the brigands. These views were well 
arranged, and large quantities of arms and ammuni- 
tion sent over, for the use of the rebels, frcwn the State 
of New York. The plan, finally adopted in a General 
Council, was to attack Kingston, at three distinct 
points; to let the prisoners out of the Penitentiary; 
and to have a sufficient number of armed men within 
the town in order to distract our attention. 

Belleville, at the upper end of the Bay of Quinte 
and its vicinity, the township of Sidney, affi)rded many 
specimens of furious revdutionists ; and a road leading 
along the Bay through the townships of Thurlow, the 
Mohawk Settlement, Richmond, and near Camden and 
Portland in the counties of Hastings, Lenox, and 


Addington and Frontenac, crossing at Napanee, the 
river of that name^ had long been celebrated as leading 
through the heart of the country to which Bidwell, 
Perry, and other Reformers always looked as their 
chief stronghold in Upper Canada. Miscalculating 
upon this data, — which circumstances had somewhat 
changed, and yet in the main right, as far as some 
degenerate sons of the soil were concerned, whose 
fathers had owed all they possessed to the generosity 
of the British Government, on whose freely given land 
they had, as loyalists, settled originally, it was deter- 
mined that the strength of the internal coahtion of 
the rebels should be drafted from this quarter, for a 
night attack on the land or Toronto road-side of the 
town of Kingston, by assembling at a given point in 
sleighs, and then running on rapidly to connect the 
assaults from two other quarters. 

One of these divisions of the Patriot army was fix)m 
Watertown,* in the State of New York, which was to 
cross the ice above Kingston and attack it on its 
weakest side, near the Penitentiary, about a mile and 
a half west of the town, where some remains of the 
former forest still existed and aflForded cover. 

The third attack was to have been eflFected by the, 
way of French Creek, whence a force was to be thrown 
on Hickory Island from Grindstone Island, and, 
after a feint upon the little village of Grananoqui, 
in order to draw as large a force as possible from 
Kingston for the defence of the mills there, to march 
along the borders of the lake, and attack the town 
on its eastern side. 

* Where, in 1843, I found about fifty British deserters variously 
employed, and partly paid in liquor.— Editor. 

CANADA. 8 1 

Bodies of sympathizers, under pretence of market^ 
or other business, were sent into the town, and took 
lodgings at different pubUc and other houses, whilst 
one or two had enUsted in the Mihtia ; and one, 
who was accustomed to blacksmith^s work, was to 
spike the cannon in Fort Henry, and the outer 
magazine, full of Congreve rockets, was to be 
blown up. The town, also, in the TneUe, was to have 
been set on fire in various marked places. 

Accurate notice of all these deep-laid schemes were, 
however, given from time to time, so that we barricaded 
the town (the picket fence of which had fallen into 
decay), and completely fitted up three block-houses, 
which commanded the different entrances, and placed 
the Militia in barracks, between these block-houses. 

The day before the intended simultaneous attack, 
which was fixed for the 22nd of February, 1838, 
I despatched expresses to Prince Edward county, and 
directed several companies of Mihtia to put themselves 
in motion, so as to get in the rear of the rebels, 
who were to assemble near the village of Napanee, 
and also sent proper persons to Belleville, to watch the 
disaffected there, keeping all our. own motions as 
reserved as possible. 

One of my adjutants. Captain Cameron, was also 
sent to cut a series of irregular holes in the ice, 
on' that side of the roadstead near Long Island, 
over which the brigands must drive their sleighs, 
and was directed to put the Long Islanders on the 
qui Vive, to cover the frontier, and to destroy the 
mail-road, by cutting down large trees at intervals. 

The Mohawk warriors had joined me the instant 

E 3 


they heard of the insurrectionary movements in their 
neighbourhood ; and^ as I well knew the terror of their 
name would operate very forcibly^ I had taken care 
to form them into patrols^ under the guise of deer- 
himting parties^ in those situations where I was aware 
their presence would be alone sufficient to deter the 
rebels &om appearing ; and^ having approved of a 
dozen men being armed at Napanee, I stationed 
outposts^ videttes of cavalry, and pickets^ of both 
arms, everywhere round the town, within some 

Thus assured, we waited in perfect hope that the 
attempt would be made, as it must have ended 
disastrously to the invaders, and would have been 
the means of removing several very wicked and very 
troublesome persons from amongst us, who would 
have fled to the States, or have been arrested. 

Just before the day, big with the fate of this 
rising city, we organised a regular system of signals 
from Fort Henry, by rockets and blue lights, so 
that the whole of the defending force knew exactly 
what to do ; and, having heard from the usual sources 
that a man, who was foimerly a skipper, or master 
of one of the American barges, plying with wood 
on the River St. Lawrence, had enlisted as a private 
in the Militia, and was then doing duty in Fort Henry, 
and that he was a creature of Bill Johnson, the 
pirate, and was appointed to spike the cannon the 
night of the attack, to open the gates, and to blow 
up the outer magazine, in which the dreaded Congreve- 
rockets were stoi'ed, I took up my night^s abode 
in one of the casemates, and, without letting any 


one into the secret but an officer, I sent quietly 
for my friend. 

Upon questioning him as to whether he had given 
his real name when he enlisted/ he appeared confused, 
but when I told him he was Captain so-and-so, — for 
all boatmasters are called captains in America, — he 
found he was discovered, and at once acknowledged 
the fact; but would proceed no further. This man 
had been long a resident in Canada, and unsuspected. 
I then sent for his box, in which some blacksmith^s 
implements and nails for the spiking operation were 
found, and upon examination, we discovered the 
copper lock of the outer magazine forced, but not 
quite destroyed. Unwilling to damp the ardour of 
the brave Militia who garrisoned the fort, or to 
frighten the townspeople by stories of blowing up 
magazines, I quietly ordered the fellow^s Militia-coat 
to be stripped off, and that he should^ be turned 
out of the gate, with a notice, that if he was seen 
in Canada again, no mercy should be shown to him. 

This is the true version of a story which went 
the round of the American papers on the Border, 
that a Captain of the Militia had engaged to deliver 
Fort Henry, and its deposits of money and plate, 
into Mackenzie's hands ! 

' In addition to all these constant sources of anxiety, 
the State prisoners who had arrived from the we^ 
afforded the Militia in Fort Henry constant employ- 
ment, and many were the secret plottings and treasons 
which these misguided men carried on. I cannot pass 
over the excellent conduct of the mechanics and 
labourers, chiefly Irish, who had been employed on 


the Queen's works^ in finishing Fort Henry^ and who, 
upon the first alarm, enrolled themselves as a guard 
for the fortress they had erected, and actually kept 
it, open and exposed as it was in its unfinished state, 
until the Militia could be embodied. These brave men 
also volunteered in the depth of winter, to be employed 
as a company of sappers for any purposes required at 
Navy Island^ or anywhere in Canada. In short, every 
person in the Royal Engineer Department, and in the 
Civil Branches of the Ordnance armed themselves, and 
kept nightly guard over the immense depot of ord- 
nance stores, and the magazines of powder outside of 
Fort Henry, and laboured all day long in removing 
the most essential into the New Fort, or day and 
night in shipping on board the steam-boats, cannon, 
mortars, rockets, muskets, accoutrements, ammunition, 
blankets, &c., and in attending upon the constant 
arrivals of troops of the line for the westward ; amongst 
these devoted loyalists none was more conspicuous, or 
exerted himself more than the acting Ordnance Store- 
keeper, Thomas Gurley, Esq. 

The Traveller steam-boat took up to Toronto on the 
14th of January five companies of the 32nd, and was 
followed by the St. George with more, whilst the 
Transit was constantly plying between Toronto and 
Niagara. Such was this extraordinary season, this 
merciful aberration from the usual laws of Nature, 
that it enabled troops and stores to be sent to every 
threatened point, — thus preventing bloodshed and 
plunder and misery along a frontier of such extent. 

The ice, and it is worth recording, only formed in 
Kingston Bay or roadstead on the 21st of January, 


1838, six weeks after its usual period, nor did any 
person pass over it across the ferry line to WoK or 
Long Island until the 22nd. The Traveller was then 
waiting for the troops from Lower Canada; but her 
commander, fearing that she would be frozen in, 
started on the 21st for Toronto, with a cargo of 
ordnance and ordnance stores, and got as far as the 
Gap, when she was obUged to return to port with great 

Captain Markham, of the 32nd, who was so severely 
wounded at St. Denis, came up the river St. Lawrence 
from Prescott, to within twenty miles of Kingston, in 
the Dolphin steamer with one company of the 32nd 
and staff, and two of the 83rd, and had some difficulty 
in landing his men, five miles below Gunanoque ; so 
sudden was the frost, and so intense; for although 
the boats' sides were protected by extra planking of 
thick oak, yet the ice cut through them Uke sharp 
saws. Two sergeants and a horse broke in, whilst 
gaining the platform constructed for the men to reach 
the banks, and were recovered with difficulty ; another 
company of the 83rd joined him at Kingston next day, 
and the whole departed in ninety sleighs for Toronto, 
and the westward on the 22nd. Militia and regulars, 
regulars and militia were then constantly pouring into 
Fort Henry and Kingston ; on the 19th, thirty 
volunteers from the 3rd Leeds Militia, under Captain 
Bell, arrived also on their way to Toronto, to offer for 
general service, and the same day, the Perth Artillery, 
commanded by Captain Graham, fifty strong, marched 
into Fort Henry in full artillery uniform, and took 
the duty of that arm. I cannot too highly praise the 


loyalty and zeal of this officer^ who clothed this corps 
himself, and by the assistance of Lieutenant Hogg, 
a relation of the Ettrick Shepherd^ soon brought it to 
such a state, that it could serve the garrison guns, 
manoeuvre the field-pieces, and act as infantry ; a more 
excellent, steady, or respectable company of young men, 
all farmers' sons, and many of them wealthy, I never 
saw. They submitted to the common fare and accom- 
modation of soldiers in bombproof barracks, as if they 
had been enlisted for that life and no other; on the 
20th, also, 110 Volunteers from Perth and Lanark, 
arriyed on their way to Toronto, under Captain Fraaer, 
ajotd the Prince Edward Volunteers actually flowed in, 
in human waves, whilst another company of the 83rd 
arrived on the 23rd, and were followed by four more, 
bound for the westward. 

I mention this to show the incessant activity of the 
Commander-in-chief, who was also Governor-general, 
upon the departure of Lord Gosford for New York; 
and the zeal, loyalty, and devotion of the MiUtia, who 
marched hundreds of miles unprovided with blankets, 
or the proper conveyances, or clothing, to support the 
Queen's authority. It would extend the narrative too 
much to detail the names of the commanding-officers, 
or the designation of the Militia regiments, who passed 
through Kingston, to fly to the seat of war in the 
west ; but that the ordnance, and commissariat depart- 
ments were kept in constant and laborious activity, 
may be inferred from the fact, that even the usual day 
of rest could not be obtained, and night was then the 
same as day. The acting ordnance-storekeeper of the 
time, as was before stated, was Mr. Thomas Gurley, 


whose name and exertions will not be forgotten in that 
part of Upper Canada. But the demands upon the 
commissariat were equally onerous^ and the mode in 
which they were met by the Assistant Commissary- 
general^ C. A. Clarke^ proved that twenty-two years 
of peace had not impaired one spring of the movement 
of that excellent branch of the service. 

Day and night was the Commissariat-office open^ 
and conveyance, rations, money, and advice supplied 
without intermission. The kindness with which that 
gentleman acted, the uniform support I met from him, 
his allowing me at the busiest times to make use of 
his own office, as a central place for the despatch of 
expresses, and the transaction of all the varied military 
duties I had to perform, are very inadequately thus 
recognized. He had to clothe, and provision, and pay 
immense levies in an extended district at a moment^s 
notice, to settle the difficult claims of innkeepers, 
and persons providing transport ; besides the constant 
fatigue arising firom the multiplied official business 
connected with the sudden transition of the army, 
from a state of profound repose to one of actiial serv ice 
in the field. 

But the time drew on when, the machinations of the 
enemy were to be perfected. It was infinitely more 
formidable than has been beheved. Four simultaneous 
movements were to be eflFected ; one from Detroit, in 
Michigan; one from Sandusky, in Ohio; one from 
Watertown, in New York, upon Kingston; and the 
other from Plattsburgh and Vermont, upon Lower 


That from Detroit was commanded by the traitor^ 
soi'disant Adjutant-general M'Leod^ and took pos« 
session of a small island in the Detroit Riyer^ on the 
Canada side^ but was soon dislodged by the British 
cannon^ on the 24th of February, 1838, and escaping 
to the United States, were disarmed and dispersed 
there by the authorities, under General Brady ; General 
Scott having arrived at Monroe to effect this on the 
same day. 

Of the Sandusky expedition, under Sutherland, we 
shall speak more at large when describing the action 
at Point Pelee Island. But the 3rd and 4th were 
more serious ; and of the third we shall speak last. 

The fourth expedition was headed by Drs. Nelson and 
Cote, and actually penetrated into Lower Canada, from 
a small island and other places near Alburgh on the 
Vermont frontier, crossing from Alburgh to CaldwelPs 
Manor, after encamping for the night about two miles 
within the boundary. 

Finding, however, that Sir John Colbome had 
directed a strong Regular and Militia force against 
them, and that General Wool, of the United States' army, 
had also proceeded to intercept them, they dispersed, 
after surrendering to that officer six hundred men, on 
the 1st of March, at one mile north of the Alburgh 
Springs in Vermont, with all their cannon, small arms, 
powder and ball, — General Wool having previously 
captured one field-piece and nine sleigh-loads of gun 
and musket ammunition. At this time the British 
troops, consisting of the Royals, under Major Warde, 
the 43rd, under Colonel Booth, and Militia, with the 


Mississiquoi Volunteers,* had arrived within six or 
eight miles of the camp of the invaders. 

Gteneral Wool detained Nelson and Cot^, to deliver 
them over to the civil authorities ; and thus ended three 
of the simultaneous invasions of Canada. 

The fourth was equally disastrous to the Republican 
Patriots, and was directed against Kingston, and com- 
manded by Van Rensselaer and Mackenzie. 

I have already described the intentions of these 
heroes and their plan of attack. They had the fool- 
hardiness, however, to make the move, but differently 
from their original intention. 

I was endeavouring on the night of the 21st of 
February, 1838, to take a Uttle rest upon an iron 
barrack bed, in the Tete de Pont, when a Militia 
officer from Belleville roused me in the middle-watch, 
by saying that he had ridden posthaste to announce that 
the rebels had commenced their march on Kingston, 
and that he had left the MiUtia in arms, in Belleville, 
and the tocsin still ringing. I had, however, better 
information than that given by this ardent young man, 
and therefore very much disgusted him by telling him 
that it was very Ukely, and requesting him to let me 
get a little rest. 

The Prince Edward Militia were actually then, 
which he did not know, on their march in rear of this 
very movement, and so paralyzed the rebels that but 
few prisoners were taken near Napanee, as the body of 
insurgents dispersed and hid their arms and ammuni- 

* A highly-flattering letter was written to Colonel Jones, of the 
Frontier Militia, by Major Warde of the Royals, who gives the 
Militia and Volunteers high praise on this occasion. 


tion in the wood. Some of the latter was discovered ; 
and they intended to kill us by wholesale^ for^ not 
contented with mere cartridges with a ball and powder^ 
each cartridge had a ball with three deer or buck-shot 
over it, so that the wound made would be vCTy 

Amongst the prisoners taken was an American 
armourer^ or manufacturer of rifles, who had earned 
on a snug trade at Belleville, and this aspiring gen- 
tleman had a complete kit, compass for the woodsy 
bowie-knife for close action, rifle, &c. &c. 

I reserved a sharp steel axe from the military stores 
captured, because it was so well-tempered that it was 
evidently intended to hew the way through our picket- 
ting and barricades. The rest of the ^ttraordinary 
missiles and arms are, I dare say, to this day in the 
Ordnance store at Kingston, and were of the most 
destructive kind. 

' It was melancholy to find amongst these prisoners 
not (mly American citizens, but subjects of the Crown, 
whose fathers had always been loyal and who owed 
everything they possessed to the Government. But 
Bidwell and Perry had been the oracles of these poor 
deluded people, and they had been fully persuaded 
that a country wherein they Uved on the fat of the land, 
flowing with milk and honey, Uterally without tax- 
ation and enshrined in peace, was very hardly dealt 
with, because it could not have heavy local taxes, 
continued poUtical excitement, eternal elections for 
the most trivial even of public employments, and the 
name, without the essentials, of equality and freedom. 
It was vain to argue* with these men; each little district 


had had its repubhcan oracle^ generally an American^ 
or of American descent ; and although the Government 
and every British oflScer dealt kindly and leniently by 
them^ they left the State-prisons of Kingston as 
thorough Radicals as when they entered th^n^ but^ I 
am happy to say, have since seen their folly, and freely 
confess it, with few exceptions. Such is the perversity 
of human nature, — ^for of all the districts of Upper 
Canada, that from which they came is the best, the 
most fertile, and scarcely knows the existence of 

The internal advance having been thus easily quashed, 
it was not much more difficult to settle the others. 
The town of Kingston, before the 22nd of February, — 
the day appointed for the attack, — was filled with 
strangers; and such was the excitement caused, that 
everybody remained awake that night. I was snatch- 
ing a slight refreshment at dinner, just as the dark of 
evening set in, when a sergeant of the Marine Artillery 
rushed in, and in haste informed me that the Eastern 
attack had commenced, and that the rebels were in 
sight. My house, being separated from the town, was 
guarded by a party of sailors; and, after confiding 
everything dear to me to their charge, and desiring 
them, in the event of the worst, to retire through the 
garden to the block-house near us, I put on my sword 
and ran down to the Artillery Barracks, between my 
house and the town, giving directions to a picket of 
Marine Artillery by the way, and then hastily visited 
the Commandant, who directed me to shut the Artillery 
gates, and desire his httle guard of a dozen men to 
defend them until the Mihtia could reinforce it. 


On my way through the town^ all was alarm and 
anxiety ; and^ after reaching the T^te de Pont Barrack^ 
and calling out the excellent First Frontenac Regiment^ 
we prepared for the worst. The alarm was, however, 
pi*emature, and I had time to issue the necessary orders ; 
to strengthen the cavalry pickets ; to send out parties ; 
to place all the steam-boats at the wharfs in security ; 
and to march to the threatened points. Never was 
such a night known in Kingston. Not a soul slept ; 
iSre and sword were momentarily looked for. 

We had received, thorough the Magistrates and secret 
sources, accurate intelligence of the foe. Within and 
without, every avenue was guarded; and the Com- 
mandant, the excellent and lamented Lieutenant-colonel 
Cubitt, of the Royal Artillery, suffering under a dis- 
tressing internal complaint, which soon afterwards 
destroyed him, shut himself with the picked men of the 
Mihtia in Fort Henry, and took such means, even if 
we were defeated, as to ensure that vital point. 

To paralyze the sympathizers in the inns and lodg- 
ing-houses, who, I feared, would set fire to the town, 
and distract our attention, I took a strong guard of 
Mihtia, visited every suspected house before midnight, 
and, upon pain of death, forbade the inmates to leave 
their abodes. In one house alone, I knew there were 
from forty to fifty Americans, well armed. Constant 
alarms prevailed throughout the night, which was one 
of the most severely and intensely cold of the whole 
winter (27 degrees below zero) ; but, from the precau- 
tions adopted, and our well-disciphned force, the bri- 
gands were afraid to venture farther than Hickory 
Island, where they ensconced themselves; whilst, on 


Grindstone Island^ and at French Creek, they were 
strongly supported. 

We had dispatched the Belleville Riflemen (a corps 
of young gentlemen), and a strong force of Indian 
warriors, to reinforce Gananoque, under Major Fitz- 
gerald, Town-major of Kingston, an old and expe- 
rienced officer; and such were his efficient measures, 
that on the first token of advance towards Hickory 
Island, the Patriots fled, leaving behind them some 
stores and ammunition. Van Rensselaer, Bill John- 
son, and Mr. Wells, a Member of the Upper Canada 
ParUament, narrowly escaped. The arms were rifles, 
muskets, and fowling-pieces, and the cannon were to be 
served with a murderous selection of broken pieces of 
iron, double-headed shot, &c. ; many of which imple- 
ments came into my possession. 

An occurrence or two happened that night which 
will serve to show the zeal of the MiUtia. I had 
ordered that no person whatever was to pass the out- 
posts for several miles round without a passport, the 
parole, and countersign. The mail with four horses, 
from Montreal, dashed on to the bridge at Kingston 
Mills, over the Rideau Canal, and was ordered to halt 
by a MiUtia sentinel. The driver paid no heed to the 
repeated order. The sentry plunged his bayonet into 
the breast of one of the leaders, and soon brought the 
covered sleigh, which contained several people, to a 
stand-still. Complaint was made to the Deputy Post- 
master-general ; but the man was promoted, and the 
Government would afibrd no redress. 

An alarm occurred during the night, which rendered 
it necessary for me to order the men who had remained 


clothed and armed in their barracks upon parade. I 
ordered them, by lantern-light, to load, and made a 
short speech, telling them the time was come. One 
man in the front rank, as I was speaking, discharged 
his musket in my face, and was immediately taken to 
the guard-room by his indignant comrades. After 
everything was settled, I went to him, and having 
asked him what were his motives, — " By jakers ! *' says 
the honest Hibernian, " Colonel, I was full of fight, 
and could not help it/^ And so it was ; for I knew 
him well, and am certain that nothing but his over- 
flowing honest enthusiasm caused the accident. 

Amongst the prisoners taken at Hickory Island was 
my friend, whom I had captured on his mission fit>m 
Mackenzie at the farm in Pittsburgh, and who had 
been threatened with the gibbet if he returned. When 
he was marched across the ice to the State-prison, I 
observed him falter; and having directed the prisoners 
to halt until I could get rid of an overcurious crowd, 
he and the others prepared themselves for being shot 
by the escort. He told me afterwards, that so fiiUy 
was he persuaded that I was about to settle accounts 
with them, that they never were more happy than when 
the order to march on again was given. Such was the 
American sympathizer's notion of a British officer's 
justice. What should we have had to encounter if 
such men had gained the day? Witness the shades 
of poor Weir, Chartrand, Johnston, Hume, Ussher, and 
those worthy officers and private soldiers, sailors, and 
militiamen, who fell either in battle with the brigands, 
or died under the hands of the secret assassin. Cruel 
death in cold blood was often aggravated, 


" Upon whose dead corpse there was such misuse, 
Such he^stly, shameless transformation 
By those " Patriots " done, as may not be, 
Without much shame, re-told or spoken o£" 

It may be asked with respect to the projected attack 
upon so strong a place as Kingston^ what the means of 
the Patriots were. Persons who could be depended 
upon informed me that the whole frontier opposite^ for 
many miles, exhibited a nightly scene of assemblages 
of men in arms, and we knew that the United States^ 
Arsenal at Watertown had been broken open on the 
night of the 19th of February, and from six to eight 
hundred stand of arms taken from it, whilst five pieces 
of field-artillery were at French Creek. These arms 
were first deposited on Saint John^s Island, a few miles 
below Kingston, and I sent a party of Riflemen under 
Captain Saunders to search for them ; but after using 
eveiy exertion, they could not be found, and I believe 
the mistake arose from an error in the name of place 
of deposit. 

The introduction of arms and ammunition into 
Canada for the use of the rebels was so well devised and 
executed, that but little of either was ever discovered. 
I obtained, after the dispersion of the rebels on the 
Napanee-road, near Shannon Ville, a sleigh4oad of 
ball-cartridge for rifles and muskets, with bullet-moulds 
and bullets, a keg of fine powder, three boxes of per- 
cussion-caps and greased pellets, one United States 
army musket, and various other warUke stores. There 
was brought in, hid in the woods, an immense number 
of cartridge havresacks made of cotton, filled with 
rifle and buck-shot cartridges to a very great extent. 


They were discovered by a boy. The powder was 
introduced in kegs resembling oyster-kegs, and real 
oyster-kegs were placed so as to deceive the searchers ; 
but in such an open frontier it was impossible to be 

It is time, however, to turn to the Militia and their 
conduct again ; and I am persuaded that but for their 
loyalty and perseverance, we should have had difficult 
work cut out for us. Sir John Colbome, Governor- 
general and Commander-in-chief, was pleased to evince 
his confidence in the bravery and loyalty of the Kings- 
tonians and the adjacent districts, by directing the< 
march of the regular troops upon Toronto, Niagara, 
the London and Western districts, and leaving the key 
of Upper Canada entirely in possession of the Militia, 
one company of the Royal Regiment, under Captain 
Going, having only been sent to our assistance after 
the projected attack. It arrived at Gananoque just 
after the dispersion 'of the sympathizers. 

The troops present at Gananoque of the Mihtia were 
commanded by Major Fitzgerald, Town-major of Kings- 
ton, and consisted at first of not more than 150 men, 
and were composed of a company of Perth Volunteers, 
under Captain Eraser, and one of Leeds, under Captain 
Webster. But assistance having been loudly called for 
on the advance of the Patriots fix)m French Creek, a 
number of Volunteera from Langdowne, under Mr. 
George M'Kelvy, with Colonel Hartwell, of the 6th 
Leeds regiment, and Major Arnold, of the 5th Leeds, 
soon arrived, and from Kingston we sent the Belleville 
Rifles, under Captain Mumey, One company of the 
Frontenac, Captain Cowan ; Lieutenant Jackson, with 

■■iV >*^HV" 


a party of Indian warriors, and some Cavalry, under 
Lieutenant Raynes; and a six-pounder of the Perth 
Artillery, Lieutenant Robinson ; whilst from Brockville 
a company of the Queen^s Own Rifles, under Captain 
Kidd, and Captains Chambers, Gilbert, Stewart, Earl, 
Armstrong, Robinson, and Neil, of the 6th Leeds, with 
as many men of their respective companies as could 
be hastily collected, poured in. Captain Charles 
M*Ewan, from Charleston, with P. Anderson, Esq., 
and ten fine young lads, also arrived after a tedious 
march; and in the evening of the 22nd, Lieutenant 
J. Ehnsley, of the Royal Navy, who had so much dis- 
tinguished himself at Navy Island, came in with a 
party of sailors fix)m Brockville, 

Lieutenant Elmsley went immediately in advance, 
and took post opposite the Patriots on Howe Island; 
and Lieutenant Raynes, of the Frontenac Dragoons, 
with Mr. William S. McDonald, of Gananoque, and a 
small party of cavalry, soon followed the gallant naval- 
oflScer towards Hickory Island, which, at about four in 
the morning, was found nearly evacuated ; but several 
prisoners were taken, as well as persons coming from 
the American shdte to join the pirates. Mr. Charles 
Hepp, a Volunteer, and Mr. Gilmor, distinguished 
themselves by capturing two of these people in 

The Royals under Captain Going, on their march to 
Kingston, arrived during the day, as well as 0. R. 
Gowan, Esq., M.P.P., and a number of Volunteers 
from Brockville. 

Many intelligent people were afterwards examined ; 
and it is but justice to add, that at French Creek there 



were respectable men who wholly disapproved the 
measures of Mackenzie. 

On the 22nd^ the day of the projected attack on 
Kingston, there were no fewer than 3,000 sympathizers 
in arms at French Creek, and it was well ascertained 
that there were muskets and rifles for this number, as 
well as six pieces of artillery, and plenty of ammuni- 
tion and provisions, whilst every person was arrested 
who was suspected of going over to Canada to give 

The move on Hickory Island was made in order 
to ^ate and sign the officers^ commissions £rom the 
Canadian territory, and the number of claimants was 
ludicrous. One British prisoner was escorted there by 
a colonel, two captains, and a heutenant. When they 
arrived on this islet, their numbers were about 500, 
the rest remaining in reserve on Grindstone Island or 
the American shore, with which a constant commu- 
nication was kept up, as well as with the Canadian 
side ; and as it was soon known that Kingston was well 
prepared, that it could even spare guns and men to 
defend Gananoque; that the Mihtiawere pouring into 
that village, and that the Regulars were on their march 
from Montreal, their courage cooled, and they de- 
serted by scores. When the muster-roll was called for an 
advance on Kingston by the ice, — which march being 
contrary to his instructions. Van Rensselaer was the 
only dissentient to, — only eighty men answered, and 
of these at last only forty-one would march. The 
General swore at, kicked and cuflFed them, and there 
was a regular set-to. W. B. Wells, who resided in 
Upper Canada, not far &om this scene, and was an 


ex-member of Assembly, was a principal leader, but the 
prisoners saw him lying drunk on a bed and incapable 
of action. He had always been one of Mackenzie's 

The Patriots then thought it best to depart before 
daylight appeared, and the prisoners counted 110 men 
go off the island in their sleighs, taking three field- 
pieces and most of their stores. It appeared also that 
they expected an attack from General Scott, or Colonel 
Worth, and therefore Van Eensselaer had urged his 
men on before they were ready to proceed into Canada. 
Van Rensselaer and Bill Johnson joined Mackenzie at 
Watertown ; and thus was broke up the fourth simulta- 
neous attack upon Canada. 

I shall merely add a notice or so from the pubUc 
papers, to show the zeal and efficiency of the Mihtia at 
this epoch, after only little more than two months and 
a half of practice. 

From the Kingston Herald (Whig paper) of Febru- 
ary 27th, 1 838 : 

'^ The Marine Artillery have been exercised for several 
days in field practice with their guns. The whole 
party, formed into companies imder their respective 
Captains, were drawn out with four pieces of artillery 
as if to repel an advancing enemy, throwing out skir- 
mishing-parties in their progress, taking up a position, 
and forming and firing to cover the guns in action. 
The discharges of musketry were rapid, and the guns 
were well served, giving ample proof that they could 
do good execution on an enemy. Nearly thi'ee months 
of such training as they have had, and under such 
good command too, have made them a real defence, 


100 CANADA. 

instead of a nominftl; a truly efficient force for any 
purpose of peace or war. 

'' Yesterday afternoon the Militia force in this gar- 
rison, including the Cavalry, the Indians, the Artillery, 
and Infantry, was again reviewed by Lieutenant- 
colonel Bonnycastle, and a noble appearance they 
made. The glittering line of bayonets, three deep, 
extended the entire length of Store-street on their 
march ; and there was not emly the materiel but skill 
and power to use it. If Brother Jonathan wants a 
battle we are * ready, ay ready .^ '* 

This extract has been made for two purposes ; first, 
because the Kingston or Upper Canada Herald is 
a Whig paper, under the guidance of Wesleyan 
Methodists, and has figured and still figures in the 
ranks of reform. Second, because it does justice to 
the Mihtia, and shows that Colonial pohtics, violent as 
they are, do not always either make traitors ot patronize 
those sorry birds who defile their own nests, and will 
elucidate a good deal of what I have to say about 
Canadian politics hereafter. But in order that the 
reader shall have both sides, see what the Kingston 
Chronicle, a Conservative paper of that day, in the 
interest of the Scotch church, says : 

'^ We were on Thursday last highly gratified at the 
grand spectacle presented in the assemblage of the 
whole Mihtia force on duty in this garrison, on parade, 
on the commons in the neighbourhood of the town. 
This Mihtia force was inspected by their Com- 
mander. They made a good appearance, and seemed 
in excellent condition to receive any sudden visit from 
our sympathizing Mends on the other side of the hue. 

CANADA. 101 

^The iinifonn appearance of the men, and the 
respectable in^rovement they have made under those 
able drill-officers, Cam«x)n and Bate, was highly cre- 
ditable ; for it was indeed at once gratifying and sur- 
prising to witness the precision with which they went 
through the several field manoeuvres which they ex- 
ecuted, and the firing could not be surpassed. 

'* The brigade took up a commanding position on the 
height west of No. 3 Blockhouse, overk)oking a natural 
inclined plane, leading to the Lake shore. The move- 
ments commenced by a company of skirmishers, 
who covered the line some two hundred yards in 
front, on the declivity overlooked by the line. They 
were sufficiently retired from the brow oi the hill to 
prevent their being seen, until the supposed enemy 
should be at close quarters. The skirmishers fired, 
retiring until they ascended the hill, when they closed 
to each flank, and formed rallying squares, apparently 
a defensive attitude. Then the field-pieces opened the 
ball eflFectually. The infantry retired, followed by the 
artillery, covered again by the skirmishers. The line 
re-formed in rear. The light-infantry filed ofi" by the 
flanks, when a very rapid and incessant fire was kept 
up along the whole line fi»m both infantry and artillery; 
the cavalry in rear. The line advanced at the charge, 
artillery posted on the right and left, cavalry on the 
flanks. The infantry halted, and the cavalry made a 
dash, that even without pistol or sword in hand must 
have overwhelmed an ordinary enemy; after which 
squares, close columns, and lines were formed, much to 
the admiration of nearly alFthe inhabitants of Kingston, 
who were viewing the interesting spectacle, in which 

1 02 CANADA. 

not (me single ofScer of the line was engaged^ excepting 
the gallant and worthy inspecting officer. 

" We may mention further, that the officers of the 
Royal Artillery, of the Royals, and of the 83rd Regi- 
ments, who were observed to take great interest in the 
review, were heard repeatedly to express their admira- 
tion of the steadiness and excellent state of discipline 
of the men/' 

Perhaps these extracts may savonr of egotism or 
vanity, but I do not feel the former, and have seen too , 
much of life to have more than man's lot of the latter ; 
but I am proud of the Canadian Militia, and shall not 
easily forget that the last time I commanded them 
when reviewed by his Excellency Sir George Arthur, 
the noble 83rd Regiment, one of the finest bodies of 
young men in the service, marched with their gallant 
Ideutenant-colonel, the Honourable H. Dundas, upon 
the field, with colours flying, and preceded by their 
fine band, to take voluntarily their place upon our 
left. ^ 

The Colonel, who was Commandant of the Garrison, 
had never in the sUghtest degree interfered with my 
Militia arrangements or command, and on riding up to 
me, — ^his junior officer, then only> too, a Brevet-Major in 
the army, — ^he said, " Colonel, although the Governor 
has ordered this merely as a MiUtia review, will you 
allow the 83rd to follow your manoeuvres ? " Such a 
a compUifient sank deep into my heart and into that of 
every Militiaman present, and although a series of 
difficult manoeuvres for us were rapidly gone through, 
such was the enthusiasm inspired by this compliment, 
that every Militiaman prided himself upon his accuracy 

CANADA. 103 

and steadiness^ and not a mistake was made^ even of 
the most trivial kind. 

Farewell, gallant men, — I have given elsewhere as 
correct a list as I retain of the names of your regi- 
ments, corps, and leaders. England need not fear for 
the safety of her Canadian possessions, whilst 80,000 
equally loyal, equally ready, and equally steady 
soldiers, are the children of the Upper Canadian soil. 

Nor, are the Magistrates, those untiring men who so 
mainly saved Kingston from the horrors of midnight 
conflagrations, of secret, and of open war, to be for- 
gotten. Day after day, night after night were they 
occupied with examining the sympathizers, who hourly 
crossed; with taking effectual measures against external 
and internal foes, and in receiving information and 
evidence; in providing for State-prisoners; in arming 
and disciplining a Police and Town Guard, and in the 
thousand ways in which active and zealous Magistrates 
are called upon to work in troubled times. 

Of these gentlemen, I was most intimately employed 
with Mr. Nickalls, the Clerk of the Peace of the Mid- 
land District, with Mr. A. Pringle, J.P., and with Dr. 
Sampson, who was Mayor of Kingston,^ and who com- 
manded the Town Guard and displayed an example 
which was speedily followed by all the young gentlemen 
of the Bar, the Medical Profession, and indeed in every 
degree and class in life at Kingston. 

Many, many were the midnight consultations, the 
sudden dispatch of cavalry, the deep conclaVe over the 
lamp for the pubUc good, which these gentlemen held; 
to their imceasing care and vigilance the fact of the 
escape of the town from conflagration may solely be 

104 CANADA. 

attributed. Musket in hand^ incessant patrols were 
kept up, and no incendiary could well have carried on 
liis diabolical practice. It was often threatened, but 
never performed. The unanimity with which all the 
Magistrates, and many others I could have mentioned, 
(but they chiefly did their duties as Mihtia officers) met 
the Mihtary authorities, wiU not be forgotten by any of 
us, — and although the wear and tear was great, the 
excitement and the certainty of meeting support were 
such that I never hesitated to seek their support and 
advice, let the time or the hour be what it might. 

Colonel J. Fraser, and Colonel Mackenzie, the Ma- 
gistrates from the Bath side, must not be forgotten^ 
neither must the present Mayor of Kingston, Mr. 
Counter, nor Dr. Baker, nor Mr. Mowat; but it is 
useless to go on, lest I enumerate the whole bench of 
ninety names. 

And let me turn to the brave warriors of the Indian 
woods, — those Mohawks, who, when the United States 
was a British Colony, hved in the happy valley of the 
Mohawk River, to which the fictitious Wyoming was 
as the snows of Nova Zembla are to the Hesperides. 

They left their happy valley, because Bepubhcanism 
superseded the Government of their great father. 
They followed Captain John, their war-leader, and 
received from the King a grant of a large township 
in the Midland District of Upper Canada; in which 
they have ever since dwelt. They were members of 
the Church of England, and brought with them the 
altar-cloth and communion-plate of their beloved 
church, which they still retain in the sacred edifice 
built for their worship in the Indian woods. 

CANADA. 105 

These unsopliistieated forest-rangers, as soon as they 
heard that their enemies threatened once more the 
British dominion, harnessed their little .wagons> and 
leaving only the women and children, the feeble and 
the aged of their tribe, drove into Kingston, ninety in 
number, with the old Union Jack proudly floating over 
them, to offer their services to me. 

I was delighted, but not surprised ; Indian gratitude 
was no stranger to my feelings, and as soon as I saw 
the venerable chiefs and the young athletic warriors halt 
opposite to my house, I summoned them to council. 
The scene was an interesting one. My parlour was 
occupied by a circle of these red men squatted on 
their hams, passing the pipe of peace and fellowship, 
and in the quiet sententious manner of the Indian 
they, after the usual and indispensable ceremonies 
which filled the room with tobacco-smoke, but not 
with noise or clamour, declared one and all that they 
were ready to die for their great mother the Queen. 

We put them into barracks and supplied them daily 
with food, and apportioned their duties. No violence, 
nothing that unaccustomed Europeans might anticipate 
from the untutored savage, ever occurred ; the services 
they rendered were important, and they were amply 
repaid when all was over, by a few yards of cotton, a 
few silk handkerchiefs and ribbon of gaudy colours for 
their wives and daughters, with a good rifle or two for 
the chiefs, some tobacco and powder for the hunters 
and warriors, and a few pipes. 

They were urged to accept the usual pay of Mihtia ; 
but chief and "warrior alike rejected the proffered boon. 
" We came to fight for our mother across the Great 


106 CANADA. 

Lake : we want not to be paid. If she thinks well 
of ns^ good !^' And so they returned to their simple 
forest homes. 

But before they departed a great ceremony was 
to be done: the war drama was to be ^completed by 
making their friend a chief of that Mohawk nation 
which had never known disloyalty. I selected the 
Court-house as the scene^ and a curious scene it was — 
one of the shifting scenes of the great drama of life. 
The ladies and gentlemen of that rising city^ lately 
the capital of Canada^ assembled ; and after many acts 
had been played commemorative of the events which 
the nation had shared in^ I was led forth in full regi- 
mentals by the Indian master of the ceremonies^ and 
with the utmost gravity had to dance the war-dance of 
the tribe^ to smoke the calumet of peace and fellowship, 
and to declare my wilUngness to become a chief; then 
to go round the circle of grim warriors squatted on the 
ground, and to shake hands with every individual, to 
take a whiff of the pipe with each, to distribute a few 
ghttering presents, and to be saluted as Anadesc, ^^the 
chief who summons the town.^^ 

This chapter shall be concluded, I am determined, 
by a poetic effusion,* which, as it is the work of Lieut. 

• " Cold blew the blast, and hard froze the night 

Of the threatened attack, we all may remember ; 
But the sons of Old England stood firm in their might. 
For bent was each breast to make no surrender. 

Our gallant conunander * the mischief foreboded, 
In our fortress that night was determin'd to stand ; 

The slow-match was burning, the guns were all loaded 
With grape-shot and canister by his command. 

• Lieutenant^colonel Cubitt, Royal Artillery. 

CANADA, 107 

Hogg, of the Perth Artillery, formerly a sergeant in 
the Royal Artillery, now a barrack-master in Canada, 
and a near relative of the Ettrick Shepherd, shows that 

Our bold Commandant,* both fearless and daring, 

A son of the brave old * Ninety-and-t^va,' 
His eye like the eagle's, his soldier-like bearing, 

Bespoke him the veteran of time that's awa. 

The banner of Albion was then proudly waving 
O'er her sons who all rallied in gallant array, 

Fort Henry's proof- ramparts her bull-dogs displaying. 
Well mann'd with stout hearts from Perth-upon-Tay.f 

The brave Second Lennox, forsaking their farms, 
Came down under Fraser, — a blade firm and true ; 

His orders that night were to rest on their arms. 
Which show'd a bright spark of the true British blue. 

McGregor and Beach, they each 'had their stations, 

Determined to stand or to fall in tlie fray; 
The Frontenac thus to be led by their chieftains. 

Bob Boy was the watchword, and Britain the sway I 

The last, though not least, the Marines % of Britannia, 
Whose bomb- ships in battle have never been slow ; 

Their thundering metal has given many a 
Lesson to the proud spirit of Albion's foe. 

And now that the Rebels have all been defeated, 
And each gallant heart to his home may repair, 

We will never forget how well we've been treated, — 
With hospitality, kindness, and fostering care. 

Bonnycastle, thy name shall be dear to us ever, 
'Till life's warm streams shall cease here to flow. 

May Providence grant thee a long life, and never 
May the clouds of adversity over thee blow. 

* Major Logie, formerly of the 92nd. 

t The Perth Artillery. 

X The Queen's Marine Artillery (Canadian LiJ^e Seamen) officered 
chiefly by officers of the Royal Navy, a most efficient, formidable, 
and exceUent body of men. 

108 CANADA. 

the old thistle still points her spines at the foes of 
Britain when transplanted into another soil^ if it shows 
nothing else. It was snng, extempore, by him at a 
pubhc dinner at Kingston, at which Mr. Vail, of the 
United States, was present, who had been sent to the 
Gk)yemment in an official character. 

The conduct of that excellent and venerated Roman 
Cathohc Bishop of Kingston (Regiopolis), McDonell, 
then in very advanced age, and very infirm, should 
not be forgotten. He inculcated daily amongst his 
flock that devoted loyalty which had marked his whole 
life ; and well that flock responded to his call. But his 
life was in danger from pursuing so manly and upright 
a course; and the sympathizers having threatened to 
bum his house, and to pursue him with their utmost 
vengeance, the 1st Frontenac Regiment took him 
into their barracks, and vigilantly guarded his person 
whilst that danger lasted. And to show how much 
he was esteemed by persons in every rank of life in 
Upper Canada, and of every creed, the last act of his 
ministry, before he went to Scotland to die, was to lay 
the foundation-stone of a Roman Catholic Missionary 
College in the park of Selma, his personal estate at 
Kingston, in the autumn of 1839. I witnessed this 
interesting scene; the venerable man was supported 
by two Protestants,— one the heir to an Earldom, the 
other a Lieutenant-colonel in the Army; and Dr. 
Rolph, the Emigrant Agent, pronounced an oration 

Now my brethren in arms, you've all done your duty, 
True and firm to your faith in our young Virgin Queen, 

The bright gem of Britain will smile in her beauty. 
When she thinks of this country, ^1 loved, tho' unseen. ** 

CANADA. 1 09 

upon this the evident closing lahotir of a life devoted 
to Upper Canada and its interests. 

I mention this^ both out of respect to the Bishop^s 
memory^ and to show that^ unlike the state of another 
colony, Newfoundland, the creeds are not in such 
violent collision in Upper Canada, — that the peace of 
the colony and the well-being of society have never been 
endangered by the professors of either belief being 
politically hostile, — and I trust that a better state of 
things is now rapidly occurring in the last-named 

This poetry, the effusion of an honest and well-mean- 
ing heart, is one of the many instances of kindly 
feeling that I have experienced from those who, al- 
though exposed to every privation, very many being 
the sons of wealthy landholders or the landholders 
themselves, merchants, and gentlemen, never gave me 
the slightest trouble, and, what is more, never gave 
me reason to hold a Court-martial. Such were the 
MiUtia of the Midland, Hastings, Johnstown, and 
Eastern Districts of Upper Canada ; and after several 
months of active duty, I took my leave of them in more 
serious mood than the winding-up of another song 
by a Canadian officer, which ended thus* : 

** Now to wind up my ditty, too long, 

Let's hurrah for the Province and Queen, sir. 
And whenever the * Patriots * next come, 
May we he with our Colonel again, sir. 

Right fol de rol, &c."« 

* Prom an extempore song at a puhlic dinner, by Lieutenant Hill, 
a highly-respected barrister of Kingston. 

110 CANADA. 


The subsequent Invasions and disturbances in both Provinces, 

in 1838 and 1839. 

Parliament, which had been smnmoned at an 
earlier period than usual to meet the exigences of 
Canada, decreed the abolition of the Lower Canadian 
Legislature, and substituted the rule of a Grovemor 
and Council ; and Her Majesty entrusted this import- 
ant Government to His Excellency Lieutenant-general 
Sir John Colbome (Lord Seaton), until a civil officer 
should be appointed to succeed Lord Gosford. Troops 
were despatched in all haste from home, and the 
neighbouring provinces spared all they could send. 
Military vigour was now at once apparent, and barracks 
and fortifications began to rise at every point which 
required observation and control, Martial law having 
been declared in the rebeUious districts in Lower 

But one of those expeditions to which we have 
alluded, for a simultaneous plan of attack on Canada 
with that on Kingston, having been by some unfore* 
seen circumstances delayed, was undertaken towards 
the latter end of February, but not before the Kegular 


troops had reached the Western District. The "Pa- 
triot^^ force from Sandusky Bay and the neighbourhood 
of Detroit, moving across the ice, took possession of 
Fighting Island and Point Pele Island; the former a 
small strip of land in the Detroit River, the latter 
opposite Point Pele in Lake Erie, above and below Fort 
Maiden, or Amherstburgh, the true object of attack. 
The leaders of this daring exploit were Sutherland, 
a person named Mackenzie, and, as some averred. Dr. 
Duncombe, who had fled from London, and had stolen 
the arms sent from Dearborn for the American Militia 
at Detroit, which had been left aU night without a 
guard at a railway station. 

The Canadian Militia, hearing that these despera- 
does were assembling at various points, and that they 
boasted of being able to raise 1,500 or 2,000 ^^ Pa- 
triots,'^ assembled for the third time for the defence 
of their frontier, which was also now guarded by six 
companies of Regulars, seven pieces of artillery, and 
about 600 Militia, at Sandwich, Windsor, and Moy, 
all points of the coast much exposed. The first descent 
was made en Fighting Island, nearly at the same time 
as that on Hickory Island ; and it was taken possession 
of probably with the same view of dating the proclama- 
tions and officers' commissions from British territory. 

On the night of the 24th of February, Major Towns- 
end, of the 24th, who had the local rank of Colonel, 
reconnoitred the position from Petit Cote with the St. 
Thomas Volunteer Cavalry, and examined the ice. He 
found that Colonel Elliot, of the Militia, who com- 
manded at Sandwich, had returned from a similar 
demonstration with the Militia and Volunteers to pre- 

112 CANADA. 

pare for an attack upon that place^ and then he deter- 
mined to recall that officer^ and to attack the brigands 
at once with his men and with Captain Browne^s com- 
pany of the 32nd, Lieutenant Kelsall^s of the 83rd, 
and Captain Glasgow^s nine-pounder and detachment 
of Royal Artillery, which joined him at half-past six 
on the morning of the 25th j and at seven. Colonels 
EUiott and Askin, with about 350 Volunteers and 
Militia, arrived. 

Captain Glasgow immediately opened a fire on the 
brigands, who were observed in great numbers on the 
ice and on the island, with great efiect ; the precision 
with which the gun was served forming a subject of 
laudatory notice in the official dispatch. The ice was 
80 uncertain, that it was supposed impracticable to 
advance; but a place was found below the island at 
which Major Townsend, by marching in single files, 
achieved a landing. 

Captain Brown kept on the outskirts of the island, 
facing the American shore, to intercept the retreat of 
the pirates; and Lieutenant Kelsall, with the 83rd, 
moved on in extended order, flanked and supported by 
the Militia, through the low woods. The Patriots, how- 
ever, contrived to decamp, and forming on the American 
shore, bravely fired by platoons upon their conquerors, 
who could not follow them without ^^ violating^^ the 
ice and soil of the United States. They left behind 
one field-piece, muskets, rifles, pistols, swords, powder, 
shot, and provisions of every kind. The muskets were 
perfectly new, and belonged to the Ordnance stores 
of the United States army. 

Major Townsend gave just praise to Colonels Elliott 

CANADA. 113 

and Askin^ of the 2nd Essex Militia ; to Captain Erma- 
tinger, of the St. Thomas Volunteer Cavalry; and to 
Lieutenant-colonel Prince, who, though not in com- 
mand, was conspicuous as a Volunteer. He also men- 
tioned with great praise Captain Glasgow, of the Royal 
Artillery, and the alacrity and zeal evinced by the 
Mihtia and Volunteers, and stated, that such was the 
steadiness and order evinced by them, that he only 
regretted that the enemy did not give them an oppor- 
tunity of disproving to the American nation and the 
rebels that the libel so actively disseminated was utterly 
false, that ^^ the Mihtia of the Upper Province would 
not fight against them/' "as I can safely say,'' ob- 
served that gallant officer, "I never witnessed more 
alacrity and zeal displayed than was shown by that 
body, or greater anxiety to encounter their foul 

Two- melancholy events happened about this 
period in the deaths of two young men, Mr. Askin, at 
Amherstburgh, and Mr. Church, at Belleville, both 
Militiamen and sons of Magistrates. The former was 
a Lieutenant in Captain Angus MT)onald's company 
of Coloured Volunteers, who, returning at a late hour 
at night from a tour of duty, was stopped by a coloured 
sentry, who demanded the countersign; upon which, 
the unfortunate gentleman delaying to answer, and 
offering some resistance, the sentinel, not knowing him, 
shot him dead in the execution of his duty. Mr. 
Church was killed by the bayonet of a brother soldier, 
whilst turning out of a house to obey a sudden call to 
arms in the night, — a pure accident. Such was the 
ardour and zeal of every Mihtiaman, white, black, 

114 CANADA. 

coloured, Protestant, Catholic, Presbyterian, Dissenter; 
Upper Canadian, English, Irish, Scotch, Western 
French, — all kinds, all religions, all sorts; the rich 
man, the poor man, the judge, the councillor, the 
negro, irhDse feet, placed on British soil, had emanci- 
pated him, — ^to fling back from their beloved country 
the stupid and brutal invader. 

The force gathered at Sandusky Bay, at the same 
period, took possession of Point Fele Island, in Lake 
Erie, a large and fertile island near the Canadian shore, 
where the brigands committed all sorts of atrocities 
upon the property of the honest farmers, and stole the 
reflectors of the Lighthouse, plundering and robbing 
wherever they went. 

I cannot better describe the result of this expedition 
than by giving the Honourable Colonel J. Maitland's 
dispatch at length, in which there appears to be an 
oversight, in the want of mentioning two officers who 
were present at the heads of their respective depart- 
ments; and who, as this was the first severe action 
with the brigands in Upper Canada, were actively and 
zealously employed,— Captain Glasgow, of the Royal 
Artillery, and Captain Baddely, of the Royal Engineers. 
The result to the brigands was fatal ; but her Majesty's 
troops, owing to the woody nature of the country, suf- 
fered more, than in any action during the rebelUon; 
whilst the Militia covered themselves with honour, and 
ably supported the Regulars.* 

* Jmherstburgh, U.C, 4M March, 1838. 
Sir, — When I wrote to you on Sunday last, announcing the defeat 
of the pirates at Fightihg Island, I did not think I should have to 
report to you another instance of a British Island being taken posses- 
sion of in this quarter. 

CANADA. 115 

Inunediately after this events Sir Francis Head^ on 
the 6th of March^ 'prorogued the Upper Canada Par- 

Early in the week, I received information from different quarters 
that Point Pel§ Island had been taken possession of by the pirates 
from Sandusky Bay. This island is of considerable magnitude, being 
from seven to nine miles in length, and from four to five in breadth ; 
it is situated in Lake £rie, about forty miles from Amherstburgh, and 
twenty miles from the shore. I sent three or four local officers to 
ascertain the fact of their being there ; they went close to the shore, 
and were fired upon ; this, together with the circumstance of several 
people who had gone over to the island to look after their property, 
and who were detained by the pirates, confirmed me that the report 
was true. I therefore, on Thursday afternoon, despatched Captain 
Glasgow, of the Royal Artillery, to inspect the strength of the ice, 
and report his opinion to me, as to the practicability of moving guns 
and troops to that place. He returned the following day, at twelve 
o'clock, and reported that the ice was practicable, and strong enough 
to pass. . I therefore determined, without loss of time, to attack them 
by daybreak the following morning; accordingly, with two guns 
(6-pounders), the four companies of the 32nd Kegiment, one company 
of the 83rd Regiment, a small detachment of thirty belonging to a 
Sandwich troop of Cavalry, and St Thomas troop of Cavalry, one 
company of the Essex Volunteer Militia, and a small party of Indians, 
moved that evening under my own immediate command, eighteen 
miles along the lake shore ; where I halted for some time, to rest the 
horses, and at two o'clock in the morning conmienced my march on 
the lake ice, arriving at the island just at break of day. 

I had previously arranged my plan of attack, which was as follows: 
I directed Captain Brown, with the first and second companies of the 
32nd Regiment to proceed round to the south-end of the island, and 
take up a position on the ice to intercept any attempting at escape by 
that direction ; he was accompanied by a detachment of about twenty- 
five men of the Sandwich and St Tliomas Cavalry ; having made this 
arrangement, I landed myself with the remainder of the force and the 
two guns at the north-end ; the rebels fled at my approach, and 
escaped into the woods. I was here informed by some of the loyalists, 
who had been made prisoners by the pirates on the island, that they 
were in force to the amount of about five hundred ; the troops moved 
on in extended order, and pursued them through the island, but as 
the wood was thick, and the snow extremely deep and heavy, the men 
were much retarded in their progress. 

The rebels finding themselves henuned in on every side, moved out 

116 CANADA. 

liamiBnt^ which had been in session for a short period of 
unexampled activity, and, in a luminous speech, bade 

at the south-end of the island, the only place hy which they could 
escape to the American shore, and advanced in line upwards of three 
hundred men, well armed and organised, upon Captain Brown's 
detachment, where they met with the greatest resistance ; a hrisk fire 
being kept up on both sides for some time, and several of Captain 
Brown's detachment having fallen, he determined to charge them, 
which he did, and forced them back (to the wood where they retreated 
in great confusion) at the point of the bayonet. I particularly beg to 
recommend this circumstance to the notice of His Excellency the 
Lieutenant- General Commanding. 

On the road, inside of the wood, the rebels had a number of sleighs, 
by which means they succeeded in carr}'ing away about forty of their 
woiuded men, the others succeeded in escaping at tbe southernmost 
point of the island, and got over to the American coast, leaving killed 
on the spot their Commanding-officer — a Colonel Bradley ; a Major 
Howdley, and Captains Van Kensselaer and M'Keon, and several 
others ; some prisoners were taken, several of whom were severely 

I regret to say that the taking of this island has not been gained 
without considerable loss on our part, and I have to request that you 
will report for his Excellency's information, that thirty soldiers of the 
S2nd Regiment fell in this affair, two of whom were killed, the others 
wounded, some dangerously, some severely. I sincerely regret the 
loss of so many brave soldiers, and feel it the more when I reflect they 
did not fall before an honourable enemy, but under the fire of a des- 
perate gang of murderers and marauders. A list of the killed and 
wounded I have the honour herewith to enclose. Having scoured the 
woods, and satisfied myself that the island was cleared, I re-formed 
the troops, and about five o'clock in the evening proceeded back ; and 
the soldiers returned to their quarters at Amherstburgh that night. 

When you take a view of the circumstances of this affair, I need 
hardly detail to you the arduous duties the soldiers have had to per- 
form, from the time they left until their return — travelling as they 
did forty miles in an excessively cold night, twenty of which were 
across the lake, accomplishing the object I had in view, namely, the 
liberating the loyal people detained on the island, gaining possession 
of the place, restoring it to the proprietors, defeating, with consider- 
able loss, the enemy, and returning again to their barracks within 
forty hours. 

My warmest thanks are due to the whole of the officers, who sup- 

CANADA. 117 

farewell, whilst awaiting the arrival of his successor, 
Colonel Sir George Arthur, to return to England. Sir 

ported me in this undertaking ; and it is impossible for me in words to 
do justice to the gallant soldiers of Her Majesty's Royal Artillery, 
32nd Regiment, 83rd Regiment, and the Loyal Volunteers of Cavalry, 
Infantry, and the few Indians, who constituted the force under my 
Gonmiand. I have to regret that Mr. Thomas Parish, a private in the 
St. Thomas Troop of Volunteer Cavalry, was killed in rear of the 
32nd Regiment by a musket shot. 

Colonel Prince, of Sandwich, Mr. Sheriff Lachlan, Captain Girty, 
and several other gentlemen, asked permission to accompany me, 
which they did, and gallantly acted with their rifles with our soldiers 
against the rebels in the wood ; I found them very useful from their 
knowledge of the locality of the place. 

I trust this second repulse on this frontier, of the American ban- 
ditti (let it be understood that I have it from satisfactory authority 
that the whole of this gang driven from Pelfi Island, are American 
citizens), will be a lesson to them that they are not with impunity to 
hold British territory. 

A large tri- coloured flag, with two stars and the word " Liberty !*• 
worked upon it, and eleven prisoners, were also taken, some of whom 
state they were formerly on Navy Island ; about forty stand of American 
muskets, some ammunition, swords, &c., were also taken. 

I am informed by the prisoners, that it was the decided intention of 
these people to land on the Canadian shore last night, and march 
upon Amherstburgh, destroying by fixe on their way all the houses, 
&c., they had to pass, and for which six sleigh-loads of American 
citizens from Sandusky Bay had joined them the night previous to 
my attack, and made their escape back again, inmiediately on ray 
appearance in front of the Island. 

I have the honour to request that you will lay the substance of this 

letter before his Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor, and forward it 

to Montreal, for the information of his Excellency the Lieutenant- 

General Conmianding. 

J have the honour to be. Sir, 

Your most obedient, humble Servant, 


Lieutenant-Colonel Conunanding 32nd Regiment, and 

Colonel Commanding the Western Frontier. 

Amherstburgh, U.C, 5th March, 1838. 
' Dear Colonel, — I have to report to you that Sutherland, and a 

118 CANADA. 

George Arthur was sworn in on the 23rd of March, 

Militia Courts-martial upon the numerous traitors 
and brigands, taken prisoners from time to time, were 
assembled at Toronto ; and General Sutherland, dread- 
ing his fate, attempted suicide by opening veins in his 

young man of the name of Spencer, whom they say is his Aide-de- 
Camp, were captured yesterday by Colonel Prince, of Sandwich, about 
two miles on the ice. He brought them in here, and lodged them in 
the guard-house ; but I think it is not safe that they should remain 
here long. I shall forward them to-day, under a strong escort, to 
Toronto, in charge of Captain Rudyer, of the loyal £ssex Volunteers. 

I have had no conversation with this man, except merely to state to 
him that it was my duty to send him to Toronto. 

Captain Rudyer has been acting here as Brigade-major, since the 
calling out of the Militia force in this part of the country. I and 
Colonel Townshend have found him very useful in this situation ; he 
was with his company with me at the capture of Point-au-Pel6 Island, 
and will be able to give you any information you may require upon 
this subject. 

I was very lucky in having nearly the last of the frosty weather to 
drive these fellows off the Island, for last night and this morning the 
weather has become soft, and the ice is beginning to get rotten. 

Somehow or other, I think Sutherland must have been making his 
way to the Island when he was taken, but he pretends to know nothing 
of the action that took place. 

I have nothing new to report to you. Our wounded men are doing 
pretty well, but some of the wounds are most severe bone woimds. 
I have been obliged to send to London express, for the other Asiustant- 
surgeon of the regiment ; indeed I think if he could be spared, another 
Army Medical-officer is rejg^uired here for the moment. 

Enclosed is a deposition made before a Magistrate, by Colonel 
Prince, relative to the capture of Sutherland and Spencer, 

I am, dear Colonel, 

Yours faithfully, 

Colonel Conmianding Western District 

To Colonel Foster, 

Commanding the forces in Upper Canada, &c., &c., &c., 

CANADA. 119 

anns^ but was prevented just in time from completing 
his design. 

Sir Francis Head took the bold resolution of passing 
through the United States^ and arrived safely^ after a 
rapid journey across the country, from Kingston, at 
New York, on the 28th of March, 1838, accom- 
panied by Mr. Justice Jones. The perils of this 
journey consisted in the difficulty of crossing the ice, 
which was breaking-up at Kingston ; in the dreadful 
state of the roads at that season, and in running the 
gauntlet of myriads of sympathizers, to whom Lynch 
law was familiar, and who (in consequence particularly 
of the destruction of the Caroline) thirsted for his 

Sir Francis, it is well known, is capable of enduring 
great fatigue, and is an excellent horseman ; to these 
quahties he probably owes his life on this occasion, for 
he was recognized by a fellow of the name of Scanlan, 
who had fled from justice at Kingston some time before 
the Rebellion, and who, it is said, petitioned him to 
intercede for his restoration to that place. 

To show what a curious opinion the Americans 
formed of him, I extract the follow morceau from the 
Water town Jeffersonian, of the 29th of March, 1838 : 

Sir Francis Bond Head, late Lieutenant-Governor of Upper 
Canada, passed through this village on Monday morning last, on his 
way to England. Sir Francis was accompanied hy Judge Jones, and 
was introduced to several of our citizens. He appears to be a very 
mild but active man, unfitted by inclination, as we should tliink, for 
revolutionary times. He has proved true to the aristocracy of England, 
and on all fitting occasions has expressed his disapprobation of repub- 
lican institutions. Governor Head intended to have passed through 
this section of the State incog., but was recognised by some resident 
exiles. To carry out the deception he at first seated himself on a 

120 CANADA. 

wheelbarrow in the street ; but when recognised, he at once was open, 
firee, and unreseryed with our citizens. 

Some of *' our citizens,^^ however, took the liberty 
to follow him en route, but by dint of hard riding 
he distanced them through the woods and gained com- 
parative safety afterwards, in every mile he receded 
from the sympathizing borderers, and was very weU 
received at New York.* 

Great precautions were taken on the night of his 
arrival at Kingston, as he was to depart at daylight, 
and a cordon of the Marine Artillery was drawn across 
the ice by me, and all communication with the Ame- 
rican frontier completely closed.f 

Fortunately the ice was bad and required a skilful 
pilot, so that the danger from the piquets and patrols 
was increased by the difficulty of a night march across 
it ; for so rapidly was it going, that a week afterwards 
the steam-boats again plied. Had the sympathizers 
been prepared for his transit, I fear the result of so 
bold an experiment would have been different, but it 
had been given out that he intended to proceed by 
Montreal. I confess I did all in my endeavour to 
dissuade him, knowing the virulence of the Frontier 
Borderers, and when I saw him, for the last time in 
Canada, step upon the ice, I watched him till he had 
crossed it, hazardously in the extreme, for without a 
light boat it would have been almost impracticable. 

• In the "Emigrant," a work I wish he had giyen any other 
name to, he has told this story himself more at large. 

f Sir Francis, in the *' Emigrant," makes a little mistake about 
this precaution, and ascribes it to a subordinate officer then under 
my command. 

CANADA. 121 

I never expected again to see him in this world. He 
passed the Rubicon, and has left at least, a deathless 
name in Canada for the manliness and openness with 
which his policy was carried out, and for the unre- 
served magnanimity with which he took upon himself 
the onus of the whole transaction of the burning of the 

Cavillers, in Canada and in England, blame Sir 
Francis Head for drawing the rebellion to so fine a 
thread that it snapped at last. But even he, as well 
as his detractors, seem to have lost sight, in his 
defence, of the facts embodied in one or two unanswer- 
able arguments. I diflfer materially with him in some 
of his last acts, as a Lieutenant-governor, but can 
vindicate him here. 

First, If Papineau had not stuTcd the French Cana- 
dians up to, and gradually for years, prepared them 
for, the outbreak in 1837 of the '' Fils de la Liberte," 
long before a man in Upper Canada dreamt of rebel- 
lion, would Bidwell (with whom Papineau corres- 
ponded), and Mackenzie, Morrison, et hoc genus 
omney in their wildest aspirations for power, have 
thought of a resort to arms. I am certain they never 
contemplated it, and that when Mackenzie did en- 
counter the awful risk, they all disapproved of it as 

So strong was the sense of loyalty to Britain in 
Upper Canada, when I left it for England, in May, 
1837, and so strong did it continue on my return in 
September, that I, who knew the country and people 
intimately for very many years, should have acted, if 
placed in Sir Francis Head's position, precisely as he did, 


122 CANADA. 

Secondly, Sir Francis Head, with whom, upon some 
shght subjects, respecting Canada, I differ, as I have 
abeady said, knew, as every well-informed person 
knew, that the farmers, the yeomen of Upper Canada, 
could not wish to pass over to the Government of the 
United States, of which their country must have 
formed a very second Texas, when taxation would 
immediately commence, and eternal bitter conflicts 
upon poUtical rights from the quaternary election 
of a President, to the yearly appointment of Post- 
masters and Town-criers, would have been their lot. 
The Upper Canadian small landholder knows his 
government only through the Newspapers; it never 
harasses him, and he has no taxes to pay but those of 
which he has the control himself, and which are merely 
to keep his roads in order. He enjoys plenty, literally 
without a master, for as long as he keeps the laws he 
has no other ruler than his own will. 

Then, again, would the presence of two regiments 
and two companies of artillery in Upper Canada (for 
since 1815 that had usually been the protective force 
for a thousand miles of frontier), would such a handful 
of men have deterred Mackenzie and his rebels ? who 
could always, if well supported by American sympa- 
thisers, have chosen his ground for annoyance and 
plunder far away from the regular troops. 

Would coercion have paralyzed a determination to 
rebel, had Rolph, Bidwell, Morrison, Lo\mt, Matthews, 
Mackenzie, and the other known Repubhcan leaders 
been incarcerated ? On the contrary, it would have 
hastened a crisis ; and Sir Francis, by simply trusting 
to the good sense of the people, nipped it in the bud. 

CANADA. 123 

and gained a greater moral victory than bayonet and 
cannon and all the terrors of the law could have 
eflfected ; whilst the American nation had a salutary and 
excellent lesson as to the chances of popular sympathy 
with respect to an amalgation into their Union, 

However desirous the people of the United States 
may have been, and still are, of extending their empire 
over the Continent of North America, it, appears to a 
calm observer, from the advanced state of knowledge 
and the actual literary era of the nineteenth century, 
that large republics and extended empires over a con- 
tinuous tract of the globe, whether in the Old or in the 
New World, are moral impossibilities as to duration. 
Already the ovei^rown dominion of the Czar trembles. 
The Empire of China is broken in upon by the outer 
barbarians, and the Cabinet of Washington, with inade- 
quate nueans and a population which cannot prevent 
the forest from asserting its ancient dominion, has quite 
enough to do to prevent internal disorder without 
risking external collision. 

The real freedom of Britain, under a guarded and 
constitutional monarchy, has hitherto withstood the wear 
and tear of ages, and instead of diminishing its fame 
and lustre, appears to advance more and more towards 
perfection, unUke the enervated and besotted luxury of 
the heathen emperors, and the feeble spirit of religious 
dogmatisni which ecUpsed their lustre. Rome sank the 
moment the empire was transferred to Constantinople, 
and the power of the Popes exhibits only a melancholy 
example of continual decUne. 

There is a national as well as a private virtue, and 
that misused word, which anciently was synonymous 


124 CANADA. 

with brute force, is now better understood. It neither 
exists in the bosom of a despot, nor in the fickle mind 
of a mob. 

The United States of America, if well is let alone, 
occupy a proud and very eminent station. They have 
recently risen from obscurity to take a commanding 
position in the political and moral world ; but it is not 
by extending their dominion to the shores of the Pacific, 
nor by embracing Canada and Mexico, that that pre- 
eminence can be sustained. Europe is still in the prime 
of life, and the moment the United States attempt 
extended conquest, whatever may be the jealousy of 
the European states towards England, Europe will be 
in arms. The Austrian dreads innovation, the Russian 
trembles lest the boors become too enlightened and 
her American territories too closely looked into. France 
remembers Louisiana and has sundry other causes of 
discontent ; whilst England is perfectly wilUng that the 
bald-headed eagle shall grasp its bundle of arrows, and 
hold a steady wing to check the growth of ambition, 
but will not calmly contemplate the brooding of that 
wing over ^ greater space than is absolutely necessary 
to cover its own nest. 

The United States, if they follow their real interest, 
will cultivate the arts of peace, and content themselves 
with being the reflection of Transatlantic Albion, ruUng 
by the just power of moderation, equanimity, and 
Christian justice. Once swerve from this straight 
course, endeavour to annex Canada, try to conquer 
Bermuda, and to cripple the British power in the 
Caribbean Seas, and the cry will then be ^^Ichabod!^^ 
and the glory will at once and for ever depart. 

CANADA. 125 

If the United States instituted a stronger form of 
Republican Government, and rendered the administra- 
tion of the laws firm and secure, her eminence would 
indeed be that of a high moimtain amidst the hills of 
the pohtical globe. Had she been capable of exerting 
a reasonable share of power, would the disgraceful 
scenes we have been describing on the Canadian fron- 
tier, and still worse which are to be described, have 
happened ? It needs no casuistry to argue the point. 
General Scott and Colonel Worth did their duty nobly, 
and to the utmost of their power ; but their power was 
that of the people, that universal people who still up- 
hold Slavery and Lynch law ; and so it must ever be, 
whilst neither talents nor wealth can be permitted a 
fair field of exertion, in consequence of a system of 
eternal ballotings and struggles for place. CromwelPs 
boasted RepubUc was of a far different aspect ; the will 
of the Protector was backed by his Ironsides, and how- 
ever disgusting this miUtary dragooning would now 
seem, it prevented every rude citizen from making his 
own reckless will the arbiter of his country^s destiny. 
Where the judge can neither pronounce his unbiassed 
judgment without fear of losing his office, and indeed 
sometimes his life, and the minister cannot carry out 
his moist sagacious and conscientious views without 
referring to the opinion of the mere populace, there 
cannot real liberty reside; but religion, government, 
morality, and law, must continually abide their share 
of chances and changes. The Republican Jewish Patri- 
archs would no more have consented to rule under 
such circumstances than Cromwell. Happy then, happy 
is Canada^ to have that transcript of a Constitution to 

1 26 CANADA. 

work upon, which, whilst it permits freedom of judg- 
ment and action in all our mundane and heavenly 
affairs, checks by a wholesome rein, the exuberance of 
the fancies aUke of the Government and of the governed, 
and under whose aegis the manacles of the slave fall 
from his toil-worn limbs. 

A wise man has said that a despotic monarchy is the 
best safeguard of the poorer classes.* They are too 
insignificant for the bowstring or the axe; but how 
much better for the poor is a hmited monarchy, where 
his labour is rewarded, and his existence of the utmost 
consequence to the welfare of the community. If^ 
after half a century of experience and deep thought 
upon the various systems which have been introduced 
since Adam tasted the fatal apple, I was to be bom again 
with free will to choose my lot, the happy valley would 
be that portion of the globe where the Monarch, the 
Peers, and the People were alike responsible to each 
other ; where the people could not run riot, and where 
the Sovereign reigned in their hearts, — a free Queen, 
ruling over a free nation, and the avenues to the throne 
were open to talent as well as to wealth and to renown. 
Such is England, that dear country, which we learn to 
reverence the more the dfarther we are from it. 

The sympathisers, having been thus completely 

• As I was writing this a person of my acquaintanee^ who thinka 
that aH Colonies should be goyemed bj stringent rule, told me that 
he once happened to quote this opinion in Canada, and that he really 
thought that a governor and council was the only thing to settle that 
country. A very intelligent man, who had been mainly instrumental 
in forming the Literary Society of Quebec, looked at him with perfect 
astonishment and asked if those were his real sentiments; "Yea I'* 
" Then, Sir, I pity your intellects," said the other. 

CANADA. 127 

foiled in their grand plan of attacking Canada simul- 
taneously, — a plan copied from that of the war of 
1814, which had met with the like fate, — all was, for 
a time, again quiet. The British Government, aware 
that upon decision hung the probabilities of a contest 
with the United States, chose a nobleman of large pro- 
perty and diplomatic talents as Canadian Viceroy, leav- 
ing Sir John Colbome Commander-in-chief, with full 
powers to crush the rebelHon, and to take effective 
measures to meet the emergency of a war. Upper 
Canada, always the seat of such a war, was familiarly 
known to Sir John, and soon wore a very different 
appearance from that which had preceded the outbreak. 

The Engineer officers were now sent to every point 
where fortifications or troops were required ; Amherst- 
burgh saw its ancient Fort Maiden rise from its ruins ; 
London became, from a hamlet, a flourishing town, 
with extensive barracks ; Fort Mississagua, at the out- 
let of the Niagara, covered that part of the frontier; 
Kingston was strengthened; additional barracks built 
at Toronto, Fort Wellington at Prescott rendered 
impregnable to sudden attack ; and, in short, a frontier 
of a thousand miles placed, in a few months, in an 
infinitely better position to receive an enemy than it 
had ever been, manned with the choicest troops of 
England, supported by 40,000 Militia, eager to vindi- 
cate the honour of their country. 

Dn the 29th of May, 1838, Lord Durham arrived at 
Quebec; and one of the first acts of his administra- 
tion was the difficult one of deciding upon a measure 
of Sir John Colbome's temporary Government, which 
that brave officer had judged fit to reserve. 

128 CANADA. 

The gaol of Montreal and the Fort of Kingston were 
full of prisoners, taken in the act of committing the 
most serious offence known to our criminal law. Dr. 
Wolfred Nelson, Mr. Bouchette, Viger, Girouard, and 
many other persons of distinction and note in society, 
were amongst those waiting their sentence in the Lower 
Province ; and there it was impossible to convene such 
a jury of their countrymen as could give, or would 
give, impartial judgment. 

Lord Durham's mission to the French Canadians was 
one of peace; for the Queen, the Ministry, and the 
whole British people c6uld not forget the noble de- 
votion which this race had shown in support of the 
Crown against the attacks of the United States in the 
last and former wars. His Lordship saw clearly, as 
every person conversant with Canadian affairs must see, 
that the people of French extraction in Canada are 
most excellent subjects for the designs of factious de- 
magogues to work upon ; that they are a simple, honest, 
lively, and trustworthy people. He, therefore, very 
properly overlooking the minor offenders, punished the 
great movers of the rebellion, whose sole aim had been 
personal aggrandizement; and directed that Papineau, 
who had fled, and those who fled with him, should 
become outlaws, liable to the penalty of death if they 
returned; and that Nelson, &c., should be sent under, 
surveillance to Bermuda, subject also, if they returned 
without due -authority, to the Uke fate. But this 
assumption of dictatorial power was strongly opposed 
in the British Parliament, and finally set aside, after a 
Bill of Indemnity to exonerate Lord Durham had been 
passed ; thus displaying one of those beautiful features 

CANADA. 129 

of the constitution of a limited monarchy, which is the 
admiration of the world. Had some of the persons 
who appeared in arms, been executed by sentence of 
a duly constituted court during the existence of the 
rebelhon, as their confederates, Lount and Matthews, 
were in Upper Canada, not a whisper of disapprobation 
would have been heard in Great Britain ; but the in- 
stant that it was known that a Viceroy took upon himself 
the sole administration of justice, and that he assumed 
the feudal power of awarding the sentence of death, 
the nation rose against him, and, unable to brook the 
disappointment and the dictation which he thus in turn 
had to bow before, he threw up his mimic sceptre, and 
returned to England in disgust ; not, however, before .he 
had hastily visited the chief towns on the river St. 
Lawrence and Lake Ontario, and proceeded as far as 
the Falls of Niagara. 

His Lordship, in his capacity of High Commis- 
sioner, collected from all quarters a great mass of 
information, which was very diligently put together; 
and, although very unpalatable to those in place in 
Canada at that period, has, since time has hallowed 
its truths, been found to contain some sound political 
views, which have proved of great service to states- 
men. It requires very careful consideration, however, 
for it is tinged with much of the biUous hue of the 
Canadian pohtics of 1838 and 1839, when the revo- 
lutionary party were trying to persuade rulers that 
their object was only to obtain responsible Government 
and a redress of grievances ; and the Americans, 
whose opinions were the very last that should have 


130 CANADA. 

been taken^ coloured the evidence in a most remark- 
able degree.* 

His Lordship' s intentions were, no . doubt, good, 
but he saw Uttle either of the people or of the 
country, as he travelled entirely by steam in bis 
progress to the Falls of Niagara, attended always 
en Prince, and thus had not much opportunity of 
mixing with the people, some of whom took oflfence 
at his distance of manner, but which he doubtless 
considered was fitting his high ofSce. In short, 
with great abiUties, great wealth, and immense in« 
fluence, and certainly having paved the way for 
much good to Canada, Lord Durham was too short 
a time in the Colony to become acquainted with the 
people or to render himself popular. His reign lasted 
only until the 1st of November, 1838, on which day 
he resigned his powers to Sir John Colbome, and 
embarked for England. 

The only subject of any consequence during the 
summer and autumn of 1838 in Canada, now fiUing 
with regular troops^f and guarded by thousands of 

* It is contained in an immensely thick folio, printed by order of 
the House of Commons, which few people would now have the 
resolution to wade through. 

f The Grenadier Guards (2nd Battalion) the Coldstreams (2nd 
Battalion), and the 7l8t, arrived at Quebec by sea on the 9th and 14th 
of May, earlier than ever troops had previously done in such large 
vessels as the Malabar , 74, and the Edinburgh^ 74. The Guards came 
in the Edinburgh^ 74, the Inconstant frigate, the Apollo and Athol 
troop ships; the 71st in the Malabar, 74. Such a scene, at such a 
season, had never before been witnessed at Quebec. On the 15th of 
May, the harbour presented the brilliant spectacle of two seventy- 

CANADA. 131 

Militia^ was the acquittal of the murderers of 
Chartrand, at Montreal, By a French Canadian jury, 
notwithstanding the clearest and most conclusive 
evidence. Samuel Lount and Stephen Matthews, the 
two leaders of Mackenzie's attack upon Toronto, 
were executed at that city upon the 12th of April; 
and at Hamilton, WilUam Webb and John Hammil, 
Horatio Niles, Stephen Smith, Charles Walworth, 
Ephraim Cook, John Tufford, Nathan Town, and 
Peter Malcplm, were sentenced also to death; as 
were Anderson, Theller, Montgomery, and Morden; 
but Sir George Arthur, blending mercy with justice, 
transferred most of these traitors to the State 
prison in Fort Henry, at Kingston. Drs. Nelson 
and Cote were imprisoned in the State of Vermont, 
and, after a mock trial, acquitted, and a public 
dinner given them. 

Sir John Colbome also aboUshed martial law in 
Lower Canada at the same time ; and everything 
bore the face of returning tranquillity, when an event 
occurred as brutal and barbarous as ever fell to the lot 
of an historian of civilised people to record. 

On the 19th of May, 1838, the beautiful steam- 
boat Sir Robert Peel, one of the fastest, largest, 
and finest of those plying on the St. Lawrence and 

fours, a crack frigate, two immense troop-ships, and 150 sail of 
merchantmen. Here was a specimen of the power of England. ^ 
Treason and sympathy hid their diminished heads, and for the first 
time the laige city of Quehec was so crowded with troops that the 
71st were, for want of accommodation, immediately despatched 

132 CANADA. 

Lake Ontario^ was in tlie act of taking in fael at 
a place called Wells' Island^ amongst the thousand 
islands belonging to the United States^ and about 
seven miles from French Creek, her usual custom, 
when, in the middle of the night, or rather early 
in the morning, she was boarded by a crew of fifty - 
ruffians, masked, disguised, and armed. 

The passengers, amongst whom were several females, 
were ordered to rise from their beds, and, hastily 
putting on such attu'e as they could find in the 
darkness and confusion, the females were put out 
of the vessel, and left to their fate en the shore, 
on a most inclement night, whilst the men were 
confined in the cabin, through the skylight windows 
of which muskets were pointed, to keep them from 
interfering. At length, a panel having been broken 
out of the cabin-door, one by one at a time were 
permitted to go out and depart as they could, half- 
clothed, and, the vessel having been rifled, was set 
fire to. The mate narrowly escaped being burned 
to death, as he was sleeping in his berth, and only 
saved himself after she was on fire by jumpmg 
overboard. All the passengers and crew lost their 
baggage and property, and the Sir Robert Peel, a 
new boat, which had cost 'a very large sum of 
money, was totally consimied. 

Several people from French Creek had been missing 
previous to this act, and it was the intention of the 
miscreants to bum all the British steamers, in order 
that their whaleboats might proceed in the work of 
invasion and piracy undisturbed. 

CANADA. 133 

(jovemor Marcy, of New York State, immediately 
he received information of this piratical act, left 
Albany for , the frontier, and took active measures 
to discover the perpetrators, as also to guard his 
frontier from the dreaded retaliation of t]ie Canadians, 
but nothing to this day has transpired as to who 
were the real perpetrators of the deed, farther 
than the universal belief, that the notorious mail- 
robber and pirate. Bill Johnson, was actively engaged, 
and a reward was offered by the American Governor 
for his apprehension. Several men were taken and 
confined in the State prison, but it all ended in 

I knew several of the persons who were thus 
treated on board the Sir Robert Peel, but they 
were so suddenly attacked, and had so little appre- 
hension of such an atrocity being attempted, that 
they could add but little to the stock of information. 

But BlQ Johnson laughed at the efforts of the 
Governor and aU the auth<»*ities. The Thousand 
Islands afforded him a secure retreat, and amongst 
their intricacies he hid bis boats and his men. In 
vain parties of sailors &om Kingston examined them ; 
they were occasionally fired at by an imseen and vanish- 
ing eiemy. The American Militia and Civil officers 
were equally unsuccessful, capturing about 250 pikes, 
but no pikemen. 

I sent one of my adjutants, an active and enterpris- 
ing old soldier of the 79th, on a secret ex][^edition to 
discover where the boats were concealed. The foe 
was off, but he found their bivouac on an almost inac- 
cessible islet near the most narrow part of the channels 

134 CANADA. 

of the Thousand Isles at Fidler's Elbow, and cleverly 
constructed inclined planes upon which these fast- 
rowing boats had been drawn up. The result of his 
expedition, hazardous in the extreme, gave me a know- 
ledge of their whereabouts, and added to the geology 
of Canada; for without knowing anything about the 
subject, he brought away from this isolated and seldom 
visited spot some of the finest specimens of tourmaline 
I ever saw, which he conceived to be indicative of coal. 

Without saying a word to anybody, I apphed.for 
the use of a small steam-boat; and putting some of 
my staff and band on board, as a ruse to make the 
folks imagine I was going to visit the Militia garrisons 
of Gananoque, Brockville, and Prescott, I embarked a 
company of the Frontenac, and after visiting all these 
posts for about seventy miles, returned in the night 
by the islands where Johnson was hidden, hoping he 
would attack the boat, whereon the men were .not 
allowed to be seen. In vain, in vain, was this expe- 
dition like all others ; and the only results of it were 
that two barrels were observed moored in the channel 
at its narrowest part, no doubt containing, as was the 
case in the Niagara River, the means for the destruc- 
tion of our naval equipment there. With excellent 
steerage we escaped the danger ; and as these infernal 
machines were never seen afterwards, they were either 
exploded or removed. 

At the Fidler^s Elbow, a sharp turn in the navigable 
channel, I saw the remains of the pirates^ recent 
bivouac in their expiring fires; and here, where they 
might have injured us, it appears that their knowledge 
of our movements was accurate in the extreme, for they 

CANADA. 135 

not only never attempted to fire, but shortly afterwards 
deserted their strongholds entirely. I knew perfectly 
the source from which Bill Johnson derived his know- 
ledge of our movements; but as the development of 
that knowledge would involve a person, respecting 
whose loyalty I still have doubts but not certainties 
to rely upon, it would neither conduce to any benefit 
to detail an extraordinary scene in a real-life drama, 
nor would propriety permit the names of other actors 
to be placed before the public. Suffice it to observe, 
that the most interested party never stirred without 
my being acquainted with his motives ; and that when- 
.ever we prepared to take the field, a false movement 
on his part would have instantly cost him his life, 
so well was he watched and guarded. 

Some of the MiUtia officers on the Canadian fron- 
tier, and an officer charged with despatches, were about 
the same time grievously ill-treated by the mob at 
Detroit; and the American steamer. Telegraph, was 
fired at by two of the Militia sentries at Prescott. 
For the former no reparation was oflfered ; but for the 
latter, as it arose in a mistake of their orders, every 
proper explanation was aflbrded, and the men were 
duly punished. These acts concluded the summer 
excitements on the bordera. 

But the spirit of invasion was only hushed, and new 
combinations, under the names of Hunter^s Lodges, 
&c., arose, which gave rise to more important events. 
It only required the season of short days and long 
nights to ripen those nefarious schemes which, in 
summer, were paralysed by the constant arrival of 
fresh troops, and the rapid organization, mider Cap- 

136 CANADA. 

tain Sandom of the Royal Navy, of a sufficient naval 
force on the lakes. 

Bill Johnson, well known as a pirate during the last 
American war, and for his exploits in mail-robbing, 
had collected a numerous gang of Canadian refugees 
and American sympathisers, with whom, in long boats, 
built after the fashion of those used in the whale- 
fishery, and very swift, he kept the frontier in a state 
of constant agitation, as his object was, as in the case 
of the Sir Robert Peel, plunder and burning. On the 
7th of June this robber, or some of his friends, made 
a descent during the night upon the fertile island of 
Tanti, Amherst Island, mentioned before as the property 
of Lord Mountcashel, within a few miles of Kingston on 
Lake Ontario, and lying immediately opposite to the 
pleasant village of Bath. Three isolated farm-houses 
were plundered, and many valuables and some money 
obtained ; whilst one farmer, in the defence of his pro- 
perty, was inhumanly shot at, and lost three fingers 
and a part of his hand. The pirates were dressed as 
sailors, and well armed ; and it is said had one sixteen- 
oared boat, mounting two three-pounders. 

Bill Johnson and Daniel M^Leod were supposed to 
be the principal leaders ; but, as in the case of the 
Sir Robert Peel, several Canadian refugees bom Belle- 
ville, &c., were with them, and the Governor of New 
York offered rewards for their apprehension, naming 
these two as well as Samuel C. Frey and Robert Smith, 
Upper Canadians; William Nickles, a deserter, and 
the only one, from the Militia; M. W. Forward, An- 
derson, James Potts, Seth Warner, and his brother, 
all Upper Canadians ; Nathan Lee and Henry Hunter, 

CANADA. 137 

Americans ; Hugh Scanlan^ an absconding debtor from 
Kingston ; William Smith, John Tarr, Thayer, Kobin- 
son, William Leister, Upper Canadians; and William 
Coppemell, James Hunter, and William Robins, of 
French Creek, Americans. Lord Durham also issued 
a pix)clamation, offering a reward of J6 1,000 for the 
apprehension and conviction of any person concerned 
in the burning of the Sir Robert Peel; and stated 
therein his firm determination to uphold the honour 
of the Crown and the integrity of the empire. 

Captain Sandom, with such small lake steam-boats 
as he could obtain, did everything in his power to 
destroy this nest of water-thieves, and they at last 
were so hunted as to become daily of less and less 
importance; but excitement was kept up along the 
whole frontier, and the British steam-boats, even at 
Niagara, were at one time in much danger, and all 
were obUged to arm and carry armed crews, whilst no 
Loyalist on the river or lake-shore dwelt or slept in 

Bill Johnson issued a proclamation, as follows : — 

^'to all whom it may conceen. 

'' I, William Johnson, a native-bom citizen of Upper 
Canada, certify that I hold a commission in the Patriot 
service of Upper Canada as Commander-in-chief of 
the naval forces and flotilla. I commanded the expe- 
dition that captured and destroyed the steamer. Sir 
Robert Peel. The. men under my command in that 
expedition were nearly all natural bom Enghsh sub- 
jects ; the exceptions were volunteers for the expedition. 
My head-quarters was on an island in the St. Law- 

138 CANADA. 

rence, without the jurisdiction of the United States, 
at a place named by me Fort Wallace. I am well 
acquainted with the boundary-line, and know which 
of the islands do, and which do not, belong to the 
United States; and in the selection of the island I 
wished to be positive, and not locate within the juris- 
diction of the United States, and had reference to the 
decision of the Commissioners under the sixth article 
of the Treaty^of Ghent, done at Utica, jn the State of 
New York, 13th June, 1822. I know the number 
of the island, and by that decision it was British 
territory. I yet hold possession of that station, and 
we also occupy a station some twenty or more miles 
from the bodndary-line of the United States, in what 
was Her Majesty's dominions until it was occupied 
by us. I act under orders. The object of my move- 
ments is the independence of the Canadas. I am not 
at war with the commerce or property of the people 
of the United States. 

" Signed, this tenth day of June, in the year of 
our Lord, One Thousand Eight Hundred and Thirty- 

^* William Johnson.^' 

His- Excellency Sir John Colbome made an extended 
tour during the summer, visited Navy Island, and 
ordering additional defences throughout Upper Canada, 
returned to Quebec to meet Lord Durham, and to cause 
a large body of sailors and marines to be forwarded to 
Captain Sandon, to scour the Thousand Islands. 

The American Government also sent General Macomb 
to supersede General Wool, and troops were forwarded 

CANADA. 139 

in all haste to Fort Niagara, Sackett^s Harbour, and 
other points. 

Cavalry, the King's Dragoon Guards and 7th Hussars, 
arrived from England, with reinforcements for the artil- 
lery, engineers, and line; and Admiral Sir Charles 
Paget's flag in the Comwallis floated over the harbour 
of Quebec, amidst a mass of men-of-war, steamboats, 
and merchantmen, unexampled in the history of Canada. 

To prevent the further incursions of the pirates at 
the Isle of Tanti, a company of the 1st Frontenac 
Mihtia, drilled and well disciplined, was established at 
the village of Bath ; whilst Gananoque, and the inter- 
mediate villages of the St. Lawrence fi'ontier of the 
Thousand Islands, with Brockville, Prescott, and Corn- 
wall, were strongly reinforced with picked Mihtia. 

On the 21st of June, Osterhout's, a tavern in which 
some Volunteer Lancers were quartered, at the Short 
Hills, in the township of Pelham, in the Niagara dis- 
trict, was attacked by a body of armed men, who 
plundered the house of a large sum of money and 
valuable property, and overpowered some Lancers, upon 
whom they fired. Thirty of these ruffians, hidden in 
a swamp, were afterwards taken, as well as Morrow, 
their leader. This body of sympathisers, it was known, 
had chiefly crossed from the United States; and in 
consequence. Sir George Arthur issued a proclamation, 
forbidding all persons from traveUing in the British 
territory without proper passports; and at the same 
time it was decided that the' prisoners taken in arms, 
or persons taken aiding and abetting in acts of treason, 
should be considered as prisoners of war, and treated 

140 CANADA. 

Lord Durham at the same time discharged &om the 
prisons of Montreal all the young French Canadians 
who had been engaged in the rebellion, who were 
minors; whilst, as I have before stated, he sentenced 
Wolfred Nelson, Robert S. M. Bouchette, Bonaventure 
Viger, Simon Marchessault, H. A. Gauvin, Toussaint 
Goddu, Rodolphe Des Rivieres, and Luc. H. Masson, 
to deportation, on an acknowledgment of their guilt. 
Louis Joseph Papineau (late Speaker of the House of 
Assembly), Cyrile H. 0. Cote (member of the House 
of Assembly), Julien Gagnon, Robert Nelson, M.H.A., 
Edmund Burke 0'Callaghan,M.H.A., Edward E. Rodier, 
M.H.A., Thomas Storrow Brown, Ludger Duvemay, 
Etienne Chartier, a priest (a solitary example), George 
E. Cartier, John Regan the elder and John Regan the 
younger, Louis Perrault, Pierre P. Demaray, Joseph F. 
Davignon, and Louis Gautier, who had all absconded, 
were doomed to death, if found again within Canada ; 
but with a proviso, that if permitted thereafter to return 
and reside therein, by competent authority, none of 
these persons should be subject to any penalty or pro- 
secution for any treasonable or seditious practises by 
them at any heretofore time committed.* 

But the murderers of, or persons charged with the 
murders of Lieutenant Weir of the 32nd Regiment, and 
of Joseph Chartrand, were in nowise to be permitted to 

* It 18 perfectly obvious, therefore, that all these persons upon 
being allowed by Government to return to Canada, are as fully par- 
doned and free from all molestation, as if the rebellion had never 
occurred ; for the British Government cannot undo Lord Durham's 
act of grace, for which he was as fully indemnified as for his act of 
pimishment in dooming and deporting, and accordingly many have 
returned, and now hold prominent situations. 

CANADA. 141 

come within any future pardon. Their names were — 
Fran§ois Jalbert, Jean Baptiste L'Huissier^LouisL^Huis- 
sier, rran9ois Mignault^ Francois Talbot, Amable 
Dimais, Fran9ois Nicolas, Etienne Langlois, Gideon 
Pinsonault, and Joseph Pinsonault.* All other persons 
concerned in the rebellion were pardoned. 

This extended act of mercy had very little eflFect; 
a body of sympathisers, at the latter end of June, plan- 
ned an attack upon Canada from the United States, 
at two places on the Western frontier — Bear Creek, 
near the entrance. of the Thames, and Samia, on the 
river St. Clair; and a number of state prisoners were 
rescued from their durance in the London district, so 
that on the 1st of July it was necessary to send forward 
the 34th Regiment from Toronto to that place. 

Sir John Colbome, with his accustomed activity, 
again visited the Niagara frontier, and formed a camp 
near the Falls. The 43rd under Colonel Booth, two 
field-pieces vmder Lieutenant Wilkins of the Royal Artil- 
lery, and part of a company of Sappers under Lieutenant 
Roberts of the Royal Engineers, went at the same time 
to the frontier, and were followed by complete reinforce- 
ments, and by two troops of the Dragoon Guards and 
the 71st Regiment. 

Some of the pirates marched from Bear Creek to 
Delaware, within about sixteen miles of London, and 
having robbed the store of a French trader on the 
St. Clair, the Indians pursued and routed them. They 
extended their plunder, however, as far as the Goderich 

♦ Tlie murders of Lieutenant Weir and of Chartrand were so 
barbarously brutal and unnecessary, even to the cause of the rebels, 
that it was long hoped justice might yet overtake all the perpetrators. 

142 CANADA. 

frontier of Lake Ilui-on in a sloop, whicli was taken 
possession of, after the pirates had escaped, by the 
United States^ steamer Gratiot, 

About this time Lord Durham revoked all the pro- 
clamations of his predecessors, offering rewards for the 
capture of the rebels who had absconded. 

The invasion of the Western district was soon put an 
end to, and Lieutenant Elmsley of the Royal Navy, who 
had already so much distinguished himself, captured 
six of the pirates of Bear Creek whilst cruising on Lftke 
Erie. The Indians also took many more, amongst 
whom was Aide-de-camp Spencer, who had been par- 
doned on account of his having given useful information. 

The United States steamboat Governor Marcy also 
captured six of the brigands who had robbed the shops 
near Gooderich, and for the first time a Grand Jury at 
Detroit found one of the patriots guilty of violating the 
neutrality of the United States. His name was Vree- 
land, and he was sentenced to a yearns imprisonment, 
and a fine of 1,000 dollars. 

The Kingston Penitentiary also received several of 
the state prisoners, who were sentenced to three years' 
hard labour and expatriation afterwards ; but at Quebec 
a public meeting was held, expressing sympathy for the 
fate of the French Canadian rebels, and calUng upon 
Lord Durham to restore them all to their homes. This 
meeting took place on the 4th of July, the day on 
which the Independence of the United States is annu- 
ally kept, and was most numerously attended, Jean 
Tourangeau, a Justice of the Peace, presiding, and 
Monsieur Belleau, Secretary, and a copy of the resolu- 
tions was ordered to be sent on board the Vestal, then 

CANADA. 143 

about to convey Wolfred Nelson and his companions to 
Bennuda; and the French Canadians of Terrebonne 
illuminated their town on the same 4th of July. 

A special commission at Kingston tried the following 
prisoners for high-treason, and they were acquitted or 
held to bail : Reynolds, Le Sage, and Myers, Lewis, Orr, 
La Fontaine, Marsh, and Day. Of the guilt of some 
of these men, who were taken with arms in their hands, 
there was not a doubt, for they themselves affected not 
to deny it; but the privilege of an almost unlimited 
challenge of the jurors, and the evident magnanimous 
intention of the Government not to push matters to 
extremity, was the cause of their release. They were 
chiefly inhabitants of the districts adjoining. Kiugston, 
and what is worse, several of them were the sons of 
United Empire settlers, who owed aU they possessed to 
the Government. 

The trial of the prisoners taken at the Short Hills 
ended differently. Morrow, the leader, was executed 
on the 30th of July. He was a native of Pennsylvania ; 
and Miller, an American law-student, was also found 
guUty with some others, such as Waite, the second in 
command ; but it would be tedious and uninteresting 
to name all the obscure adventurers who were punished 
or perished for their atrocities and folly. 

Lord Durham having determined to return to Eng- 
land, addresses in his favour were sent to his Lordship 
from the most influential persons in the Cities of 
Toronto, Quebec, Montreal, "and Kingston, from 
Cobourg and from many other towns. It is said that 
this change of feeling towards the Governor-general 
arose in consequence of the want of support he met 

144 CANADA. 

with at home ; and also that since the acquittal of the 
murderers of Chartrand^ he had somewhat altered his 
poUcy respecting the French Canadians, particularly as 
the districts which had evinced most openly the' prin- 
ciples of rebelUon, were again practising the same 
unhappy game. Just before his departure in October, 
a trooper of Captain Moore^s troop of the Mississiquo': 
Dragoons captured a French Canadian double wagon 
and a cart at Moore^s Comer, whilst they were passing 
from the frontier of Vermont towards Stanbridge in 
Lower Canada at midnight. The drivers escaped, but a 
beautiful iron nine-pounder gun, complete in everything 
necessary for the field, and covered over with apples,* 
with other materials for a fresh attack, were secured. 

• Theller and Dodge escaped from the Citadel Prison of Quebec in 
the latter end of October, with three other minor sympathisers, who 
were, however, retaken, and John George Parker, Brophy, Anderson, 
and several others also escaped from the State Prison at Fort Henry, 
Kingston. Parker and another were retaken. In the latter case, 
treachery was employed ; in the former, cunning alone effected the 
escape. Both were adventures which might form parts of romance. 
I annex Brophy' s account, which leaves the traitors who aided him 
out altogether, and without whose assistance he could not have 
escaped : the detail of the escape is correct. 

We shall j)robably gratify the curiosity of our readers by giving 
them an opportunity of reading "Col. Brophy' s" account of the 
escape of the prisoners from Fort Henry, as copied from The North 
American^ printed at Watertown. Brophy' s statement differs mate- 
rially from that of Watson in several particulars, especially as to the 
means employed in the escape, and shows that in addition to the 
Colonel's "being acquainted with military engineering," he is pos- 
sessed of another accomplishment, yclept lying. 

To THE Editor, &c, Watertown, 7th 'August, 1838. 

Sir, — In reply to your note of yesterday, requesting a statement of 
the escape of myself and fellow- sufferers, late in adversity, from the 
stronghold of the enemy in Canada, I beg leave to state that, on the 
2nd of June last, fifteen of us were heavily ironed and sent from 

~ CANADA. 145 

No sooner was Lord Durham on board of the vessel 
which conveyed him to Europe^ and had delegated the 

Toronto to Fort Henry, Kingston, and confined in a strong room in 
the garrison, under a doubly sentry of the Regulars, and the daily 
inspection of a Bailiff, appointed by the authorities of Kingston. 

To any who have visited the garrison, its appearance is im- 
pregnable ; and on my first acquaintance I had imagined that it 
would take more powder to blow us out of it than I was able to cal- 
culate. On a closer examination matters appeared more favourable, 
and no opportunity was neglected in extending the inquiry in every 
instance that offered. 

We were permitted, in about three weeks after our arrival, to walk 
for half an hour each day on the parade ; and on one occasion the cell 
next that in which we were confined being open, myself and another 
person entered, partly to avoid the oppressive rays of the sun, and 
partly to see how the land lay around us. On being observed by the 
Bailiff, he ordered us out, but not before one of us discovered a trap- 
door at the end of a dark passage at one end of the cell. Being 
acquainted with military engineering, and being at this time tolerably 
acquainted with the plan of the garrison, the idea occurred that this 
passage had a subterraneous communication with the sallyport and 
gun-rooms for the defence of the ditch and the outworks of the fort, 
the port-holes of which we observed from the port-holes in the cell. 

This discovery seemed to ofifer a hope, though other difficulties, 
apparently insurmountable in themselves, occurred, not the least of 
which was scaling the outer wall. In being taken to the garrison^ 
some of x>ur party observed a low point in this wall for the purpose of 
allowing a gun placed on the ramparts to bear upon any object 
approaching the shore, which appeared a favourable scaling -point. 
In examining the cell, we saw that it had a communication with the 
one we occupied by a strong' panel- door, the recess of which was 
filled with solid masoniy on our side four and a half feet thick. From 
all the subsequent observation and inquiry that lay in our power to 
make, an escape by mining a passage through this doorway appeared 
feasible ; yet it was not till an answer was received from Montreal to 
an address presented to Lord Durham by a majority of the prisoners 
in the garrison, on his return from Toronto, stating that he (Lovd 
Durham) had referred the address in question to Sir George Arthur, 
that a determination was agreed upon to place more reliance upon 
this passage and our own exertions, than in the Lieutenant-governor 
or Lord Durham, in whose hands we lay. 

With these views, on last Friday evening (3rd inst.), after the 


146 CANADA. 

administration of the Government once again to Sir 
John Colhome, than the fire of rebellion, which had 

Baitiff and guard had visited us for the day, I brought up the subject 
again in full meeting, pointing out the utter hopelessness of our case, 
and reported upon the north-west passage, as we called it, asking leave 
to commence the undertaking, saying, — 

" Where* s"the slave so lowly. 
Condemned to chains unholy. 
Who, could he burst 
His bonds at first. 
Would pine beneath them slowly? " 

Leave was granted by a majority ; and about four o'clock one of 
our party, as contractor of the undertaking, (and well and most 
satisfactory did he execute the work,) commenced the plan, which was 
to mine a passage level with the floor, two and a half feet square, 
through the masonry in the doorway, and when arrived at the door 
a panel and munton was to be removed by cutting out the groove on 
the inside, carefully preserving the moulding in front in order to 
replace the panel should the way out be found to be impracticable. 
The stones in front of the wall were numbered and carefully pre- 
served, and the remainder placed un^er our beds along the walls of 
the cell, while a large stove in the apartment served to contain the 
dry mortar that crumbled, and was taken out on the occasion. 

It has been stated in some of the Kingston papers that a crowbar 
was given us, and other assistance rendered from without. Such is 
not the case ; we received nothing whatever in the way of assistance 
from any person ; and the only tools used, or that we had to use, were a 
large crooked nail or spike about five inches long, and a piece of Cfist 
iron two inches wide, eight inches long, and shaped like the letter L, 
probably a brace belonging to one of the gun-carriages, both of which 
we picked up while walking on the parade, as we did the smallest 
trifle, even to a lead button of the soldiers' dress that came in 
our way. 

These two pieces of iron, which are probably ere this found in the 
stove into which they were put, and a stick of firewood, was all that 
was used in removing the masonry, which was efiected, and the front 
stones replaced, filling the joints with mortar made from the dry 
material removed, so as to leave no traces of discovery, about nine 
o'clock in the evening. Saturday evening we set to again and 
removed the panel, and at six o'clock, a dark lantern being prepared, 
I had the pleasure of passing through, followed by two others of our 

CANADA. 147 

only been slumbering^ broke out with fresh fury^ and 
regiments were again called for from Nova Scotia^ the 

party, entering the trap- door and descending a narrow subterraneous 
passage by a ladder of some eight or ten steps placed under the trap- 
door ; following this passage, we ascended to the lerel of the room we 
left by a ladder placed at the opposite end of the passage, and entered 
the works in the outer wall, thence through a narrow passage and four 
small rooms all studded in front with port-holes for musketry, thence 
by a short passage turning at right angles, and ascending a few steps 
into the gun-rooms, from whence we were enabled to survey the ditch 
and low point referred to in the outer wall. The gun-rooms are three 
in number, having each a mounted gun and a store of anmiunition, 
with port-holes sufficiently large to admit a full-grown person, each 
of which is secured with an oak shutter, hung in a groove, and can 
only be opened on the inside. On raising the shutter an entrench- 
ment fifteen feet deep was perceptible on the outside, right under the 
port-holes for the whole length of the gun-rooms, and faced with 
masonry, through which our passage lay. Not having the means of 
descending into this entrenchment, we returned and reported progress, 
and another visit was made at dawn next morning, all of which time a 
double sentry was placed on our door, four others were in different 
parts of the parade, and one on the ramparts. 

It was then determined that a grand move should be made on Sun- 
day night, notwithstanding the opposition of a few unwilling ones of 
the party, who however acquiesced in the end. The passage was 
closed up as usual for the day, and on the visit of the guards and 
Bailiff, every thing seemed to be in its proper place. Having all got 
ready at half-past ten at night, the procession began to move on 
slowly and quietly, all in their stocking feet, and with a very small 
portion of clothing and provisions, and arrived at the gun-rooms, when 
a halt was made until it could be ascertained where the sentry stood 
on the ramparts by his calling out " All*s well," which was passed 
around every half-hour to all on guard, ending with the sentry on the 
rampart, where it began — whose duty it was to walk round the ram- 
part every half-hour. 

While in the gun-room, we distinctly heard the guard turn out to 
receive the grand rounds, who went round and tbund "all well." 
Soon as the sentry's position was known on the ramparts, a descent 
was made into the entrenchment by a rope fastened to the muzzle of 
the gun, and at a signal given on the outside, one of our party who 
remained behind to answer inquiries if the sentry should make any 
during our departure, passed out two planks through the port-holes, 


148 CANADA. 

93rd being at once ordered from Halifax^ from Prince 
Edward^s Island and Cape Breton. Arms and ammu- 

which were ripped from a hench in the cell and lashed together, holes 
being cut eighteen inches apart to serve as a ladder in scaling the 
outer wall, and immediately joined the party in the gun-room, while 
another was examining the scaling pmnt outside. At a signal given 
by him, the descent was continued ; and at the time that all were out 
in the ditch, and had taken their places under the garrison wall, a 
storm was visibly gathering in the horizon. The moon was going 
down, and the sullen gloom of the firmament was beautifully illumined 
by fitful flashes of lightning, which showed our way in the total dark- 
ness of the storm as the pillar of fire did the Israelites in their escape 
from Pharaoh. We awaited the storm, and soon as the rain began, 
which it was expected would encase the sentry in his box, the ascent 
^was commenced. The calculation was a good one, and answered our 
expectations. In a few moments the rain began to fall in torrents, 
all was enveloped in darkness, and in moving on, Mr. Montgomery 
met with a serious accident in falling into an entrenchment at one 
angle of the ditch, which rendered him almost unable to walk. He 
was taken out very much hurt, and is yet labouring under its effects. 
The ladder was applied to the wall within about 100 feet of the 
sentry on the ramparts, by means of which one ascended on the glacis, 
and a rope made from a portion of our bedding was suspended from 
above, which drew up all hands in a few moments, at which time the 
storm began to abate. The ladder was drawn up and cast away, and 
a quick march beat till about 100 rods north of the garrison ; when a 
halt was made and all hands mustered, it was discovered that 

• Mr. Parker was missing. 

Observing him much agitated on reaching the glacis, it occurred 
that he might have fallen into a deep ditch, that lay within a few feet 

* of our landing. I returned, accompanied by another, examined the 
glacis, and descended into the ditch, and after a most anxious search 
could observe no traces of him, nor can we account for the cause of 
his departure from us. We again joined the party, who awaited us, 
got on our boots, assisted Mr. Montgomery, by a person getting under 
each arm, took up a quick march, and in a little time fortunately 
gained the river road to Gananoque, just as the guards were crying 
out " all's well," at half-past twelve, we travelled till daylight, when 
we turned in and halted in the woods. 

Owing to the loss of Mr. Parker, our plan of arrangements for 
crossing the river was disorganized; and seeing Mr. Montgomery 
quite helpless and dispirited, myself and two others of our party 

CANADA. 1 49 

nition were also sent from the great depdt at Halifax 
to Quebec. 

On Lake Ontario the large steamboat Traveller and 
the Burlington were chartered to convey troops, and 
that part of Lower Canada where the rebels were most 
numerous was freshly garrisoned to prevent the de- 
struction of the locks of the Grenville Canal. Toronto 
was strengthened, and Kingston fully manned. 

An act of grace was at the same tifne issued by Sir 
George Arthur to the deluded victims of imprincipled 
leaders, and the heads only having suffered the just 

volunteered to remain with him, and bring him away, or share his 
fate. The remaining ten divided themselves into two parties, and left 
us for some favourable point down the river. 

Mr. Mon^omery's situation enabled us to make very little progress 
after having halted. On Wednesday night we succeeded in getting 
into a boat, and after passing several craft on the river, we put into a 
bay on Long Island, carried our skiff across, about a mile and a half, 
launched her on the other side, and arrived at Cape Vincent about six 
o'clock on Thursday evening, where we were received with marked 
kindness and hospitality by the inhabitants. 

My letter being perhaps rather lengthy, I shall address you further 
at another time, and close with the names of all who have reached 
here : — John Montgomery, John Anderson, and Gilbert F. Morden, 
were sentenced to be executed, and had no commutation of their sen- 
tence. Thomas Tracy, Edward Kennedy, John Marr, William Stock- 
dale, John Stewart, Walter Chase, and myself, had received no sen- 
tence ; but as these things were all managed by the Executive 
Council, as the trials of Emmett and others were in Ireland forty 
years ago, by passing the sentence before the trial, there^is no doubt 
in our minds but transportation for life to some dismal comer of the 
earth awaited us. Providence has, hk>wever, ordered it otherwise. It 
is said that three others have crossed at or below French Creek, which 
with Messrs. Parker and Watson, complete the entire number who 
left the garrison. 

Very respectfully, your obedient Servant, 

Colonel qf Engineers in the Patriot service qf Upper Canada. 

150 CANADA. 

penalty of deaths they were permitted to return. But 
Alonzo Merriman of Fellham^ merchant^ Aaro n Win* 
Chester, yeoman^ David Jennings^ Chester GiUet^ and 
Thomas Lambert^ all of Pelham, labourers^ coneerhed in 
the attack and plunder of the tavern at the Short Hills^ 
who had absconded^ were summoned to return and 
surrender^ on pain of attainder for high treason.* 

The mercy thus nobly shown^ such is the perverse- 
ness of human nature^ particularly when that nature is 

* Those who had absconded after the Toronto outbreak, and here- 
after named, were in like manner duly attainted, provided they did 
not surrender for trial : 

John Rolph, M.P.P. Henry Stiles. 

Edmond Quirk. "William Fletcher. 

William Lyon Mackenzie, David M*Carty. 

M.P.P. Seth M'Carty. 

Silas Fletcher. Nelson Gorham. 

Jacob Rymal. Daniel Fletcher. 

Richard Graham. Alexander M'Leod. 

John Mantack. Cornelius Willis. 

Joseph Borden. Erastus Clark. 

Joshua Winn. David Gibson, M.P.P. 

Jeremiah Graham. Landon Wurtz. 

Thomas Brown. James Marshall. 

Levi Parsons. Alum Marr. 

Jesse Loyd. Joseph Clarkson. 

Aaron Munchaw. Dudley Wilson. 

And those who had acted within the London district, viz. : 

Charles Dimcombe, M.P.P. Jesse Paulding. 

James Davis. Joel P. Doan. 

Eliakim Malcolm. Samuel Edison, Jun. 

Peter Delong. Joshua G. Doan. 

OrsimuB B. Clark. John Talbot 

Lyman Davis. Abraham Sulton. 

Henry Fisher. Moses Chapman Nickerson. 

Solomon Howes. George Lawton. 

James Malcolm. John Massacre. 

' Pelham C. Teeple. Elisha Hall. 

Morris Humphrey. 

CANADA. 151 

deteriorated by an imperfect education^ was scorned ; for 
as the month of November^ and the long dark nights 
approached^ a new, a more extensive, better organized, 
and apparently more effective scheme of plunder, piracy, 
and bloodshed was secretly concocted and matured. 

Such however was the accuracy, as in the former 
cases, with which paid informers and honest men 
detailed the proceedings of the Hunters^ Lodges and 
the plans of Dr. Nelson, Mackenzie, and Co., that 
everything necessary to be done was soon done to me€^ 
the emergency. 

Sir George Arthur, in Upper Canada, issued a 
Militia general order, stating that information had 
been received of a determination again to invade Can^a 
firom the shores of a friendly state, and that that state 
had failed to preserve peaceable relations towards 
these Colonies. Under these circumstances, the lieu- 
tenant-governor again called upon the MiUtia te 
defend their country from lawless war, 'plundfsr, and 
devastation, assuring them that he was in full pos- 
session of the designs of the enemy, who had nominally 
among them many ^^who have not forgotten their 
allegiance to her Majesty, or their duty to their Canadian 
brethren, and only appear in the ranks of the brigands 
at present to save themselves from insult and violence.'^ 

The intentions of the American sympathizers (com- 

Who were almost all American settlers or of American descent ; and 
those who had been indicted in the Gore district at Hamiltoni viz. : 

Michael Marcellus Mills. George YITashington Case. 

George Alexander Clark. Angus Mackenzie. 

Joseph Fletcher. John Vanorman. 

Were similarly described, and the reader can form an opinion of the 
country and origin of nine-tenths of all these lists. 

152 CANADA. 

posed of citizens of the United States) were to make a 
grand attempt simultaneously to enter Canada from 
Detroit and Lake Erie to the State of Maine^ which 
was embroiled at that moment in the Boundary dispute, 
and ripe for aggression, and which the exertions of 
Sir John Harvey and the Militia of New Brunswick 
and Nova Scotia alone kept under. Thus, instead of 
permitting five or ten thousand of these brave MiUtia- 
men to march, as they had splendidly offered, to the 
assistance of the Canadas, they were obhged to re- 
main for the defence of their own homes. 

By this extended line of operations, it was hoped 
the Queen^s troops and Militia would have been 
paralyzed, and that the disaffected in both provinces 
would have been enabled to join the Patriots, and 
effect the subversion of British power on the American 
continent. The lands of the Colonists were duly 
parcelled out, and tickets of location given to the 
" Hunters.^' 

As usual, however, there was a want of concert 
amongst the leaders, and the information given to the 
Government was clear, expUcit, and so conclusive, that 
a party of rebels of Ijower Canada, who had been 
pardoned, or had fled to the State of Vermont, were 
taken by a detachment of the Dragoon Guards and the 
15th Regiment from Chambly, imder Lieutenant- 
colonel Taylor, whilst deUberating in the house of 
Gagnon at Pointe h, la Meule, about seven miles from 
St. John's, and near the boundary-Une, forty-five 
degrees. Seven were captured, all armed with Ame- 
rican muskets, cartouche-boxes, bayonets, and belts, 
with twenty rounds per man of ball cartridge. Amongst 

CANADA. 153 

tltem was a son of Gagnon^s^ and several inhabitants 
of St. John's were also arrested^ the chief of them 
being Dr. Lacroix, who had been in prison all the 
former winter, and pardoned. 

A night or two previous, domiciUary visits by the 
Patriots had been made at the isolated farms, and one 
French Canadian was obliged to contribute fifty pounds 
in hard cash to save his life and his premises. So 
fiercely did this' spirit rage, that at La Tortue, seven 
miles from La Prairie, the houses of the loyalists were 
ransacked, and two respectable farmers, named Walker 
and Vitrey, were murdered in the night in cold blood, 
and in the most dehberate and atrocious manner ; and 
the farmers were obhged, generally, to quit their homes 
for the protection of the nearest garrison.* 

A party of the 7th Hussars came suddenly upon 
the perpetrators of these deeds of horror, and put them 
to the route. They fled into the woods; but two loyaUst 
prisoners were fortunately rescued, and Walker's widow 
and child taken to La Prairie. When she arrived, the 
unfortunate woman was covered with her husband's 
blood. On the same night the rebels again appeared 
in arms in Beauhamois, and captured the steamer 
Henry Brougham, with the mail and passengers from 
Upper Canada. They also took prisoners Messrs. 
EUice, Brown, Norval, and Boss. The seigniory of 
Beauhamois belonged to Mr. Edward EUice, son-in-law 
of Lord Grey. Simultaneously the Chateauguy Biver 
district was the scene of revolt ; and a Magistrate, Mr. 

• Such was the courage of the women in these isolated farm- 
houses that they often shared the danger with their hushands ; Wal- 
ker's wife loaded his piece for him. — Editor. 


154 CANADA. 

M^Dcmald, wis wounded; and the RiTer 

from St. Mary's downwards^ towards the St. Lawienee, 

was again the nniyefsal scene of civil war. 

A gaOant achievement of the Canghnawaga Indians^ 
who are domidled opposite the Montreal shore, most 
be mentioned. The greater part of the residents of the 
village^ bearing the name of the tribe^ were assembled 
at chnrdi on the morning after the rising <m the 
Chateangny, when the diief was informed by an old 
aqoaw^ who had been searching in the woods for a lost 
cow^ that the woods were fidl of armed men, who were 
advancing npon the village. Unarmed, the Indians 
left the sacred edifice; and their gallant leader, imme- 
diately raising the dreaded war-whoop, seised the 
nearest rebel, from whom he wrested his mudcet. His 
example was instantly followed ; and sixty-fonr, which 
was doable that of the tribe present at this daring 
exploit, were disarmed, made prisoners, and brongfat to 
Montreal soon aft;erwards by the La Chine cavalry. I 
do not reoollect the name of this heroic chief, but tnist 
he received that, which an Indian so dearly prizes, a 

Just previous to this event, the steam-boat Princess 
Victoria had been employed to take firom La Prairie 
four field-pieces, &€., to St. John's ; and, as the night 
came on when she readied that place, it was deemed 
unsafe that she should proceed or embark the men, 
horses, and guns. Daring the night, combustibles 
were placed in several parts of the vessel's forecastle, 
and fired ; but the flames were fortunately got under. 
This timely discovery, and the detention of the gunners 
in the village saved it fix)m destruction also, as it was 

CANADA. 155 

to have been sacked and burned if the troops had pro- 
ceeded. At the same time, about thirty feet of the 
railway from St. John's was -destroyed in the night, and 
the driver of the Quebec mail was arrested by twenty 
armed men, at Bout de PIsle, but allowed to proceed, it 
not being the mail to Quebec with the dispatches of 
Sir John Colbome, which they alone wanted, and 
which they said would not escape them, as their party- 
at Berthier would get them on their road. 

The troublesome districts north of Montreal ex- 
hibited, as of old, the same scenes ; and the city was in 
such a state of ferment, that about 4,000 Volunteers 
again enrolled themselves for its defence. His Excellency 
Lieutenant-general Sir John Colbome immediately pro- 
claimed Martial Law in the District of Montreal, and 
the following persons were also arrested on the 4th of 
November, 1838 : 

Messrs. D. B. Viger, • Messrs. J. J. Girouard, 

Charles Mondelet, „ J. A. Labadie, 

L. H. Lafontaine, „ H. B. Weilbrenner, 

„ John Donegani, „ George Dillon, 

„ Franfois Des Rivieres, „ Goulet, 

„ L. M. Viger, „ LabeDe, 

Dexter Chapin, „ Labonte, 

rran9ois Pigeon, „ Harkin, 

who were chiefly people of rank and consideration, with 
several others of less consequence. 

Dr. R. Nelson* published at the same time the follow- 

• Having first instigated the peasantry at St Ours, St. Denis, 
St. Charles, St Michel, L'Acadie, Chateauguy, La Prairife, Napier- 
ville, Beauhamois, &c., to assemble again in rebellion. In fact, the 


156 CANADA. 

ing Proclamation, which I should not think worth copy- 
ing, as in the case of Mackenzie's, if it did not happen 
that it served, and still serves, to convince the French 
Canadians that their interests were not much thought 
of by the revolutionary leaders. Affcer a long preamble, 
setting forth the tyranny and oppression experienced 
from the British Government, and stating thft Divine 
Providence had permitted them to put down that 
Grovemment in Lower Canada, it proceeds thus : 

" We, in the Name of the People of Lower Canada, 

solemnly declare : 

" 1. That from this day forward, the people of 
Lower Canada are absolved from all allegiance to Great 
Britain; and the pohtical connection between that 
power and Lower Canada is now dissolved. 

" 2. That a Republican form of Government is best 
suited to Lower Canada, — ^which is this day declared 
to be a Republic. 

'^ 3. That under the Free Government of Lower 
Canada all persons shall enjoy the same rights; the 
Indians shall no longer be under any civil disqualifica- 
tion, but shall enjoy the same rights as all other 
citizens of Lower Canada. 

" 4. That all union between Church and State is 
hereby declared to be dissolved, and every person shall 
be at Uberty freely to exercise such religion or belief as 
shall be dictated to him by his conscience. 

^^ 5. That the feudal, or seignorial tenure of land is 

whole section of country between the Richelieu and Yamaska rivers 
was in insurrection, and west of the Richelieu from Contre Coeur, 
Vercherre, and Belceil. 

CANADA. 157 

hereby abolished as completely as if such tenure had 
never existed in Canada. 

'^ 6. That each and every person who shall bear arms 
or otherwise famish assistance to the people of Canada 
in this contest for emancipation^ shall be^ and is^ dis- 
charged from all debts due^ or obUgations^ real or sup- 
posed, for arrearages in virtue of seignorial rights 
heretofore existing. 

" 7. That the douaire coiitumiire is, for the future, 
abolished and prohibited. 

" 8. That imprisonment for debt shall no longer 
exist, — excepting in such cases of fraud as shall be 
specified in an Act to be passed hereafter by the Legis- 
lature of Lower Canada for this purpose. 

" 9. That sentence of death shall no longer be 
passed or executed, except in case of murder. 
. '^ 10. That mortgages on landed estate shall be 
special ; and, to be valid, shall be enregistered in offices 
to be created for this purpose by an Act of the Legis- 
lature of Lower Canada. 

^^11. That the hberty and freedom of the press 
shall exist in all pubhc matters and affairs. 
. *' 12. That trial by jury is guaranteed to the people 
of Lower Canada, in its most extended and Uberal 
sense, in all criminal suits, and in all civil suits^ above 
a sum fixed by the Legislature of the state of 
Lower Canada. 

'^ 13. That as general and pubhc education is neces- 
sary, and due by the Government to the people, an Act 
to provide for the same shall be passed as soon as the 
circumstances of the country will permit. 

158 CANADA. 

^'^ 14. That to secure the elective franchise^ all elec- 
tions shall be by ballot. 

" 15. That, with the least possible delay, the people 
shall choose Delegates, according to the present division 
of the country into counties, towns, and boroughs, 
who shall constitute a Convention or Legislative Body, 
to establish a Constitution according to the wants of 
the country, and in conformity with the disposition of 
this declaration, subject to be modified according to the 
will of the people. 

" 16. That every male person of twenty-one years 
of age, and upwards, shall have the right of voting as 
herein provided, and for the election of the aforesaid 

^^ 17. That all Crown Lands, also such as are called 
Clergy Reserves, and such as are nominally in pos- 
session of a certain Company of Landholders in England^ 
called ^ The British North American Land Company/ 
are, of right, the property of the State of Lower 
Canada, except such portion of the aforesaid lands as 
may be in possession of persons who hold the same in 
good faith, and to whom titles shall be secured and 
granted, by virtue of a law which shall be enacted to 
legalise the possession of, and a title for, such untitled 
lots of land in the townships as are under cultivation 
or improvement. 

" 18. That the French and English languages shdl 
be used in aU public affairs. 

'^ And for the fulfilment of this declaration, and the 
support of the patriotic cause in which we are now 
engaged, with a firm reliance on the protection of the 

CANADA. 159 

Almighty, and the justice of our conduct, we, by these 
presents, solemnly pledge to each other our lives, our 
fortunes, and our most sacred honour. 

" By order of the Provisional Government. 

" RoBEBT Nelson, President." 

The British reader will scarcely beUeve that such a 
document ever had existence, or that an EngUshman in 
the humble situation of Robert Nelson could have been 
80 daring as thus to have braved the pOwer of the 
British Queen ; but so it was, and lucidly it did the 
utmost injury to the cause it pretended to espouse, for 
the French Canadians saw that at one fell swoop all 
their cherished usi^es and their reUgion would be 
sacrificed to an insane desire of becoming an integral 
portion of the Republican States of America. 

Burnings, murder, and plunder followed this delect- 
able document; and such was the state of things, that 
two steam-boats, the Charleroi and the Britannia^ were 
chartered on the Richelieu, for the Patriot service, and 
a run made upon all the Montreal banks. But Dr. R. 
Nelson had one of Wellington's best generals to contend 
with, active in the field and energetic in the council- 
chamber. Lord Seaton, who immediately took measures 
to secure these steamers and to keep open the inter- 
rupted mail communications, whilst it was understood 
that every town or place in which the rebels made 
head, would meet the fate it deserved, by being rased 
to the ground. 

The sta\e of Montreal and other places, in which 
an insidious foe lurked, may be conceived when it is 
known that the inhabitants seldom rested tranquilly at 

160 CANADA. 

nighty and were obliged for a time to keep lights 
burning in their windows, to assist the troops in case 
of alarms, whilst additional arrests, too numerous to 
detail, were continually made. 

On the 5th of November a supply of a 6-pounder 
and ammunition was embarked by the Patriots on 
board a schooner, at Rouse^s Point, on the Champlain, 
close to the lines. This supply was for the head- 
quarters of the French Canadian rebels, at Napierville, 
in Canada, and Dr. Cote with Gagnon were ordered to 
drive the British Troops from the famous mills at 
La Colle, which occupied the pass by which Napierville 
was to be reached. Accordingly a body of about 400 
rebels prepared to cross the lines from Alburg and Cald- 
well's Manor, and halted, on the night of the 5th, in 
the houses close to Lake Champlain and to the Boun- 
dary line. On Tuesday morning the 6th Nov. 1838, at 
about ten o'clock, the attack commenced on La Colle 
Old Mill, and the Volunteers, who were on piquet in 
advance, were driven in. The post was defended by 
Colonel Odell; and the rebels receiving a check, he 
immediately sent for Major Schriver and a reinforce- 
ment of Volunteers. 

The Volunteers now attacked in their turn, and 
captured the 6-pounder, 250 stand of arms, and a 
quantity of ammimition, killed 11 of the Patriots, and 
took 8 prisoners; the rest escaped across the lines, 
where they could not be followed without violating the 
neutrality. Two of the Volunteers were killed and 
two woimded, and much praise was given to the 
Volunteer Mihtia Companies, commanded by Captains 
Weldon, March, and Fisher. 

CANADA. 161 

The attempt to open a communication with Nelson 
and his grand army having failed^ Nelson marched^ on 
the morning of the 9th^ from Napierville^ against the 
British position of Odell Town, with a view of securing 
that communication with the United States, which was 
of the most vital consequence to himself and his officers, 
their safety being utterly compromised. His force 
consisted of 800 men, armed with muskets, and 200 
with pikes and swords. 

The force to defend Odell Town was not more than 
200 bayonets, all Militia Volunteers. Fortimately, Lieu- 
tenant-colonel Taylor,— one of the Special Service 
officers, who had been purposely sent from England,' 
to organize the Militia, — arrived on the spot just in 
time to assume the command of thid little band.* 

Nelson commenced the action at a quarter before 
eleven, a.m., with his whole force, by firing upon 
Captain Welden's advanced piquet. Lieutenant- 
colonel Taylor concentrated his men upon the Metho- 
dist chapel of Odell Town, and the enemy surround- 
ing him kept up an incessant fire for two hours and 
a half upon the post thus well-chosen. 

The Volunteers, nothing daunted, sallied out several 
times ; and the action ended by the sudden retreat of the 
insurgents, who left 50 dead men on the field. Captain 
McAllister, of the Volunteers, and 4 men were killed, 
and Ensign Odell and 9 privates wounded. 

Thus the Canadian Militia again showed that British 
spirit is not to be cowed or tamed, even after it has 
nearly been exhausted, as it was here, by constant 

* Colonel Taylor, a dashing officer, who afterwaida fought and fell 
in one of the battles in the Punjab. — Editor. 


162 CANADA. 

watching and harassing duties. The Militia used the 
very cannon which they had taken at La Colle firom 
the rebels^ with dreadful effect ; for it is said that upon 
the advance of Nelson's men^ in columns^ up the road 
leading to the chapel^ the first discharge of this gun, 
with grape, cleared a lane in the ranks ten feet wide. 
They had only two soldiers of the regular army ♦ pre- 
sent^ a sei^eant and a private^ who served this gun with 
the Volunteers ; and to show the gallantry of the 
things it was only fired three times^ from the circum- 
stance of its being outside of the chapel^ and the 
constant shower of balls poured against it, to rend^ it 
useless or to retake it. 

Still the main body of the insurgents occupied 
Napierville, 4,000 strong, and Sir John Colbome 
having marched against it, the whole took to their 
heels, followed by the cavalry in pursuit (and many 
throwing away their arms in their rapid and suc- 
cessful flight on the 10th of November) from dayUght 
to about seven o'clock. The troops in the field on 
this occasion composed a magnificent division, con- 
sisting of twelve field-pieces, with Major-generals Sir 
James Macdonell and CUtherow, the King's Dragoon 
Guards, 7th Hussars, Volunteer Cavalry, Grenadier 
Guards, 15th, 24th, 71st, and 73rd Regiments. 

Beauhamois was however still occupied; and on 
the 10th of November, Lieutenant-colonel Carmichael, 
of the Particular Service, and Major Fhillpotts, of 
the Royal Engineers, acting as Assistant Quarter- 
master-general, with 22 men of the Royal Sappers 

* Sergeant Beatty and Private Devlin of the Royal Regiment, 
both severely wounded. 

CANADA. 163 

and MineFs^ 1 Captain^ 8 subalterns^ 4 sergeants^ 
2 buglers, and 120 men of the 71st Begiinent, 
and 1,000 of the Highlanders from Glengarry, under 
Colonels Macdonell and Fraser, all Volunteers, were 
landed at Hungry Bay, and soon dispersed the 
rebels ; having, however, 1 man killed and 3 wounded 
of the 71st, but rescuing several of the loyalist pri- 
soners, and recapturing the Henry Brougham steamer 
and the Upper Canada mail-bag, which had been 
carefully secreted from the insurgents.* After this 
defeat, Mr. EUice, and his ten companions in captivity, 
who had been taken to Chateauguy, were released 
by the sudden flight of their guards, whilst on the 
road to Napierville, upon their hearing that that place 
had been evacuated. But Mr. Ellice^s splendid set- 
tlement, and several farmhouses, were burnt, — and 
all along the Chateauguy river, burning and woe 
•filled the air for several nights. 

Sir John Colbome, by the advice of his Special 
Council, and having found that decisive measures 
alone would relieve the coimtry, as there were then 
between 600 and 700 prisoners at Montreal, quartered 
the troops on all the disaffected villages, ordered a 
general search for arms, and issued four ordinances, 
suspending specie payments by the banks, authorizing 
the arrest of rebels and the suspension of the Habeas 
Corpus Act for a limited period; also the erection 
of tribunals, to try, and punish those engaged in the 

* The mail contained a large sum in bank-notes, which a lady on 
board most resolutely rolled up in her bustle^ and thus the insurgents 
missed a rich harvest, even had they found the mail, which the 
Captain had hid. 

164 CANADA. 

rebellion, and the seizure of all arms and munitions 
of war, &c. 

Up to this time, excepting threats, the grand 
simultaneous scheme of conquest had not developed 
itself in Upper Canada anew ; but Mackenzie, Theller, 
Dodge, Wolfred "Nelson, and those who had returned 
under Lord Brougham^s Act from Bermuda, had 
attended public sympathetic meetings in the city of 
New York, headed by the celebrated Dr. M'Neven. 
But the New Yorkers were not prepared for such 
an extensive display of Canadian patriotism, and 
they met with very little coimtenance, — ^the wealthy, 
the inteUigent, and the leading men of the city 
affording not the slightest coimtenance to their wild 
ravings about Canadian freedom. 

The drama was, in fact, nearly acted out, and the 
curtain about to drop upon the scene in which so 
many '^ Patriots'' had flourished, but not until Upper 
Canada was to receive a final lesson, — a lesson which, 
to this day, she has not, nor will she ever forget. 

I must detail it from the evidence of others ; for 
although then in a situation in which I should 
necessarily have been an actor, I was, firom the 
fatigues and exertions of prior events, unconscious 
of all sublunary affairs, having lost the use of the 
faculties of mind and body so completely as to 
have passed three months unconscious almost of my 
own existence. I do not mention this to enhance 
my individual exertions, but as an additional proof 
of the lamentable consequences of a civil war, and 
as one of thousands of instances of effects still 
operating amongst the Canadian population similarly 

CANADA. 165 

severe, or which ended only with the cessation of 

The serious farce of the conquest of Canada now 
shifted its scenery to Prescott, a flourishing com- 
mercial village on the St. Lawrence, just above the 
Rapids of the Long Sault, where water communication 
again becomes uninterrupted with the Lake Ontario. 

Here the department imder my orders had been 
engaged in constructing a square tower of con- 
siderable size, to replace the ruined Fort Wellington, 
and to check all attempt at invasion in that quarter 
from the United States. It was nearly finished, 
when intelligence was received that a strong body 
of American sympathizers from Oswego and the 
neighbouring coimtry, bordering on Lake Ontario 
and the St. Lawrence, was determined to take it. 

They embarked at Oswego, on board of an im- 
mense American steamboat, the United States, and 
having been joined by two schooners full of men, 
at Sackett^s Harbour, proceeded down the St. Law- 
rence. I must state that this steamboat, the United 
States, was of enormous size, and built to rival the 
Great Britain, on whose decks 1,200 men have 
been seen, and which was so spacious that a regi- 
ment, with its horses, baggage, and field equipage, 
was frequently embarked in it when changing 
quarters. The United States had, however, never 
before been used for warlike movements, and was a 
trading vessel between the American and the British 
lake and river .ports only. 

To accoimt for the breach of confidence displayed 
in permitting her to be made use of by the sym- 

166 CANADA. 

pathizers^ it was stated by the Captain and others^ 
that they had seized her ; a statement so notoriously 
without foundation^ that she never again dared to 
appear at Kingston during the disturbances. 
. The object of this expedition was to attack Fort 
Wellington at Prescott, and then enter Canada. 

No sooner, however, was it known that the brigands 
were in motion, than Captain Sandom, the British 
naval commander on the lakes, ordered a strict look 
out to be kept upon their movements, amid the 
Thousand Islands of the River St. Lawrence and as 
far as Prescott. 

Lieutenant Fowel, R.N., in the Experiment, a 
little armed steamer, eflFectually checked the intended 
attack, and landed at Prescott, then garrisoned by 
Militia, under the command of Major Young, one of 
the Particular Service ofScers, distributed along the 
frontier to discipline and command that excellent force. 

The piratical vessels, unprepared for such vigorous 
measures as those adopted by Lieutenant Fowel, took 
shelter" on the American shore at Ogdensburgh, 
exactly opposite to Prescott, which shore was lined 
with thousands of people, for several days, eager to 
witness the invasion and its results. 

The next day the marauders took heart of grace, 
and having dropped down the river a mile or two, 
landed at a place in Canada called Windmill Point, 
whiere there was a lofty stone windmill, built very 
solidly, and three strong stone houses. The position 
was a good one, on a small projecting point of the 
St. Lawrence, entirely out of range from Fort 

CANADA. 167 

The road to Lower Canada ran behind the windmill 
which is near the edge of the rather steep bank of the 
river, on a sUght eminence, up which the road passed. 
Thus the windmill commanded both the land and water 
approaches, and was covered on the land front by the 
strong stone houses on the opposite part of the road, 
oae of which was built at right angles to the others on 
the side of Prescott, and thus formed a sort of outwork, 
well flanked. 

The pirates, however, not liking the look of things, 
and not beins" joined by any of the Canadians, as they 
expected, commenced immeLely to strengthen the^ 
position by throwing up slight earth-works to cover 
their guns and men employed in keeping open their 
communications with each other, and threw in a large 
quantity of ammunition to their tower of strength. 

A circle of observation was also formed by the bri- 
gands on the neighbouring fields, which somewhat 
overlooked the position ; and Major Young, finding that 
they were determined to hold the mill, mustered his 
Militia force, with the jsmall detachments from the 
Royal Marines and 83rd Regiment, sent from Kingston. 
His force consisted of two columns of attack. The 
right, under Lieutenant-colonel Gowan of the Queen^s 
Borderers Volimteer Militia, was composed of 44 men 
of the 83rd, 150 of the Queen's Borderers, and 100 of 
Colonel Martlets Regiment of Stormont MiUtia. The 
left wing, commanded by Colonel D. Fraser, with a com- 
pany of Glengarry Highlanders under Captain George 
Macdonnel, Captains Jones and Fraser^s companies 2nd 
Grenville, and 100 men of the Stormont Militia, and 
30 men of the Royal Marines. 

168 CANADA. 

The troops advanced at a quarter before seven in the 
morning of the 13th November 1838, to drive the enemy 
from the extended lines which he had occupied behind 
the stone waUs which divided the fields and inclosures 
for a considerable distance round the miQ ; and Captain 
Sandom, having arrived from Kingston in the Victoria 
steamboat at two o'clock in the morning, determined 
to combine his operations on the St. Lawrence with 
those of Major Young on the land, thus entirely sur- 
rounding the wmdmill. 

The sympathizers fought desperately^ and retreated 
from behind the stone walls very slowly, picking oflF 
leisurely numbers of their opponents with their rifles ; 
and as no field-guns were in possession of Major Young, 
and finding that no impression was made on the mill 
from the cannon of the armed steamboats, at three p.m., 
after driving the brigands into the mill, he drew a 
strong cordon of Mihtia round it. 

Lieutenant Johnson, of the 83rd, leading his little 
band of Regulars into the thickest of the fight near the 
mill, had just climbed the bank near the road, when he 
was picked off by a rifle-ball, being in a blue frock and 
his men in red.* 

Lieutenant Dalmage, of the 1st Regiment of Gren- 
ville Militia, whilst emulating the zeal of the Regulars, 
was also killed. Lieutenant Parker of the Royal Marines, 
and 16 Marines woimded; as were Lieutenant Parlow 
of the 2nd Dimdas Militia, and Ensign Macdonald of 
the Loyal Glengarry Highlanders, with 45 non-com- 

* In India and elsewhere many casualties have happened from the 
officers and men not heing more assimilated, as they were on the 
Peninsula, when under fire. — Editor. 

CANADA. 169 

missibned officers and privates altogether killed and 
wounded. The brigands suffered severely, and Generals 
Brown and Phillips were killed, and 32 prisoners taken. 
The conduct of the Royal Navy and Marines was beyond 
all praise. 

The brigands being thus hemmed in, and Lieutenant- 
colonel the Honourable H. Dundas, commanding the 
83rd Regiment, having left Kingston with four com- 
panies of that regiment, two 18-pounders and a howitzer, 
under Major M^ean, Royal Artillery, took up a position 
400 yards from the stone buildings on the 16th of 
November, assisted by Captain Randolph of the Royal 
Engineers, and a company of the 93rd under Major 
Arthur; and Captain Sandom, with two 18-pounderg 
in gun -boats, co-operated on the river. The Royal 
Artillery soon made an impression on the stone houses, 
but the mill resisted all the cannonading. I saw it 
afterwards, and it had suffered very little; probably 
owing to its circular form, which caused the shot fired 
at an high angle from the gun-boats to glance off, as 
weU as those fired at a depression from the land above 
it.* The cannonading having lasted more than an hour, 
the brigands began, however, to find it and a constant 
stream of musket balls to be rather unpleasant. They 
therefore held out a white flag when they saw the troops 
advance against the stone building which flanked the 
ix)ad; from which they, however, first poured a very 
destructive fusillade in the darkness which was rapidly 
coming on. 

Eighty -six prisoners were secured, with sixteen 

♦ In risiting Windmill Point, the power of resistance which cir- 
cular defences possess, was very apparent — Editor. ' 


170 CANADA. 

wounded men besides^ and a large supply of arms, 
amununition^ twenty-six kegs of gunpowder^ and three 
pieces of cannon. Several pirates escaped in the dark- 
ness and confusion^ and hid themselves in some low 
brushwood on the bank of the river under the mill. 
Here^ however^ they were soon hunted out and secmred 
by the Militia, and amongst them General Ycm Sdiults, 
their leader^ was secured. One soldier of the 8%rd was 
killed; and the stone buUdings having been burnt, a 
company of Militia garrisoned the windmill^ which was 
armed with a carronade and otherwise strengthened 
afterwards^ to prevent further use being made (^ it. 
Thirty-five were killed, making altogether^ with the 
i^ion on the 13th, — 102 killed^ and 162 prisoners, 
on both occasions. 

The Albany ArgtiSy in commenting upon this acti<m^ 
says — '^ Of the entire population ready to revolt, as they 
were taught to believe, only three joined them. In 
some instances, the people whose houses individuals 
visited to instigate revolt, seized upon them and con- 
»gned them to prison; and the MiUtia fought like 
devils. Excepting a Pole, by the name of Yon Schultz, 
their generals, colonels, &c., to a man, abandoned them 
before crossing, and now shrink from the taunts of an 
indignant people.^' 

This was strictly true; for the Generalissimo was 
taken sick, and the poor dupes were deserted by their 
vapouring instigators; whilst the Militia were with 
great difficulty restrained by Lieutenant-colonel DundaA 
&om inflicting summary punishment on all the invaders. 

The most unfortunate circumstances in the affairs at 
Prescott, were the deaths of lieutenant Johnson and 

CANADA. 171 

Captain Diummond. Lieutenant Johnson was buried 
at Kingston^ side by side with the brave prirate soldier 
who fell with him^ amidst the tears and execrations of 
thousands of the inhabitants. The most shamefdl and 
depraved barbarities had been committed upon his body 
by the misereants of the mill, whilst it lay under their 
power. We shall see afterwards that this mode of 
treating the slain British officers was universally adopted 
by the ruffianly crews of invaders. Captain Drummond, 
of the Glengarry Highlanders, was shot by mistake in 
one of the stone buddings. 

The conduct of the Militia on this occasion was, as 
ustud, excellent. At one time, it was said that five 
thousand Volunteers from all parts flew to Prescott. 
Lieutenant Fowel, R.N. ; Mr. ElUott, mate, B.N. ; and 
Lieutenant Parker, B.M. ; were mentioned in the dis- 
patches to the Admiralty. 

The only simultaneous occurrence in Lower Canada 
w(Mrthy of remark wad arising at the Boucherville Moun- 
tain by the peasantry, commanded by Malhoit, which 
was soon put down by the Dragoon Guards and 
66th, under Colonel the Honourable G. Cathcart * 
and Major Johnstone, when the latter captured one 
6-pounder, two 3-pounders, 43 muskets, 50 pikes, 11 
casks of powder and ball-cartridge, and 70 rounds of 
gun ammunition. 

Sir George Arthur published another proclamation 
of a most spirited nature, and military tribunals were 
instituted to try the rebels ia the two provinces. 

Colonel Worth, the American Commander on the 
frontier, seized The United States steamboat and the 

* A fimt-olatt caTaliy-offieer. — Bditok. 

I 2^ 

172 CANADA. 

schooners^ and did his utmost to prevent reinforcementi 
being sent over to the Windmill ; whilst Bill Johnson 
and his son were arrested^ and their boats captured* 
The President also issued a proclamation to enforce 
neutrality, in which these remarkable words were used : 
iifter stating that " disturbances had broken out anew 
in the two Canadas/' which was exactly the reverse of 
the real state of things, for not a movement within had 
been made of any consequence, he proceeds to exhort 
the sympathizing citizens of the United States to desist 
from hostile invasion of Canada ; and it is then observed 
that their projects are " fatal to those whom they profess 
a desire to relieve, impracticable of execution without 
foreign aid, which they cannot rationally expect to 
obtain,^' &c. 

Sir John Colbome also issued proclamations insti* 
tuting tribunals for the trial of the rebels in Lower 
Canada, and for extending martial-law to the disturbed 
district of St. Francis, and above all he commanded a 
solemn fast to be observed on the 7th December, 1838. 

The Patriot flag, which was taken at the Windmill, 
had an Eagle and a Star, vnth the words *' Onondago 
Hunters,'' " Canada Liberated/' 

The farce at Prescott terminated in the serious drama 
of the trial of the prisoners, by a militia general 
court-martial, at Kingston. A fortnight afterwards 
another similar exploit was enacted in the western 
district at Windsor, near Amherstburgh, opposite 
Detroit, where the '' Patriots," having '' stolen " the 
American steam-boat Champlaiuy crossed the river on 
the 4th of December, a few miles above that city, and 
marched down the Canadian shore upon the little 

CANADA. 173 

village, where they most gallantly burnt the British 
steam-boat, ThameSy lying at the wharf, and a building 
occupied with stores, &c., murdered an unhappy negro 
who refused to join them, and, after a skirmish with 
the Militia, prepared to march on towards Sandwich', 
another village on the road to Amherstburgh. They 
took prisoners the small detachment of Militia at 
Windsor, which, however, soon effected its escape after 
shooting the leader of the banditti. 

Another awfiil intimation of what the Upper Cana- 
dians had to expect, if the sympathizing Patriots could 
have succeeded in revolutionising Canada took place on 
this occasion. 

Staff Assistant-surgeon Hume, of the British Army, 
having met these marauders on their march, although 
xmarmed and in the act of offering sui^ical aid, which 
he conceived might be required after the firing, was 
brutsJIy and inhumanly murdered, and his dead body 
mutilated, broken, and shamefully and disgustingly 

Upon intelligence of their being in possession of 
Windsor, Colonel Prince and his brave Militia, at Sand- 
wich, advanced against them, and a most gallant, 
spirited, and successful attack being made upon the 
miscreants, they fled into the shelter and cover of the 
thick forest, leaving twenty-five killed on the field of 
action, and twenty-six prisoners ; one private (a French 
Canadian) of Captain EUiott's company, was killed, and 
two more wounded. 

The Militia engaged upon this occasion werte, Nos; 
1 and 2 companies. Volunteers under Captain Sparke, 
with the Essex Militia, under Captains LessUe, Elliott, 

174 CANADA. 

and Thebo^ and seyeral gentlemen from Sandwich^ with 
Captain Bdl, of the Provincial Volunteora. After tbe 
action^ Colonel Prince was informed that a fitrong body 
of brigands was at Sandwich^ upon which he marched 
back to thfU; place^ where he was joined by Captain 
Broderick of the 84th and a field-pieocj when the whole 
force again was put in motion^ by other inteUigenoey 
upon Windsor^ but after a long mardi the enemy was 
not to be found. 

Amongst the prisoners was Mr. Joshua 6. Doan, of 
the London District^ a most notorious and active per* 
son^ for whose apprehension a reward had been offered, 
and the others were chiefly Americans. l%eir number 
was about 450, armed with muskets, rifles, pistols, 
.bayonets, and bowie-knives. 

The person who bore their flag was shot by Monsieur 
Pierre Mamatelle, a French' Canadian Ensign in Cs^- 
tain Thebo's company, chiefly composed of French 
Canadians, and the flag itself was taken by Lieutenant 
Bankin, of Captain Sparke's company. It was a tri- 
colour, with a crescent and two stars. 

Colonel Prince, jn his dispatch, mentions the foUow- 
ing gentlemen as paving distinguished themselves: 
Charles Baby, Esq. (a French Canadian), Josqph Wood, 
C. Askin, and W. R. Wood, Esqs., Mr. Grant, Editor 
of the Sandwich Herald, and Messrs. Gatefield, Laugh- 
ton, and Paxfield of Sandwich. 

Putnam, the leader of the sympathisa^, was killed, 
and papers and documents, disclosing their plans, and 
the co-operation of several respectable citizens of 
Detroit were taken, and altogether the Militia had 
reason to be proud of the battle of Windsor* 

CANADA. 1 76 

I must not^ however^ in my duty as a military liis- 
toriaB; pass over a circumstance that occurred^ about 
whick the press of the United States rang with censure. 

Colonel Prince^ an Englidmian of property, who 
had settled in the Western district, was a Member oi 
the Provincial Parliament and a Barrist^-at-law. He, 
for eleven months, had been kept in a constant state of 
activity and alarm, had been threatened with assassina- 
tion, and that his house and property should be de- 
stroyed. To such an ext^it had his anxieties been 
carried by his loyal exertions, that, it is said, and I 
believe truly, that one of his family, one the most dear 
to him, had been almost if not actually deprived of 
reason by continual alarms for his safety and that of 
the family generally. He commences his official dis- 
patch, by saying, in language that every feeling mind 
must appreciate. '^ Sir, I have the h<»iour to inform 
you, that yesterday at six a.m., an alarm was brought 
here that Windsor (or the ferry), a small village about 
two miles above this, was in possession of brigands and 
pirates from Michigan. Being extremely ill and worn 
out by constant &tigue, both by day and night, I had, 
for the first time, retired to my house, half a mile distant 
from this place (Sandwich) at two o'clock a.m., &c.'' 

The action was at its height, Colonel Prince knew 
neither the plans nor the number of the pirates, he 
received intelligence that they had taken up a position 
which threatened his only cannon, his provisions, and 
his ammunition, in his rear at Sandwich, which he had 
left unprotected. 

Dr. Hume and the negro had been most barbarously 
murdered in cold blood, the Thames steamer and A 

176 CANADA. 

house had been maliciously bumt^ & brave Fr^ch 
Canadian had been killed and two Militiamen wounded> 
and he was surrounded with a fierce band of despera- 
does^ whilst the people on the American shore^ at 
Detroit, rent the air with cheers^ to support the pirates, 
and threatened every moment to join them in overwhehn- 
ing numbers. When his mind was thus occupied, when 
the result of the action was uncertain, he ordered four 
of the villains, with arms in their hands, to be shot, 
probably finding it impossible to restrain the summary 
vengeance of the MiUtia. 

For this act, done by an officer of Volunteers who 
had never been subjected to military discipline, he was 
borne down by the whole force of the American press. 
I do not pretend to say that an officer used to scenes 
of combat would have so done, but I am persuaded, 
that like the gallant attack on the Caroline^ it had an 
excellent efiect, and I am at a loss to know, why a 
people in amity with another country closely bordering 
upon them, should permit their citizens of the lowest 
classes to send fire and sword, under the very eyes of 
the Grovemment into an unoffending, unretaliating, and 
peaceable community. 

If the subjects or citizens of any Power were attacked 
by bucaneers or pirates, would their Governments 
weigh how, when and where those bucaneers or 
pirates were shot, himg, or disposed of ? Assuredly not. 
Colonel Prince was exonerated by the voice of the 
Upper Canadian people, legally and universally, and an 
honourable Court of British Officers acquitted him qf 
aU blame. 

Tq show the reader in England the. abominable 

CANADA. ' J77 

system to which sympathy was so suddenly . raised> I 
have only to state that the steam-boat Thame^y which 
was burnt, was a mere trader, and then the only 
British boat on Lake Erie, and that a short time before 
the rebellion occurred, when she plied as the first 
British steamer on Lake Erie, when the Americans had 
hdf a hundred, I was on board of her, and visited the 
City of Buffalo in her, to show the Americans that 
Canada was following their example in extending com- 
merce on the great inland seas of the West. 

We wete received with the wharves lined with 
peopile, who shouted ^^ Long live George the Third/^ 
I suppose they meant the good sailor king. We 
were taken to the Eagle Tavern, treated and toasted. 
Alas, alas ! no sooner did Mackenzie open his serpent 
tongue upon these same Buffalonians, than thfe same 
steam-boat, the poor Thames^ became a victim to the 
Moloch of atnbition. 

A court-martial was ordered to assemble at London 
for the trial of the brigands taken at Windsor ; and 
Sir George Arthur addressed the British minister at 
Washington, and issued a proclamation declaratory of 
his having so done, on the ground that the President's 
proclamation before alluded to, contained an expression 
injurious to the loyal Canadians, by its having stated 
that ^* Disturbances had broken out anew in the two 
Canadas,'* whereas the contrary was really the fact', 
and the citizens of the United States had invaded the 
country, and caused disturbance from without. 

The two French Canadian judges, Bedard and Panet, 
having taken an active part respecting the obstacles 
thrown. in the way of trying tjie Lower Canada rebels 

I 3 

178 CANADA. 

and brigands, by the dedaiation that the soq^ensioii of 
the Habeas CcMrpus Act was illegal, weie themsdves 
suj^nded from ofBce. 

Mercy had, in fact, been too long practised, and it 
was now necessary to make more examples of the 
leaders of the invasions and commotions. General von 
Schultz, Colonel Martin Woodruff, a native of Salina, in 
the State of New York, Colonels Abbey and Gre<»^e, 
also American citizens, as were Sylvanus Swete, and 
Joel Peeler, were hung at Kingston for the Prescott 
outrage, with some others; viz., Christopher Buckley, 
Sylvanus Lawton, Russdl Phelps, and Duncan An- 
derson, diortly afterwards ; Joseph Cardinal and Joseph 
Duquette, Theophile Deol^e, Ambrose Sanguinet, 
Charles Sanguinet, Fran9ois Xavier Hamelin, and 
Joseph Robert; the last four for the murd^ of Mr. 
Walker, French Canadians, wete hung at Montreal for 
their conduct during Nelson's invasion; Hiram B. 
Linn, Daniel D. Bedford, and Abel Clark, ooneemed in 
the Windsor outrage, suffered the extreme penalty of 
the law early in the next year at London, in Upper 
Canada. In 1839 General T. J. Sutherknd, T. R. 
Culver, B, F. Pow, A. W, Partridge, H. L. HuU, 
Thayer, Nathan Smith, Chauncey Parker, Colonel 
Dodge, and Doctor Theller, were confined in the citadel 
oi Quebec, from which however the latter two escaped, 


as before stated, on the 15th of October, 1838 ; and a 
large body of rebds and sympathizers were consigned 
to the penal settlements of New Holland. 

To show how unprovided with common s^ose the 
sympathizers were, and how they must have had their 
minds wwked upon by the Mackenzie leaders, I have 

tANADA. 179 

iDnly to femark; tliat after tbe battle of Windsor^ the 
country being up in wm., the Bympathiters oould 
actually find no kind frioids to tnmspiwt them acHMs 
the narrow strait within hail of the American drare, 
and nineteen unhappy wi«tchee were found in the 
^lo(niiy Canadian forest frozen to deaths and without 
food^ round the remains of a fire they had kindled ; and 
yet this in the only part of the country inhabited by 
French Canadians. 

Several Fr«[ich officers had been seduced by tbe 
American sympathizers to take commands in Los^i^ 
Canada, as well as some Foles^ who said they had 
^ser^ed under Napoleon; and one of these deluded 
people published a long detail of the manner and 
matter of his appointment to a Brigadier-general- 
ship^ in which he showed the leaders in their true 
colours^ uid also exposed the system of the sympathi- 
zers, the robbery of- churches and houses^ and the 
abstraction of large sums from the French Canadians 
for the patriot service, which were never afterwards 
accounted for. 

Yon SchultZy who i^pears to have been a very bsave 
but reckless adventurer^ instigated these French «Dd 
Polish officers to join the Lower Canadians; and finding 
that the game was up when the magnificent little army^ 
under Sir John Colbome, tock the txHd against Dr. 
Nelson, he hastened to Uj^er Canada, where he com- 
manded at Frescott^ as we have seen, and ended his days 
bravely, without doubt, on the gallows at Kingston. 
Hn servant, a Pole also, was desperately wounded, and 
lingered in the Kingston Hospital for a length of time^ 
showixig even more finnness than his unhappy, master. 

1 So , CANADA. 

' The French officer who made the disclosures alluded 
tO; had been a subaltern in the 15th Regiment of Light 
Infantry; his name was Charles Hinderling^ and he 
stated that Mr. Duvemay had been the cause of his 
taking a commission in the patriot service with anotho* 
French officer^ who had been in the Anglo-Spanish 
Legion^ Mons. Touvrey. Hinderling suffered on the 
gallows^ after a lengthened consideration of his case^ as 
an example to foreign officers not to enhst in the 
hopeless cause of driving British power from her Trans- 
atlantic dominions. But in justice to Frenchmen^ we 
must say^ that those officers who did join the patriots 
were all mere homeless adTenturers, and really uncon^ 
nected with the French army. 

John George Parker, Brown, Walker, and Wilson, 
all deeply engaged in the outbreak in Upper Canada, 
had been sent to New South Wales, but arrested in 
London by a mandamus, and their case re-argued as to 
the legality of their transportation from Canada to a 
penal settlement ; in which, however, notwithstanding 
all the exertions of their British friends, they were 
unsuccessful. Farker^s case rested mainly on letters 
found in the mail-bag at Kingston, addressed to Mr. 
John Vincent, the printer of a Radical Newspaper, and 
Mr. Augustus Thibodo, of the same place, in which 
he recommended an organization of the midland dis- 
trict, and the prospect of success in consequence of the 
soldiers being withdrawn. 

Early in the ensuing year, and at the same timfe 
with ..the French officer. General Hinderling, who 
commanded in the attack on OdelltQwn, C. D. Lorimier, 
F4. B. . Narbonne^ Amable Dunais, and F. Nicolas, 

.CANADA. 181 

charged with participating in the murder of Mr. 
Walker, were hung. 

More than half of the Prescott prisoners being youths 
under age, were pardoned by Sir George Arthur, and 
the rest sent to New South Wales from the state 
prison in Fort Henry. 

It is true, but a most melancholy truth, that of the 
great body of sympathizing youths- from the United 
States, nearly an hundred and fifty, who had at various 
times been taken prisoners, three-fourths had been 
brought up without any fixed religious notions, and 
they all really imagined that they were serving their 
coimtry, as well as themselves, in attempting the con- 
quest of Canada. They were, in fact, chiefly those 
restless frequenters of tavern bars, who begin smoking 
cigars and drinking spirits before nature has developed 
their perceptions of right and wrong. 

182 CANADA. 


C«nditidn of both Provinoes in the year 1689, and until the Union. 

Load Dubham's panacea for the absolute restora- 
tion of Lower Canada to a healthy state, was the 
Quintuple Union of the North American British Colo- 
nies, which will, some day or other, take place, but 
about which, at present, argument would be thrown 
away, as these provinces are not yet in a condition for 
it. What would French Canadians say to being 
swamped by British legislators from Nova Scotia and 
New Brunswick, — ^by the crude philosophers from the 
mercantile fishing community of Newfoundland, or by 
the Uttle agricultural state of Prince Edward^s Island ? 
What a diversity of present interests would meet in 
council in the Chateau of St. Louis, which must then, 
for the convenience of all, be the place of meeting ! 
British interests, of course, would predominate; but 
they would be so divided according to the wants and 
wishes of the different States of this Quintuple Al- 
Uance, that it would be wiser to avoid the collision for 
at least another half century,* 

* The Halifax and Quebec railroad woiild unite the interests of the 
British American Proyinces and rapidlj advance them, by means of 

CANADA. 183 

Any person wlio has calmly viewed Colonial politioB 
at tik&T fountain head^ must know that every Cis* At- 
lantic province of Great Britain has its own peculiar 
policy^ and that in general the oldest settlers bear 
away the bell from the new^^ who struggle violently 
for their rights* In Lower Canada^ for instance^ doca 
the French Canadian ev^ dream of submitting paa^ 
sively to dictation frokn the English^ whom^ he fears, 
would thrust him out of house and home by the cut- 
tivaticm c^ the Eastern Townships 7 In Upper Canada, 
does the till^ of land yield mibmissively to the bureau- 
crats and the old family dominion^ as they style all 
possessing office or long standing in the community f 
In Newfoundland, just emerging from a stater of nature, 
does not the fisherman begin to perceive that where 
his forefathers existed only by the mere Nafferance of 
a race of rich fishing merchants, and could not call an 
inch of the soil his own, that a change has come over 
the spirit of his dull dream, and that the Mercanto- 
cracy is yielding to that pressure trom without, which 
wills that all British Colonies shall have the same just 
measure heaped up ; whilst the very inerchants them- 
selves are no longer confined in their trade to a supply 
firom the Cod Banks, but are extending commerce in 
every direction, and beginning to fix their abodes on 
the island, which is now, for the first time, coming into 
notice, and, in spite of 350 years of continued mis- 
representation, has been declared by its Oovem(»- 

well-organized emigration, Sec The St Lawrence and Atlantie 
railroad, under the direction of the very ahle chief engineer, Mr. 
Gcowski, is rapidly " progressing " from Montreal towards Portland. 
— £ditor. 

181 CANADA. 

capable of holding up its head as an agricultural 
country; and that the fishermen, to be happy, must 
be induced to cultivate it largely, by having free grants 
of land ? 

So it is everywhere else,— ^Nova Scotia, New Bhms- 
wickj, Prince Edward^s Island, the West Indies, — all, 
all, have their internal divisions, and all begin to feel 
their importance j whilst Colonial Toryism and Colo- 
nial Radicalism are both equally impotent to sway the 
general destinies of the empire. In fact, colonial 
politics hinge upon so many littlenesses, as well as upon 
so much external greatness, that, excepting the Mother 
Country is likely to be engaged in foreign wars, by 
their internal commotions, no man at home gives him- 
self much concern about the ever-varying shades of 
colonial politics, beyond the Ministers whose duty it is 
to watch their bearings, or the merchant whose 
resources are aflfected by them. For instance, who, in 
the name of fortime, would care twopence, beyond five 
or six mercantile houses in England or Scotland, whether 
the shade of politics in Newfoundland was foggy or 
bright, whilst there the utmost and the most absurd 
importance is attached to clique and party ? 

In like manner in Canada, the Family Compact and 
the Bureaucracy in Upper and Lower Canada, have 
been all-absorbing themes, whilst the local Government 
gets continually embarrassed by the pretensions of all 
Borts of adventurers, who think that their personal 
gratification is the price at which England is to hold 
her greatest Colony ; whilst the important fact is over- 
looked that the British pubhc neither feel nor care for 
these agitators. 

CANADA. 186 

A broad question at length starts up. How is Lower ' 
Canada to be managed ? " By a Governor, with arbi- 
trary powers/' says your red-hot Tory. ^^ By a union 
with the British population of Upper Canada," exr 
claims the more moderate Conservative. " By yielding 
everything to the people of French origin, and swamping 
the British settlers," roars the Radical. Difficult, 
indeed, is the choice out of this Pandora's box; and 
when the Ud is forced, there is nothing but Hope left 
to work upon. 

The most violent pohticians in Colonies, those who 
arrogate and demand the greatest surrenders from the 
Governors of the troubled provinces, are invariably, 
whether Tory or Radical, those who resort to every 
scheme to force submission to their ultra views, and are 
always place or popularity-hunters, who harass and 
annoy through that powerful engine, a cheap press. 
In many of the Colonies, such is the vigour with which 
this engine is phed against the Governors, that it soon 
puts out the moderate fire enkindled in the bosoms of 
well-intentioned men, who care not to place themselves 
in the arena, where it plays afterwards. Thus, a good 
sound medium party is rarely formed. The press that 
would support such a party would not pay, because 
that press is chiefly fed by advertisements, and nobody, 
in a young country, cares to advertise in a paper which 
is not eagerly read. 

Look at Canada ; see the sacrifice of health, of life, 
which involves the post of administrator of that 
Government. It is no bed of down, — no bed of roses, 
the Vice-regaUty of that country ; and so even of that 
most unknown land, Terra Nova. No man ever goes 

186 CANADA. 

to those GoTemmenta that comes away without many 
dear-bought days of existence subtracted from his term. 
And why ? Why, if he has « firm, independent, de- 
termined, and unshrinking mind, he meets with ecm- 
stant annoyances and embarrassments. He can please 
no party, because all want to rule ; and e^ery aspirant 
for place has his coterie cS minor and subsenrient fol- 
lowers at work. Let him be ever so good, so right- 
minded, and so determined to act ''according to the 
best of his conscience and the custom of war in like 
eases,'' he must finally fidl into the arms of some one 
party, — usually of the few who have contrived to keep 
the role in their own hands ; or else he must meet the 
fate of a late 6oTem(Mr-general of Canada, who, by 
trying to carry out that most honourable of all prin- 
ciples, — justice to a race hitherto kept in the back 
ground, has be^i forced into partnerships with a party 
diametrically opposed to the opinions he has been 
brought up in. But, as Milton so beautifidly says, he 

'* Would ill become tMs throne, 
And this imperial sovranty, adorn' d 
With splendour, arm*d with pow'r, if aught proposed, 
And judged of public moment, in the shape 
Of difficulty/ or danger, could deter 
Him &om attempting." 

Whether his policy was right or not is another 

The year 1839 was not remarkable respecting exter- 
nal .events or internal trouble, like those which imme- 
diately preceded it in Canada; but to the active 
Govemor-g^ieral, Sir John Colbome,* and the vigi- 

^ Who was sworn in as Oovemor-general at Montreal, on the 17th 
of Januaxy, 1639. 

CANADA. 187 

laace of Sir Oeorge Arthur, with the firm attitude <tf 
the Militia and the presence of the trcx)ps; inay be 
attributed alone the check given to the sympathiEers, 
who were banded more strongly and seriously, with 
the additional help of the disputed north-eastern 
boundary question, now reviyed at so embarrassing a 
time with more fory than ever, and which was con- 
ducive of a spirit which extended over the frame of 
society m the United States m(»^ difficult for its rulers 
to manage than all the other border troubles put 

The firmness and the tact with which Sir John 
Harvey met the aggressions of the State of Maine are 
matters of history, and so far connected with Canada, 
that by his wise conduct tiie communications with that 
country were not only kept open by land, but troops 
were again spared from Nova Scotia, as the patriotism 
ot the Militia of New Brunswick and that province 
defied fcnreign invasion. 

In 1839 the whole frontier of Canada, £rom Maine 
to Michigan, was placed in a state of security by the 
re-establishment of all the important posts, and the 
erection of barracks in such places as wore necessary 
to check the disaffected, or to afford assistance to ' 
the frontier; and the Mihtia were newly organized by 
substituting permanent corps for a certain number of 
years' service for those which had only been established 
for intervals of a few months, or for the emergencies 
of the moment. 

The British reader will be surprised to find that in 
this year the Militia Army-list for Upper Canada alone 
contained ei^ty-three closely printed pages for the 

188 CANADA. 

officers^ names only of one htuidred and six complete 
regiments^ with the tuH complement of officers and 
staff. The Incorporated Militia^ formed^ clothed^ and 
officered as the line is^ consisted of four battaUons. 
The Provisional Militia^ also called out for a stated 
time^ consisted of twelve battalions ; and there were also 
thirty-one corps of Artillery, Cavalry, Coloured Com^ 
panics, Riflemen, &c., whilst most of the Militia corps 
had each a troop of cavalry attached to them. Thus^ 
without at all distressing the country, 40,000 young 
men in arms; many of them well drilled under officers 
from the Regular Army, could at any time take tne 
field in Upper Canada. 

The Regular Army consisted of two troops of the 
King^s Dragoon Guards, stationed at Niagara; three 
companies of the Royal Artillery, and two demi-field^ 
batteries; twelve officers of the Royal Engineers, and 
one full company (100 men) of the Royal Sappers and 
Miners (at Niagara); the 24th . Regiment at the Falls 
pf Niagara ; the 32nd at London ; the 34th at Am- 
herstburgh; the 43rd at Drummondville, near the 
Falls of Niagara ; the 65th at Kingston ; the 83rd at 
Kingston ; the 85th at Sandwich ; the 93rd at ^ To- 
ronto. In Lower Canada, four companies of Royal 
Artillery; one of Royal Sappers and Miners; a pro- 
portion of officers of the Royal Engineers; the 7th 
Hussars ; the 2nd battalion of the Grenadier Guards, 
and the 2nd battalion of the Coldstream Guards (a 
brigade of the Household Troops 1,450 strong, comi- 
manded by Major-general Sir James Macdonell) ; the 
2nd battalion of the 1st, or Royal Regiment; the 11th, 
15th, 23rd^ 66th, 71st, and 73rd Regiments ; and an 

CANADA. 1 89 

fininense force of Volunteers, the Lower Canadian 
Sedentary Militia generally, of course, not having been 
Called out. 

On the lakes Ontario and Erie a naval force was 
also established, under the orders of Captain Sandom, 
R.N., by arming steam-boats, hired or bought for the 
Government; and seamen and marines were sent out 
from England to Kingston. Thus, in 1839, Sir John 
Colbome found himself at the head of a force fully 
adequate to all emergencies, and entirely paralyzed the 
eflForts of the sympathisers; and thus the country 
remained quiet, excepting occasional burnings on the 
frontier of Vermont, as that in the beginning of the 
year performed by Grogan, an American, who burnt 
the farm-buildings, &c., of the Loyalists residing on 
the Rouville-road, named Gibson, Johnson, Clark, and 
Mannie; but having been fired at by a patrol, the 
sympathizers escaped into the United States. 

Mackenzie, who had been for some time in New 
York editing a paper calculated to keep alive the dis-» 
turbances, finding very little support in that commer- 
cial city, betook himself and paper to Bochester on Lake 
Ontario early in 1889, and was at length imprisoned, 
both for his libels on the people of the United States, 
and for his assault upon the coimtry of a friendly powe^. 

The Legislatures of Nova Scotia and New Bruns- 
wick, each voted the sum of iBl,000 for the support 
of the widows and children of those who had fallen in 
the late disturbances in Canada. The Maine boundary 
question agitated the public mind in the spring of 
1839 ; but as this work professes to treat only of the 
internal affairs of Canada, and it would swell these 

190 CANADA. 

voliunes to a great extent to enter upon that question^ I 
shall pass it over; which will be of the less consequence, 
as it has since been entirely settled, and then the only 
territorial difficulty was that of the right of Ihiglaad to 
the country between Califonpa and Russian America on 
the sdioreB of the Pacific ; in which dispute, if the Ame- 
ricans act wisely, they will see that by colonizing the 
shores of the Pacific and by opening a road through the 
prairies of the west and the Kocky Mountains to their 
projected seaports, they will at the same time pres^it a 
key to Russia to unlock the gate which Nature has set 
Up in the Indian country between the Asiatic hordes and 
the American Anglo*Saxon race, which may hereafter 
pave the way f<Mr a second urruption of Tartars to con- 
quer and people the New World. 

How much better and more politic it would be to let 
England alone in her fiir-hunting Establishments on 
the Pacific ; even should she colonize that shore, for 
hfflr colonists would interpose an impassable barrier to 
Buflsiait advancement, which the resources of the 
United States for another hundred years must be inca- 
pable of withstanding, and it requires no great clear 
sightedness to perceive, that as England has made a 
permanent settlement on the opposite shores of China, 
the Httle belt of littoral leflt between Califorma and the 
Russian settlements in America on the Pacific, is 
becoming hourly of infinite importance; and that a 
second Nootka Sound afiair may not be so far off aa 
may be at present imagined. Already (in 1847), the 
Amearican papers say, that Mexico must yield California 
to pay her debt to the United States, and the Presi- 
dent's message has just very clearly informed us that 

:pm m ■ ii f iwi^*** 

CANADA. 191 

the Nation have not lost sight of their daim to the 
Columbia. I should not be at all surprised to find at 
leasts a portion^ of California occupied by the keen 
foresight of American pohcy ; but I should hope that 
Great Britain will never permit the Pacific Ocean to 
be closed along the whole American shore to her com- 
merce and colonization. The furs of the Hudson's 
Bay territory should at least be shipped from British 
ports on the Pacific for the Chinese Mart, and the 
noble forests of the most gigantic pine timber in the 
whole world, remain as they actually are, British 
propCTty.* . 

The period of Canadian history was now arrived, 
whsa l4>rd Durham having left his throne, and having 
been succeeded by the renowned warrior Sir John 
Colbome, and that warrior having brought his mili- 
tary arrangements to a close, was to be succeeded in 
his civil administration by a gentleman whose chief 
talent had been displayed ia the great commercial 
world ; amidst those royal merchants of England, 
who are verily kings and princes of the earth, and 
t)efore whom all min(»? principaUties, thrones, domi- 
nions, powersjt and virtues of commerce sink into 

Lord Durham had dosed his splendid but unsatis- 
factory reign by declaring that he entertained, '^no 
doubt as to the Naticmal character which must be 
^ven to Lower Canada ; it must be that of the British 

* The American eolimization about the Great Bay of St Fnncisco, 
eonsequent on the proceedings at the " gold diggings," and the reten- 
tion of territory by Britain, on the West eoast, have nalized thm 
above ideas. — £ditor. 

192 CANADA. 

Empire; that of the majority of the population of 
British America; that of the great race which must 
in the lapse of no long period of time^ be predominant 
over the whole North American continent, without 
effecting the change so rapidly or so roughly, as to> 
shock the feelings and trample on the welfare of the 
existing generation, it must henceforth be the first and 
steady purpose of the British Government to estabhsh 
an Enghsh population, with EngUsh laws and language, 
in this province, and to trust its Government to none 
but a decidedly English Legislature/' 

Able and soimd reasoning follows this declaration, 
and Lord Durham shows that the French Canadian of 
gentle blood, and the French Canadian peasart would 
benefit by this change ; inasmuch, as the former is at 
present excluded by the tenacity with which he holds 
to a foreign language, from participating finely in the 
offices of state, and in the higher walks of the learned 
professions in a British colony, whilst the peasantry's 
rude and equal plenty is fast deteriorating under the 
pressing of population within the narrow limits of 
cultivation to which their absurd adherence to bar- 
barous and obsolete feudal laws and customs has con- 
fined them.* 

This reasoning is founded on the rock of truth; 
it is downright madness to imagine for a moment, 
that an isolated remnant of the great French nation, 
unconnected now, even by family ties, with that 

* Twenty years ago there was a great export of grain from the 
Chambly Valley, but from the bad and exhausting system of agpri- 
culture pursued there, food is now required to be imported from 
Canada West — Editor. 


CANADA. 193 

empire^ can remain . continually within the pale of 
an exclusive system; that they^ in shorty can expect 
long to continue under those feudal laws and customs 
which have for ever expired in yoimg France ; whilst, 
at the same time, they are hemmed in, in their 
former happy valley, by two equally enterprising 
races of Saxon origin, one branch of which has for 
ever quashed the remnant of French power and of 
feudal folly in the southern section of the American 

It was argued in a journal, confessedly the 
best informed amongst those published at Quebec, 
that Papineau and his followers never dreamed of a 
Nation Canadienne. What, then, did he dream of? 
Nelson's proclamation says, that Lower Canada was 
to be a Republic, and abolished feudal laws and the 
predominance of the Catholic religion with a stroke 
of the pen; but Papineau had previously called the 
young blood to arms, for the purpose of constituting 
a Canadian nation. 

Supposing that the rebelUon had been successful, 
would the French Canadian peasantry have seen 
their reUgion trampled upon, and all their old asso- 
ciations trodden in the dust. Never ! . Nelson opened 
their eyes, and, henceforward, they never sought 
separation from England ; and why ? because they 
found that the power of France was wholly un- 
available ; and that even if they achieved a temporary 
triumph, it must have been at the expense of joining 
their star to those of the twenty-seven States, which 
their British neighbours in Upper Canada would 
not havebome very quietly. 

VOL. 11. K 

194 CANADA. 

I have said before^ and I say it again^ that proper 
treatment and calm reflection wiU assuredly maintain 
the peace and the loyalty of the French Canadian, 
who is, although somewhat antiquated as to knowledge 
of the world, in the main, an excellent fellow, froni 
whose aid^ excepting only a very few borderers, who 
have caught their infection from too close pmximity, 
'the United States would never, in case of a war, 
derive much benefit. 

Lord Durham, in his celebrated Report, suggested 
the following great and radical alterations in the 
mode of governing Canada : 

1. The union of the two Provinces, with power to add the other 

2. Every puhlic officer, excepting the Goremor and his Secretary, 
heing made responsihle to the people ; hut the Goyerner to have no 
hopes of assistance from home in case of disagreement 

3. An enlarged and sound system of colonization. 

4. A new division of elecU^al districts. 

5. Elective hodies in each district subordinate to the legislature, to 
exercise complete control over such local affairs as do not come 
within the province of general legislation. 

6. A general executive, and a supreme court of appeal for all the 
North American colonies. 

7. The other establishments and laws of the two Canadas to he left 
for conaderation of the united legislature. 

8. Security for the existing endowments of the Roman Catholic 
church in Lower Canada. 

9. A revition by ParUament at home of the constitution of the 
legislative council, so as to prevent the repetition of collisions with, 
and to ensure a useful check upon, the popular branch of the 

10. An imperial officer to superintend the management of the 
public lands upon a new plan. 

11. The concession of all the revenues of the Crown, excepting 
those derived from the lands, to be at once given up to the united 
legislature on the concession of an adequate civil list 

12. The independence of the judges. 

CANADA. 195 

13. All money votes to originate with the CrO'WB. 
■ 14. The repeal of past provisions respecting the clergy reserves, 
and the application of funds arising from them. 

The^e were the legacies His Lordship, who acknow- 
ledged the loyalty of the mass of the Colonists, left 
to bis successors ; and it will be seen, that they have 
been working at them ever since to a very great 
extent, and that, in fact, successive Gk>vemors-g^neral 
have, until the present moment, grappled with the 
difficulties which they presented. 

The suggestion of the union of Upper and Lower 
Canada was warmly debated in the Upper Canada 
Parhament, in the spring of 1839, and at length, 
after much opposition, was recommended by that 

The Attorney-general, Hagerman, opposed uniting 
the two Canadas, and suggested a general union of 
all the North American provinces into a separate 
kingdom, under a viceroy, upon the same principles 
as that of Ireland. 

The Solicitor-general, Draper, upheld the union, 
upon condition, — 

1. That the seat of Government should he in Upper Canada. 

2. That all Lower Canada, east of the Madawaska River, and south 
of the St Lawrence, consisting of the counties of Gasp6, Bonaventure 
and Bimouski, should he attached to New Brunswick. 

3. A proper qualification for memhers to he fixed by the aet of 

4. The act not to make void any of the appointments of the present 

legislative council. 

5. That the number of members from Upper Canada should be 
sixty-two; from Lower Canada fifty; and that the elective fran- 
chise should be^ confined to those holding land in free and common 


196 CANADA. 

6. A new diyision of Lower Canada into counties. 

7. The use of the English language only in all public proceedings. 

8. Courts of Appeal and Impeachment to be within the United 

9. Surplus of post-office revenue, together with casual and terri- 
torial, and every other branch of revenue, to be under control of 
the Legislature. 

10. Courts and laws to remain in their present places and modes 
until otherwise provided 'for, 

11. Debt of both Provinces to be chargeable to United Province. 

12. Legislature to have power to originate and reduce customs and 
excise duties, subject to certain restrictions, similar to those of 42nd 
sect 31st George IIL chap. 81. 

13. That the principles of the Constitution, with these exceptions, 
remain the same as contained in 31st George III. chap. 31, inviolate. 

14. That two Commissioners proceed to England. 

Which resolutions were carried. 

The Parliament in which these resolutions were 
mooted^ sitting until the 11th of May, was prorogued, 
after passing an act to re-invest the clergy reserves 
in the Crown, which gave the Home Government 
the power of settling a question, the most vexed 
and troublous of any it had had to deal with, 
respecting Upper Canada. 

His Excellency, Sir John Colbome, after eleven 
years of active service to the State in Upper and 
Lower Canada, was relieved on the 19th of October, 
1839, in his high and important office of Governor- 
general, by the Right Honourable Charles Poulett 
Thompson, late M.P., and President of the Board of 

Mr. Thompson opened the Parliament of Upper 
Canada in person, on the 3rd of December, 1889, 
and promulgated the celebrated despatch of Lord 
John Bussell, respecting the responsibihty of officials 

CANADA. 197 

to the Governors of colonies^ and declared that the 
union of Upper and Lower Canada was to be 

Thus ended the year 1839. Sir John Colbome 
returned to England^ and received the dignity of a 
baron of the United Kingdom^ with the title of 
Lord Seaton^ — a title which was earned by his talents, 
his undeviating patriotism, and his unceasing devotion 
to the cause of his country, the honour of the British 
army, and the firmness with which he had ever upheld 
the glory of the British sceptre and the true interests 
of reUgion and order; leaving in Canada an undying 
name, and a renown only to be paralleled with that 
which he had gained under the renowned Moore 
and Wellington. 

198 CANADA. 


The XTnion — Govemment of Lord Sydenham — his Death, and 
Goverament of Sir Charles Bag^t — embracing the years 
1640, 1841, and 1842. 

We have seen that the leconmiendations of Lord 
Durham were to form the basis of the future adminis- 
trations. Mr. Thompson, accordingly, commenced his 
reign by declaring that the union of the Canadas was a 
sine qud non ; and therefore the excellent Lieutenant- 
governor, Sir George Arthur, yielded to the force of cir- 
cumstances, and, abdicating his high office, he was 
rewarded by a lucrative govemment in India, and the 
Governor-general afterwards was raised to the peerage 
by the titles of Baron Sydenham and Toronto, — ^the 
former from the name of a delightful little suburban 
Kentish village, the latter from the capital of Upper 
Canada at that time. I shall therefore designate 
Mr. Thompson, in the remainder of this political 
sketch, by his title of Sydenham. 

His Lordship, actuated by the desire to make the 
Canadas one British province, removed the seat of 
govemment after a time to Kingston, which was nearer 
to the Lower Province by 180 miles than Toronto, and 
less subject to invasion. His policy was evident. To 

CANADA. 1 99^ 

carry oat the scheme of Goverament with which he 
was entrusted, it was necessary to conciliate the Re- 
formers ci Upper Canada^ so as to divide them, if 
practicable, from the excited French Canadians of Lower 
Canada, and thus hold a balance of power. He found 
Upper Canada in a singular position. Two-thirds, at 
the . very least, of its permanent population were in 
favour of connection with the mother country, whilst 
the remainder, who were chiefly of American descent, 
desired still to see it a state of the Union. All the 
frontier population of the States of Michigan, Ohio, 
Pennsylvania, New York, Vermont, and Maine, were 
ready to assist the views of the latter party, and keep- 
mg them constantly in mind, were still drilling, pre-^ 
paring arms, collecting ccmtributions, and spreading 
their emissaries throughout the province, unsettling the 
mindsof the people, and persuading the soldiers to desert. 

Of the two-thirds first menticmed, a great number 
were dissatisfied with circumstances wholly unconnected 
with the Government of the Mother Country, but- which, 
if not attended to, would inevitably create discontent. 

Of these circumstances, the clergy reserves had 
been a most prominent feature, and the managem^it of 
the Crown Lands; the Family Compact at Toronto stiS 
was a bugbear, notwithstanding its evident fallacy, and 
the obstacles in the way of British settlers obtaining 
locations and rotes upon the land they laboured, with 
the want of vigilance in preventing American teachers 
and preachers from occupying the public schools, and 
the paucity of the means for obtaining public education, 
were the most prominent grievances. 

To remedy these things was not a very easy task ; 
but it became necessary to calm all anxiety about the 

200 CANADA. 

future appropriation of the clergy resenres : so that the 
numerous members of the Scotch and Irish Presby- 
terian Churchy the Wesleyan and other Methodists, 
and the Koman Catholics should at least be satisfied, 
without reference, otherwise than generally, to the 
infinitely split and finely-divided sects, which out- 
numbered either the Church of England, or that of 
Rome, as the Tunkers, the Dunkers, the Men of Peace, 
the Quakers, the Shakers, the Mennonists, the Mora- 
vians and the Swedenborgians, the Baptists, the Unita- 
rians, the Antinomians, and the Multinomians ; for it 
is impossible to recollect the hundred legions of dis- 
putants upon the subject of faith with which Upper 
Canada was overspread. Year after year, hour after 
hour, had this vexed question troubled the peace of 
Upper Canada ; and the clamours of all parties, parti- 
cularly of the Presbyterians, had rendered it necessary 
to come to a decision; for the imsettled state of the 
lands which had been set apart as clergy reserves, oom- 
posing> as they did, one-seventh of every town or 
village plot, and of every county or township, with 
those retioned in a similar manner, as Crown lands, 
retarded the improvement of the country, kept the 
finest lands in a state of vnldemess^ prevented roads 
being opened, and consequently paralyzed settlement 
and cultivation.* 

With respect to the Crown lands. Lord Durham had 
proposed that they should be subjected to the super- 

* In the early stages of the controversy, it was limited to tiie two 
established churches of England and Scotland. Had the first of these 
consented to allow the latter a share, the subject would never have 
been discussed in the way it has been since ; none of the numerous 
other denominations then put in any clainu^EniTOR. 

CANADA. 201 

intendence of an imperial^ and not a colonial officer^ 
and in this I believe he met with no other opponents 
than the local authorities; for whatever might become 
of the control of the revenue derivable from their sale, 
it is self-evident that an imperial oflScer would be best 
adapted to conduct the disposal of them with a view to 
assist emigration from the Mother Country. 

The Family Compact has been a source of 
Radical uneasiness from the time that the enthusiast 
Gourlay wrote his three volumes on the subject of 
Canada, to the pubUcation of Mackenzie's '' Grievance- 
Book/' and to the present moment, when even some of 
the public journals professing Tory principles have 
levelled their weapons against it. That it ever existed 
to the extent which Mackenzie would have made the 
world believe, we have already controverted, and now it 
is so far different, that upon the great question of the 
admission into the United Parliament of French 
Canadians who had been concerned in the rebellion it 
was in a most singular and unprecedented minority ; nor 
was it able to cope better with the governmental views of 
Lord Sydenham, when he acted under a Whig minis- 
try, as Sir Charles Bagot had acted under Tbry rulers. 
Both endeavouring to tranquillize and secure Canada by 
arriving at the same end through different means. 
Lord Sydenham, by combining the Reformers of both 
provinces to support British supremacy, without giving 
imdue power to the French Canadians, and Sir Charles 
Bagot, iinding that such a combination was unworkable, 
going to the opposite extreme, and calling in the aid of 
the French Canadians to crush all opposition. 

But more of this in its proper place. The next sub- 


202 CANADA. 

ject is tlie francliise to Britiali-b(»ii settlers and educa* 
tion. The former^ so reasonable in itself^ has not yet 
been put on the only footing it should be put upon ; 
foV the only way of securing Canada is to make it 
essentially a British Colony; and thus every British 
settler should have the franchise as soon as he obtained 
land in the Colony^ had paid a certain portion of the 
Imrdiase-money^ or had performed the settlement duties, 
and had cleared a defined portion. 

With respect to education^ some primal arrangements 
were made by Lord Sydenham for district and normal 
schools^ and the setting apart a ftmd for that purpose ; 
but much^ very much, is yet to be done. Every school- 
master should be a bom British subject, and should be 
eompelled to teach £rom the usual elementary English 
books; for as it is, even yet, itinerant Americans^ of 
the very lowest class, obtain the small schools in the 
interior, teach entirely from American class-books^ and 
thus imbue the infant mind with an early dislike of 
British principles^ and inculcate as reUgious notions the 
wild and visionary doctrines of Mormonism, of the 
Tunkers, Bunkers, and Mennonists; of the unknown 
tongue, — that most blasphemous attempt at imposture, 
— and of the thousand and one splinters into which 
the rod of religious discipline has been shivered in the 
United States, tending, in manhood, to make their 
scholars either enthusiasts or indifferents. At present, 
two-thirds, at the least, of the people of Upper Canada 
are an orderly, well-behaved, well-disposed race, and 
require only a certain and fixed system of things to 
make them the most comfortable and happy beings on 
the face of the earthy unburthened, as they are, either 

CANADA. 205 

by tlie exerctfle of power over them^ or the pressure ci 

To effeet this happy ocmsummation^ and to retain 
them in their allegiance to a Mother Country th^ are 
80 proud of their connection with and descent from^ 
the causes of disquietude must be permanently with- 
drawn^ or examined thoroughly into ; the pubUc money 
must be carefully directed into the channels of edu- 
cation and internal improvements; the British settler 
must be encouraged^ and the American fugitive dis- 
countenanced ; for Canada has everything to gain by 
holding fast to Great Britain^ and everything to lose 
by alliance with the United States^ of which she would 
become merely a paltry proconsulate. 

The American territory is -not overburth«ied with 
population^ nor will it be for centuries ; and therefore 
there can be no hardship in placing obstacles in the 
way of emigrants from that country to Canada; for if 
they stiU hold to the political faith in which they have 
been nurtured^ it is somewhat singular that they should 
desire to live under a Monarchy ; and if they do not 
desire to live under a Monarchy, they have clearly no 
moral right to disturb its peace and the comfort of its 
people by disseminatrag doctrines which will not obtain 
a footing in any portion of the British Empire. All 
angry passions should have been soothed by the mission 
of Lord Ashbumham; and yet^ immediately after he 

♦ The Irish National- school system has heen copied with singular 
success, Messrs. Armour and Ramsay having introduced the books 
into Canada. Much however yet remains to elevate the character 
of the teachers, to improve the school-houses. Sectarian feelings 
were scarcely known in the common schools, but now a cry has vn- 
fortunately got up for separate schools on the part of the Romanists 
and some of the Church of Englandi— Editor, ^ 

204 CANADA. 

put his foot on the English knd again^ we heard the 
President in his place in Congress pointing to another 
small black cloud which was gathering on the political 
horizon^ adverse to British tranquillity. And was there 
a bosom amongst the tiers 6tat of the American Con- 
federation, from the Mississippi to the Penobscot, that 
did not beat in unison ? Was there a man amongst 
the people who would not have marched to secure the 
Oregon Territory or to conquer Canada ? And in case 
of any fresh disturbances, what power had the Ame- 
rican Government over its frontier population,-— could 
it control it, — who composed the last invading force ? 
The answer is, — ^Americans from the outside, and Ame- 
ricans and their children from the inside. 

Mackenzie was, as it were, the firebrand tied to the 
fox^s tail. He was a tool working with others who 
were still supposed to be actively planning revolutions. 
Por a time their forces were led by native Americans, 
who made so sure of a second Texan enterprise, that 
during the whole of the disturbances, their steam-boats 
on the Lakes invariably used the Texan flag, — ^'the lone 
star,'^ with the American ensign.* But the Upper Ca- 
nadians, being contented with British institutions, were 
not to be forced into American ones; and perceiving 
clearly the advantages of the former, will hold them as 
long as they are able, well knowing, that notwithstanding 
the French Canadian attempt to revolutionize Lower 
Canada, the number of American sympathizers dis- 

• Mr. T. R. Preston, in his work " Three Years* Residence in 
America," 1840, says that "the sympathizers had a bank for 
aiding in the conquest of Canada, of £1,687,500 sterling, capital, 
which was to be reimbursed by the confiscation of Canadian landed 
property." This I do not belieye.— Editor. 

CANADA. 205 

persed in Westem Canadai and the unquenchable lust 
of conquest on the American border^ that although 
they would have much to do and suffer in the event of 
another war^ yet^ if Great Britain deserts them not in 
their hour of need^ they will always triumphantly 
secure their soil from aggression ; whilst they are con- 
scious that the Americans^ on their side^ will have also 
to contend with other foes than Britons and Canadians^ 
— ^with their slaves^ with the Indians^ and with their 
own internal dissensions, which occasionally arrive at 
a much greater height than is believed by those who 
have not had an opportunity of observing them. 

It is, therefore, to be fervently hoped that the Anglo- 
Saxon Americans, as they love to style themselves, will 
be content with their present condition and the glorious 
prospects of their future power; and that in aUiance 
with England, they will continue to uphold the uni- 
versal cause of freedom, suffering the Canadian people 
;to choose their own course, and " doing unto them as 
they would be done unto^^ by the rest of the world. 

Let us now see what Great Britain proposed for the 
welfare of her children and subjects in Canada, by 
uniting the British and the French races, the Saxon and 
the Norman. 

In the first volume of " Canada in 1841,^' is an ap- 
pendix giving, verbatim et literatim, the Act of 3 & 4 
Victoria, cap. 35, for "The Union of the Ganadas,^^ 
which, therefore, it will be unnecessary to repeat ; but, 
as I said before, few people read appendices now-a-days, 
and I shall therefore concisely show the leading features 
of this Act. 

It provides for the Union under the name of Thb 
Province op Canada. 

206 CANADA. 

For tha Constitution of one Legislative Council and 
one House of Assembly, under the title of " The Legis- 
lative Council and Assembly of Canada/' 

"Hie Legislative Council not to be composed of fewer 
than twenty natural bom or naturalized subjects of the 
Queen, the tenure of such office being for life, excepting 
the member chooses to resign, is absent from his duties 
without cause or permission for two successive sessions, 
shall become a citizen or subject of any foreign power, 
or become bankrupt, an insolvent debtor, public de- 
faulter, or attainted of treason, or be convicted of felony, 
or of any infamous crime. 

The Speaker of the Council to be appointed by the 
Governor, who may remove him and appoint another. 
Ten members to constitute a quorum, including the 

The House of Assembly to consist of Members chosen 
from the same places as heretofore divided into Counties 
and Ridings in Upper Canada; but that the Counties of 
Halton, Northumberland, and Lincoln, shall each be 
divided into two Ridings, and return one Member for 
each Riding. 

That the City of Tcwponto shall have two Members ; 
and the Towns of Kingston, Brockville, Hamilton, 
Cornwall, Niagara, London, and Bytown, one each. 

That in Lower Canada every County, heretofore re- 
presented by one Member, shall continue to be so 
represented, excepting Montmorency, Orleans, L'As- 
somption. La Chesnaye, L'Acadie, La Prairie, Dorchester, 
and Beauce. These to be conjoined as follows : Mont- 
morency and Orleans into the County of Montmorency ; 
L^Assomption and La Chesnaye, to be the County of 
Leinster ; L^ Acadie and La Prairie, that of Huntingdon ; 

CANADA. 207 

and Dorchester and Beauce^ that of Dorchester: and 
each of these four new Counties to return one Member. 

The Cities of Quebec and Montreal, to return two 
Members each; and the Towns of Three Rivers and 
Sherbrooke^ one each. 

The qualifications of a Member to be those of band 
fide possession of landed estate worth £500 sterling. 

The EngUsh language to be only used in all written 
or printed proceedings of the Legislature. 

The passing of any Bill to repeal the provisions of 
the 14th (jeorge III.^ or in the Acts of 31st of the same 
reign, relating to the Government of the Province of 
Quebec, and the dues and rights of the clergy of the 
Church of Rome; the allotment or appropriation of 
lands for the support of a Protestant clergy ; the endow- 
ments of the Church of England, or its internal dis- 
cipline or establishment ; or affecting the enjoyment or 
exercise of any form or mode of rehgious worship in 
any way whatever ; or which may affect Her Majesty^s 
prerogative touching the Waste Lands of the Crown, 
must be first submitted to the Im])erial Parliament pre- 
vious to the declaration of the Sovereign's assent, and 
that if the Imperial Legislature shall petition the Queen 
to withhold her assent within thirty days after such 
Act shall have been received, it shall not be lawful to 
affix the Royal assent thereto. 

The levying of imperial and colonial duties; the 
appointment of a Court of Appeal ; the administration 
of the civil and criminal laws ; the fixation of the Court 
of Queen's Bench within the late Province of Upper 
Canada; the regulation of trade ; the consolidation of all 
the revenues derivable from the Colony into one fund, 
to be appropriated for the public service of Canada. 

208 CANADA. 

Out of this fond £45,000 to be payable to Her 
Majesty, her heirs and successors, for the purpose of 
defraying the expenses for the administration ^of the 
government and the laws on the Civil List.* 

Both sums to be paid by the Receiver-general, upon 
the Governor's warrants, and the Receiver-general to • 

account to the Lords of the Treasury; and all the j 

• Governor £7,000 

Lieutenant-Governor 1,000 

Upper, or Western Canada, 

One Chief Justice £1,500 

Four Puisne Judges £900 each 3,600 

One Vice-Chancellor 1,125 

Lower, or Eastern Canada, 

One Chief Justice, Quebec £1,500 

Three Puisne Judges, Quebec, £900 each 2,700 

One Chief Justice, Montreal 1,100 

Three Puisne Judges, Montreal, £900 each 2,700 

One Resident Judge at Three Rivers .... 900 

One Judge of the Inferior District of Gasp6 500 

One Judge of ditto St Francis 500 

Pensions to Judges, Salaries of the Attorneys 
and Solicitors- General, and Contingent 
and Miscellaneous Expenses of the Ad- 
ministration of Justice throughout the 
Province of Canada 20,875 

Total, £45,000 

And a further sum of £30,000 out of the said Consolidated Revenue 
Fund for defraying the under-mentioned expenses of the Government. 

Civil Secretaries and their Offices £8,000 

Provincial Secretaries and their Offices. . . . 3,000 v 

' Receiver- General and his Office 3,000 

Inspector- General and his Office 2,000 

Executive Council 3,000 

Board of Works 2,000 

Emigrant Agent 700 

^Pensions 5,000 

Contingent Expenses of Public Offices. . . . 3,300 


CANADA. 209 

expenditure thereon to be laid before the Provincial 
Parliament within thirty days after the commencement 
of each session. 

The total sum of i£ 75,000 thus raised and paid for 
the Civil List, to be accepted and taken by Her Majesty 
by way of Civil list, instead of all territorial and other 
revenues then at the disposal of the Crown. 

The first charge upon the consolidated revenue fund 
to be its collection, management, and receipt ; the second 
the public debt of the two Provinces at the time of 
the Union-; the third, the payment of the clergy of the 
Church of England, Church of Scotland, and the minis- 
ters of other Christian denominations, agreeably to 
previous laws or usages ; the fourth charge, to be the 
Civil List of £45,000; and the fifth, that of £30,000, 
payable during the life-time of Her Majesty, and for 
five years after her demise. The sixth charge to be 
that of the expenses and charges before levied and 
reserved by former Acts of the two Provinces, as long 
as they are payable. 

All biUs for appropriating any part of the revenues 
of the United Province, to originate with the 
Governor, who shall have the right of initiating the 
same, as well as of recommending the appropriation 
of any new tax or impost, and that, having thus 
been recommended, the Legislative Assembly shall 
first discuss the same. 

The formation of new townships to originate with 
the Governor, as well as the appointment of township 
officers. The power vested in the Queen to annex 
the Magdalen Islands to the Government of the 
Island of Prince Edward, in the Gulf of St. Law- 

210 <?ANADA. 

rence; and the appcHntm^it of Governor of the 
Province of Canada to be understood as meaning^ 
Governor, Lieutenant-governor, or person authorised 
by Her Majesty, her heirs, and successors, to execute 
Hie office of Governor of that province. 

These are the principal features of the celebrated 
Act of Union which Lord Sydenham was to found 
his Government upon, and which had met with 
considerable opposition in the Legislature of Tipper 
Canada, the votes for the union in the Legislative 
Council being twelve, and eight against it ; and in 
Ae House of Assembly, forty-five for the Union, and 
ten against it. The Special Council of Lower Canada 
also passed resolutions in its favour. 

The next difficulty was the sore one of the disposal 
of the ctergy reserves, but Mr. Thompson got over 
It with great tact; and, as the settlement of this 
important question had been left by the Queen to 
the Provincial Parliament, a Bill was introduced by 
Mr. Draper, the SoUcitor-general, empowering the 
Governor to sell and alienate all these lands, to 
create a fund for the support of the clei^ of the 
Church of England, and of any other persuasion to 
which the faith of the Crown had been pledged 
during the lives of the present incumbents or holders. 
After paying these stipends, the -residue to be applied 
as follows, viz., one-half to the churches of England 
and Scotland within the province of Upper Canada, 
proportionably as to numbers; the residue to be 
divided amongst all other denominations of Christians 
recognised by the existing laws, in proportion to 
thdr annual private subscriptions. This Bill passed 

CANADA. 211 

the House by votes of twenty-eight to twenty, a 
majority only of eight. 

The Grovemor-general then, on the 14th January, 
sent a message to the Assembly, stating, that he 
had been commanded by Her Majesty to administer 
this Government '*in Hccordanee with the well- 
understood wishes of the people; and to pay to 
their feelings, as expressed through their repre- 
sentatives, the deference that is justly due to them.-' 
In oth^ words, that he was to carry out the new 
and dreaded system of responsible Government, which, 
whilst it gave him the power of dispensing with the 
services of every public officer who differed with 
him upon questions of policy, also made his Cabinet 
responsible to the people. 

Thus the first blow was aimed in Canada, at the 
long-established and almost hereditary rights of office 
and place, whilst a source of uneasiness was opened 
at every new election, and forebodings as to the 
power of the Reformers and Radicals, when the 
Union should be declared, were vay rife; nor did 
the Radicals delay to show their teeth very plainly, 
by the Durham meetings upon the subject of Reform, 
which, in some places, had created great alarm, the 
name of Lord Durham having been used as a eon- 
v^nent cloak to cover other designs. 

This declaration of the Governor-general was in- 
stantly followed by the removal of Mr. Hagerman, the 
Attorney-general, who had voted on the Union ques- 
tion, in the minority, and the appointment of the 
Solicitor-general, Mr. Draper, to succeed him, whilst 
Mr. Baldwin, the leader of the Reformers, was made 
Solicitcnr-general. Mr. Hagerman was at the same 

212 CANADA. 

time^ for his long and faithful services, raised to the 

The last Parliament of Upper Canada was prorogued 
on the 10th of February, by the Governor-general in 
person, who immediately left Toronto for Montreal, 
and to show his energy, he performed a journey by 
land, in a Russian sledge, of 390 miles, over the snow, 
in 86 hours, almost equalling steam, because there 
were necessarily several stoppages. The rate was, 
exclusive of these. 13 miles an hour with four 

On the 17th of April, the beautiful hollow column 
erected in honour of Sir Isaac Brock, the hero of 
Upper Canada, on the Queen^s Town heights, was 
treacherously entered, in the absence of the keeper, 
and some gunpowder placed in its base, to which a 
train having been laid and fired, the explosion so 
shattered this beautiful ornament of the country, that 
it became useless. It was ascended by 170 spiral- 
steps, and contains in its base the ashes of the hero 
and his aide-de-camp Colonel M'Donell, whilst &om 
its summit it commanded one of the most singular and 
sublime of views, looking over Lake Ontario, the 
River Niagara, and an endless succession of forest and 
cultivation in Canada and the United States, whilst 
the cloud of the Great Falls hung in the middle ground 
of the picture. 

To give an idea of the determined hatred of the 
perpetrator of this unholy deed to Canada, it must 
have required forethought and skill to have effected 
the destruction of the monument, the base of which 
was twenty-two feet square, and the walls six feet in 
thickness. The explosion was heard in Queen's Town, 

CANADA. 213 

between the hours of four and five in the morning, so 
that probably the previous night had been passed in 
the preparations. The upper or trap-door leading on 
the roof, had been left open by the keeper, which it is 
supposed gave vent to the suddenly expanded air, and 
thus saved some lives, as none of the stones of the 
building were thrown off, but the whole was rent, 
cracked, and contorted from base to summit. Some 
persons saw an enormous cloud of smoke rise from the 
roof, and it is therefore supposed that more than one 
barrel of powder was used. 

A grand and imposing meeting of the Militia 
ofScers, &c., of Upper Canada, presided over by Sir 
George Arthur, was held near its ruins, on the 30th of 
July, at which 5,000 persons were present, and a sub- 
scription entered into to rebuild it.* 

Mr. Thompson visited the different provinces of his 
government during the summer of this year, and was 
everywhere received with marks of the highest respect. 
His health was, unfortunately, not equal to the wear 
and tear of mind and body required, and thus he pro- 
bably hastened the event which so soon afterwards 
occurred, in consequence of an injury received from his 
horse stumbling at Kingston, whilst taking a ride. 
He lived to see, however, his project of making Kings- 
ton the seat of Government fully carried out, and also 
to set the grand experiment of the Union in operation, 
but, as might have been expected, his brief career was ^ 
passed amidst stormy opposition. 

* It is much to be lamented that this monument has not yet been 
restored, though there are ample funds for it The Editor submitted 
a design to the Building Committee, much within the amount sub- 

214 CANADA. 

A very troublesome occurrence took place in the 
latter end of 1840, by the forcible imprisonment in the 
United States, of ,Mr. Alexander M^Leod, supposed ta 
have been a principal actor in the destruction of the 
Caroline. This person had been a Deputy Sheriff of 
the Niagara District, and had in reality no connection 
whatever with the affair in question, but incautiously 
dropping some words which tended to a recognition of 
luB participation, he was most illegally imprisoned and 
tried by Courts whicK really had no jurisdiction in hi» 
case. The consequence was his escape firom a dilemma 
into which he brought himself, and had involved 
most seriously the Government, and after a very long 
imprisonment and causing the utmost excitement in 
the United States, he was restored to his coimtry, 
which had been perilled, for his sake, with a fresh 

Upper and Lower Canada were declared to be one 
Province, " the Province of Canada,^' from and after the 
10th day of February, 1841, and then commenced the 
tug oS political warfare. 

Sir George Arthur, who had so satisfactorily admi- 
nistered the Lieutenant-governorship, was, of course, at 
once supplanted, and afterwards returned to England, a 
Baronet, amidst the good wishes and applause of the 
Upper Canadians. 

It is a curious coincidence that the 10th of February 
in 1763, was the date of the final cession, by conquest, 
of Canada to England, and thus only seventy-eight 
years 'had passed since Canada was a British Colony 

The Governor-general immediately assembled a Coun- 
cil of Advice, and the undermentioned gentlemen were 

33 33 

33 33 

CANADA. 215 

appointed Members of the First Executive Council of 
Canada : 

The Hanourable Mr. R. B. Sullivan, President. 

J. H. Dunn, Receiver-general. 
D. Daly, Secretary, Canada 
,, ,^ S, B. Harrison, Secretary, Ca- 

nada West. 
„ „ C. B. Ogden, Attomey-gaieral, 

Canada West. 
„ „ W. B. Draper, Attorney-gene- 

ral, Canada East. 
,, „ B. Baldwin, Solicitor-general, 

Canada West. 
„ „ C. D. Day, Solicitor-gen&ral,. 

Canada East. 
As I shall give a list of the House, in 1842, at the 
close of this chapter, it will be only necessary to say 
that the first election terminated in the return of a 
majority in favour of the Govemor-generars plans ; 
upon the very first day when an embarrassing question 
to try their strength was mooted, we find forty-seven for 
the Government and twenty-seven in opposition to it. 

The Speaker chosen was Mr. CuviUier of Montreal, 
a French Canadian Reformer, who spoke both lan- 
guages, and who was supported by the Radicals becatise 
he had shown his want of confidence in the Adminis- 
tration, because he had been opposed to several im- 
portant parts of the Unicm Bill, — particularly the Civil 
List,-— because he had been opposed to the line of policy 
pursued towards Lower Canada, and because he was a 
firm supporter of the new system oi Responsible Go- 
vernment. He was chosen by the High Tories, by the 

216 CANADA, 

Conservatiyes^ and by the moderate Refonners^ because 
they had confidence in the excellent character he had 
sustained, and in his parliamentary experience, and 
because he had withdrawn from the reform ranks as 
soon as rebellion showed its head. 

The speech so eagerly looked for as developing the 
policy of the Government, contained the undermen- 
tioned declarations. 

1st. In allusion to the case of M^eod,her Majesty's 
firm determination to protect her Canadian subjects 
witC the whole weight of her power. 

2nd. A new arrangement of the Fost-ofSce. 

3rd. Extensive public works, in the improvement of 
the navigation from the ocean to Lake Huron; the 
erection of new communications in the inland districts, 
and for these purposes her Majesty^s Minister proposed 
to guarantee a loan to the magnificent extent of one 
million and a half sterling. 

4th. Emigration on an extended scale, and the dis- 
posal and settlement of the public lands. 

5th. A system of local self-government for the dis- 
tricts, by Municipal Councils. 

6th. A provision for the education of the people. 

7th. That a large sum would be annually devoted 
by the Home (jovemment to the military defences of 
the province. 

8th. The fixed and settled determination of the 
Queen ^' to maintain, at all hazards, her North Ame- 
rican possessions, as part of her Empire.'* 

No one could earp at such a speech, or turn it to 
party purposes, yet still there lingered a spark of that 
political flame, which soon blazed into a beacon thence- 
forward constantly before Lord Sydenham's eyes. 

CANADA. 217 

The High Tory party, few in number in the House, 
saw themselves evidently in a strange position, and the 
appointment of Mr. Parke, a noted Reformer in the 
last Upper Canadian Parliament, to the office of 
Surveyor-general, was alone sufficient to fan their 
latent fire. 

The leader of the Upper Canadian Reformers, Mr. 
Baldwin, took umbrage because the Governor-general 
did not apparently go so far with liberal measures .as 
his party had expected ; and therefore this gentleman 
very consistently resigned his place in the Cabinet, as 
he had done before, under Sir Francis Head^s Admi- 
nistration, threw up the Solicitor-generalship, and 
joined the ranks of the French and Western Canadian 

A junction so indicative of renewed troubles was 
compacted by the union of Mr. Hincks with Mr. 
Viger ; both holding the same political faiths, but who 
had been sundered upon trifling nationalities. They 
combined the Ultra-Reform party against the Mode- 
rados, and Mr. Parke was violently assailed for accept- 
ing office under a Ministry so equivocal. Thus a 
split in the ranks of the Reform party at once threw 
additional strength into British hands, and the Gover- 
nor-general immediately explained, through an official 
organ, that he was determined to carry out his views, 
by making the Executive Council and Heads of De- 
partments responsible for their acts to the House, — 
or rather, in other words, that they must individually 
resign their places, if they could not conscientiously 
perform their duties, in unison with his measures, for 
the good of the country. This is the true game of 


218 CANADA. 

^' Responsible Government/' as it has since been 
played in Canada for the nonce : however^ the former 
reading suited the ])urposej as it gave the Government 
the support of about fifteen Reformers^ and Mr. Bald- 
win was leading the Opposition with about twenty 
French Canadian members and fifteen from Western 
Canada. Six of the Council sat in the House. The 
High Tories^ Conservatives^ and Moderate Reformers^ 
numbered about thirty; and these were^ with the 
exception of four or five^ always ready to support the 
Executive when its measures were reasonable. 

But there was another grievance^ which began with 
the union^ and that was the composition of the Upper 
House^ or new Legislative Council^ in which many 
members were introduced almost unknown to the 
country ; whilst many were excluded^ who had all their 
latter lives been decorated with the title of Honourable 
Councillors. Some gentlemen refused to sit in it^ and 
others delayed being sworn in. 

But Lord Sydenham was not a man to be deterred 
by difficulties^ and his measures were hourly develop- 


ing the resources of the country. The purchase of the 
Welland Canal Stock from the proprietors^ in order that 
that great public work might be taken out of private 
hands^ was consummated by him. From 1837 to 1840 
the tolls on this canal^ insignificant as its construction 
was, had reached from £12,000 to £20,000.* 

* Lord Sydenham's grand scheme of internal improyement was as 
follows, amounting to £1,470,000 : 

To open the Welland Canal and the St Lawrence by canals for 
steam-boats, between Lake Erie and Montreal 

To improve the navigation of Lake St. Peter, between Montreal and 
Quebec, for the largest steamers. 

CANADA, 219 

But a new order of things was now about to occur 
at home, and a Gk)vernor-general, selected by a Whig 
Government, was shortly to try his strength under a 
Tory Ministry ; and by a very remarkable coincidence, 
the Tory leader in the Assembly, Sir Allan M^Nab, 
defeated the Canadian Cabinet by a majority of ten, 

To improve the River Richelieu by completing the Chambly Canal. 

To improve the Ottawa River, and make slides for timber upon it. 

To complete the inland water communications of the Newcastle 

To make a Port and erect Lighthouses on Lake Erie. 

To improve the Burlington Bay Harbour by enlarging the Canal. 

To form and complete great lines of roads from Quebec to Amherst- 
burgh and Port Sarnia, from Toronto to Lake Huron, between Quebec 
and the Eastern Townships, and between the Bay of Chaleurs and 
the St. Lawrence, by the following sums in loans granted by the 
Imperial Government on the Consolidated Revenue : 

Class L 
Welland and St Lawrence Canals .... £450,000 

River Richelieu 21,000 

Ottawa River 28,000 

Burlington Bay Canal 45,000 

Canal, Newcastle District 50,000 

Harbour and Lighthouses, Lake Erie and 

roads connected therewith 70,000 

Total £664,000 

Class IL 

Bay Chaleurs, or Kempt-road £15,000 

Gosford, or Eastern Townships-road .... 10,000 

Toronto, or Northern-road 30,000 

Main Province- road, or certain parts of it, 
leading from Quebec to Amherstburgh, 

and Port Sarnia 5,000 

Cascades to Cdteau du Lac 15,000 

Brantford to London 55,000 

Thence to Port Sarnia 15,000 

London to Chatham, Sandwich, and Am- 

herstburgh 86,000 

Total £181,000 


220 CANADA. 

upon a question involving electoral rights, at the very 
moment that the news of the Tories having gained 
a victory in the elections in Great Britain reached 

One of the last acts of the Whig Colonial Secretary, 
Lord John Russell, gave unmingled pleasure to every 
British subject in Canada. He addressed a dispatch 
of some length to the Governor-general, explanatory of 
Her Majesty's feelings towards Canada. He reiterated 
the determination of the Queen to uphold British inte- 
rests and honour in North America as a fixed and 
fundamental principle of British policy. He said that 
the Ministry had no other views than to bind Canada 
more firmly to Great Britain, to develope her resources, 
to strengthen the British population, to defend the 
territory, and to support and encourage the loyal spirit 
of the people. He then entered upon the great ques- 
tions of relieving the Colony of its debt of ^61,226,000, 
of executing the vast public works required for internal 
communications and for military defences ; with refer- 
ence to the fortifications, the minister stated that in 
addition to the ordinary annual expenditure, <£ 100,000, 
each succeeding year, would be applied for the com- 
pletion of such as had been now approved by the 
Master-general of the Ordnance, and by the Duke of 
Wellington, for the defence of the country. He 
entered at large upon an emigration system, and con- 
cluded this remarkable dispatch by saying, that " with 
a legislature in Canada disposed to co-operate with the 
Queen and the Parhament of the United Kingdom in 
developing her vast and imexplored resources, there 
is every hope that we shall behold the prosperity of 


CANADA. 221 

that noble province augment every year, and add 
more and more to the strength and stability of the 

Lord Sydenham, of course, found the new Ministry 
determined to carry out these views, as nothing could 
tend more to attach the loyal part of the population 
to the. Mother Country; whilst even those who still 
dreamt of separation, must have seen that such pro- 
tective measures would enhance the importance of 
Canada to an extent before unthought of. 

But, unhappily, the feelings of parties were still too 
sore, the " cicatrix^' too raw to bear handling, and Lord 
Sydenham, with declining health, met nothing but 
opposition. One determined blow was given by the 
mercantile community to a favourite measure of his 
Lordship's, that of the creation of a Provincial Govern- 
ment Bank of Issue; but he estabhshed a Board of 
Works, a much more useftd thing. This Board had 
originally been concocted in Upper Canada in 1836, by 
some persons of my acquaintance and myself, and I 
have now before me the printed draught of a Bill for 
the very purpose of erecting it under a President, imcon- 
nected with the Government or House of Assembly, as 
a member of the Cabinet or a representative of the 
people.* In short, I think that it would have been better, 
without any reference whatever to those who have the 
oflSce of President of the Board of Works, that, as in all 
our Eastern colonies, a scientific military ofl&cer had been 
appointed, whose rank in the army alone would have 
rendered him responsible, without any necessity for his 

• There was a Board of Works in Lower Canada, erected by ordi- 
nance of Sir John Colborne's Special CounciL — Editor. 

222 CANADA. 

being a politician j for to execute bxiA an important 
office^ the mind and the man should be unfettered and 

An officer of acknowledged abilities^ in the prime 
of life^ with two derks of works, one for the Upper and 
the other for the Lower divisions of the province, with 
resident civil-engineers cm the lines of the great canals 
and roads, would, with a system of accountability Hke 
that of the Ordnance, which admits of no payments by 
the department making out the estimates and bills, 
be of the utmost serviqe ; and it is somewhat surprising, 
considering the long peace, that the Government have not 
largely employed a corps of Topographical Engineers on 
such colonial duties. In Ireland Ordnance officers direct 
the canals, and in England the railroads are under their 
supervision. In fact, canals and railroads are justly and 
truly great military, as well as great commercial, high- 
ways. I do not desire to see them employed in building 
Government houses, or in the drudgery of repairing 
colonial edifices, but there is a sort of right which the 
Government has acquired in Canada, by its munificent 
outlay and loan, to ensure all the roads, whether by land 
or water, being adapted to military convenience and mili- 
tary uses. Besides, parliamentary influence must more 
or less attach to a Director of Works who is a Cabinet 
officer, and who has to run about to look for consti- 
tuents every time the House is dissolved ; whilst it must 
always interfere with duties which require his presence 
in every part of the province. The Director-general of 
Public Works should not be a politician, and he cannot 
help being one if he is a member either of the Council 
or of the Asseinbly. 

CANADA. 223. 

We have only to read the report of Mr. Killaly, the 
first President, to show what is the extent of his duty ; 
and in the next chapter we shall revert to this subject 
of the public works of Canada, as they were at first 
brought forward by Lord Sydenham, to his eternal 

The Naturalization Bill for Aliens {alias American 
residents), was one of his Lordship's successful mea- 
sures ; by which thousands of persons who had settled 
in the province became subjects of the Queen. 

But the career of Lord Sydenham was terminating, 
and just as the news of the change of Ministry in 
England arrived at Kingston, his Lordship met with 
the serious accident* which ended in his death, after 
great suffering. He expired on the morning of the 
19th September, 1841, and the Parliament was accord- 
ingly prorogued by Major-general Clitherow, Deputy- 
governor of Western Canada, who had been appointed 
the day before his death by Lord Sydenham for that 
express purpose. 

Lord Sydenham and Toronto was buried in St. 
George's Church in Kingston, with the honours due 
to his elevated station. 

Just about this time a notorious fellow of the name 
of Grogan,t who had figured as an incendiary on the 

* A broken leg, by a fall from his horse. — Editor. 

f The atrocities of this disgrace to human nature, Grogan, about 
whom the two nations were nearly getting into as serious a dispute as 
the M*Leod case, were almost beyond belief, — equalled only those of 
Bill Johnson and Lett. On the night of the 29th and 30th December, 
1840, he passed over into Canada from the State of Vermont, near the 
head of Mississquoi Bay, with a party of miscreants in sleighs in a 
severe snow-storm, surprised the Militia sentries, and committed the 
following awful crimes before he was driven off. The family of 

224 CANADA. 

Canadian frontier, adjoining the State of Vermont, was 
kidnapped by some loyal but thoughtless young men 
in that State, and brought into Canada, where a reward 
had been offered for his apprehension. This was taken 
up instantly by the American authorities ; and it was 
given out, most industriously, that he had been 

Johnson, an industrious farmer, consisting of his wife, two sons, and four 
daughters, were aU asleep at ahout one o'clock on Sunday morning, when 
the sentry was astonished to see several sleighs filled with armed men 
drive up to the door, amidst a furious storm of wind and snow. They 
immediately, before he could alarm the sleepers, burst open the door> 
and with horrid imprecations roused the family, and drove them naked 
into the night-storm. They ran into the woods to a log-hut for half 
a mile up to their waists in the drifted snow, the inhuman villains 
firing at them as they fled ; and although the poor girls had been on 
their knees imploring them to allow them to dress, bayonets, levelled 
at their breasts, was the only reply. When the unhappy family 
reached the hut, their hands and feet were frost-bitten, "and their 
house, their bams, their outhouses, cattle, hay, and grain, with all 
they possessed, a prey to devouring flames. Grogan then went to 
Mr. Clark's house,— who had a wife and six children, the oldest only 
twelve, and the youngest but three days old. The picquet had 
alarmed this family, and they were fortunately enabled to hurry on 
their clothes. They drove them all out, but spared the house on 
account of the interference of one of the women, who implored them 
to let the poor mother return. They sought for Clark, to murder 
him, but he escaped. His bams, outhouses, and stock of every kind 
were, however, burnt He went then to Mr. Maine's, where the same 
barbarities were enacted ; but the fire was extinguished in the dwell- 
ing-house only after Grogan had fled, all the rest of this farmer's 
property being destroyed. John Gibson, a farmer also, was next 
visited. He had a wife and five children, — the eldest fifteen, the 
youngest at the breast. This family was caught asleep, pulled from 
bed, and driven naked into the pitiless storm, the mother imploring 
vainly for clothing to cover her babe. They lost their way in the 
snow of the trackless woods, and ran half a mile before they found 
slielter j when the fee't and hands of the poor father and mother became 
so completely frozen, as to be soon shapeless masses of flesh. Their 
house, furniture, clothing, barn, hay- stacks, in short, everything was 

CANADA. 225 

captured by British soldiers as a hostage for 

Sir Richard Jackson^ the Commander of the Forces^ 
who had been sworn in to administer the Government, 
as soon as he heard of the arrest, immediately ordered 
his release, and the capturers were duly punished ; and 
thus ended another border excitement, which threat- 
ened heavily against M^Leod; who was, however, soon 
afterwards tried and acquitted. 

Of Lord Sydenham's life and times in Canada it 
would be useless to say much in this work, as his 
brother, assisted by Mr. Murdoch, his Lordship's 
chief secretary, published a work expressly djBVoted to 
that subject. We may therefore embrace what is now 
to be written in a very few words. 

Lord Sydenham carried out the plan of the Union. 
He left Canada tranquil and flourishing. He gave an 
impetus to public improvement, which no man in that 
country had ever imagined possible, under the lapse 
of half a century, could have been dreamt of. He 
endeavoured to render it a British Colony without pre- 
judice to the French Canadian interests, and he opened 
a wide door to exertion in the rising generation. 
With a steady and unwavering hand, but with a weak 
body, he pursued his task, and fulfilled his mission at 
least honestly, leaving behind him in the race of life 
many bitter political, but few private enmities. 

Kingston owes him much ; Toronto little : the selec- 
tion of the former as the seat of Goverament was 
probably meant to paralyze long-standing interests in 
the latter ; and if so, succeeded. 


226 CANADA. 

The Reformers were elevated in his reign ; the Ultra- 
Tories hid their diminished heads ; but although many 
of his appointments were very singular in their nature^ 
it is probable they were solely made with .a view to 
balance the opposing parties^ and without reference 
to the persons. He did not appear to have thought 
it requisite to bring into action and power those who 
had openly endeavoured to sever the connection with 
England, or to permit the French Canadian to have 
more than his due weight in the affairs of the country ; 
but in order to break the party which had ruled into 
fractions, he called in .several Reformers of Upper 
Canada, who were known by another name during the 

His Government was, therefore, not very satisfactory 
to the Ultra-Tory, the Conservative, the moderate Re- 
former, the red-hot Radical, or to the luke-warm friend 
of Canada; and his^time was passed in a constant 
struggle, not to annihilate, but to break up these 
opposite factions. 

We shall now see how a High Tory successor sat 
upon the Vice-regal throne. 

The year 1842 saw this throne occupied by a very 
different Viceroy. Mr. Thompson was, comparatively 
speaking, a new man,— -a man of the people,— well 
connected, however, but not able to blazon on his 
escutcheon a line of bearings derived from the Con- 
quest. Sir Charles Bagot, of jm ancient and time- 
honoured English family, was essentially of the aristo- 
cracy, bred in High Toiy principles, and accustomed 
from early life to courts and diplomacy ; but he had 

CANADA. 227 

passed that age of man^s existence wherein vigour of 
mind and vigour of body are usually in their prime. 
A thorough-bred gentleman of the best English school^ 
accustomed to the highest circles of society from in- 
fancy. Sir Charles had now to contend, for the first 
time, with Colonial poUcy, and to meet a storm which 
he never imagined could have been raised, and from 
which neither his high rank nor his acknowledged 
talents availed him for an instant. He, seeing the dif- 
ficulties with which his forerunner had struggled, and 
the utter impossibility of obtaining support for his 
Government from the Tories or the British Reformers, 
who had both left Lord Sydenham to fight his own 
battles whenever it suited their respective views, sought 
the Fi*ench Canadians as his allies ; and thus at once 
brought over to his camp Mr. Baldwin, and that section 
of the Upper Canadian Reformers which he led. 

The French Canadians, delighted at the prospect of 
being really considered as worthy to share the loaves 
and fishes, and as being honoured by a real station in 
the Government, immediately rallied round him j and 
men whose names, during the rebellion, figured upon 
the lists of the Attorney-general or the Provost-mar- 
tial, were now seen filling the prominent ofl&ces of the 
State. Ruin, — ruin, inevitable and uncontrolled, was 
now predicted to Canada. The fact is, that the French 
Canadian may be made as loyal as he was in former 
wars ; and if that can be achieved, what does it signify 
who the person, — the mere person, — is who holds a 
temporary office ? And after all, may not that person, 
when he sees that his rights as a British subject are 
respected, abjure his for^ier errors, and become one of 

228 CANADA. 

the most devoted subjects of the Queen ? Leave out 
some of the leaders^ and many good and loyal men 
amongst the British Canadians will be willing to throw 
as thick a veil as possible over the past. And it is to 
be borne in mind that emigration is now going on at 
the rate of nearly 40,000 persons a year from the 
Mother Country. Where, then, will be even nume- 
rical superiority in the Lower Canadian French some 
years hence ? The Anglo-Saxon race will swallow it 
up, and in twenty years the French Canadian will have 
discovered that he is behind-hand with the rest of the 
world, and that feudal systems and a law of gavelkind 
are unsuitable to his advancement. He will learn 
English, or, at least, his children will, and Canada 
must, as the Ameiicans say, in the meantime progress 
by tranquillizing his fears* 

The opinion upon this subject, delivered by the 
political writer in that leading European journal, " The 
Times/'* will convey aU I have to say on this subject* 


{From the London Times, Oct. 27, 1842.) 
" It is, of course, with the greatest difficulty that any one not prac- 
tically versed in the politics of Canada can pronounce an opinion 
upon the late important step of Sir Charles Bagot, in calling to 
his councils men so notorious ibr past indisposition to the British 
Qovernment as those who have lately accepted office with such cii-« 
cumstances of triumph. One thing alone is certain— that it is the 
commeneement ef a new era in colonial government It i& a great 
experiment, perhaps forced upon Sir Charles Bagot hy the policy of 
his predecessors, hut certainly of a most novel character, and the 
issue of which can only be looked to with the most extreme anxiety 
9nd diffidence. 

** We have already observed upon the desirableness of admitting the 
French population of Lower Canada to a larger share in the govern- 
ment of that Colony than has been hitherto conceded them. Many 
dvBiunstances recommend such a^ course. Their own simple and 

CANADA. 229 

I regret the necessity of employing some few only of 
these persons ; but I admit it^ and augur good results 

honest character, their mere numerical importance, their indisposition 
to the alliance of our encroaching and untrustworthy neighbours of 
the United States ; — all these circumstances point them out as fit 
recipients of a share, and a substantial one, of political power and 

" This, the Act of Union of 1840, unpopular as it at first was with 
them, has at once given them. That Act conferred on a body of 
people not, we believe, at heart indisposed to the British protection, 
but still fomenting from the effects of late popular excitement, a pre- 
ponderance in the popular assembly of Canada. Not only this, but 
the theory of a responsible Government was established. The instru- 
ment and representative of the Imperial Government was compelled 
to exercise his powers, not at the will of that central jjower w^hich 
regulates the movements of the whole, but in obedience to the partial 
and probably short-sighted wishes of that province which he was com-' 
missioned to administer. A principle of colonial government, not 
devoid of a certain plausible generosity, — nay, more, practically sound 
and wise, — but, in the extent to which it has been applied, mo:^ 
hazardous in the abstract, has been forced to its first practical trial 
under circumstances which multiply tenfold its danger and incon- 
venience. The power to control their Governor has been transferred 
from the Home Government to the colonial population at a moment 
when they have scarcely quitted a position of distinct and illegal hos- 
tility to it. 

*• The result may prove auspicious ; we are willing to hope the best. 
But it is a somewhat ominous consequence of this new order of things, 
that the Governor is compelled to call to his councils, on their own 
terms, men who have lately been proscribed, or in prison ; and that 
the choice of individuals is justified upon the ground that the leaders 
of the French party, now predominant, were all in the same scrape, 
and that if any influential Frenchman at all is now to aid the Govern- 
ment of Canada, it must necessarily be one of those, who were traitors, 
or suspected, a few years back.. The outset is unfortimate ; not, we 
believe, from the fault of Sir Charles Bagot, or the present Govern- 
ment, but from the indiscretion of those who have precipitated this 
revolution, who have left to their successors no choice between so. 
perilous a risk as the present, and the still more daring alternative of 
suspending the fresh Canadian constitution, and supporting that 

230 CANADA. 

from so determined a line of policy by the Tory 
Ministry. I augur well from it, for two reasons. The 

suspension by the bayonets of the British soldiery, and the physical 
energy of a fraction of the inhabitants. 

" We should not, however, omit to remark upon the great strength 
which, at least in the House of Assembly, the Government appears 
to have combined by its present concession. A majority of fifty-five 
to five at the opening of its sittings, is a primd facie evidence of no 
ordinary power ; nor is the liberal and French press less sanguine in 
their auguries, or loud in their panegyrics of the Governor's policy 
than might have been expected from the circumstances. We are told 
that by these concessions the afi&ctions of the French are for ever 
bound to the British Government, and that our troops may be with- 
drawn from Canada with no longer delay than is necessary to find 
room for them in England. 

** Such is usually the language of those who are gaining their point 
Lavish of promises till the next occasion of collision, it is ever their 
object, by their very eulogiums, to create an obligation to proceed — 
by the very profuseness of their acknowledgments to raise extravagant 
expectations in their followers, and to affix an extravagant interpre-> 
tation to the concessions they have extorted, which may be appealed 
to in future times, in order to heighten the odium of pausing in the 
course which has been once begun. It becomes an act of treachery 
to fall short of the expectations of so grateful a population. The 
greater the original boon, the more difficult and dangerous it is made 
to decline that further progress which it is held to imply. We do not 
then set any great store upon the present promising aspect of affairs. 
This momentary popularity may indeed be the attendant upon a bold 
and well-timed policy, but it may be the equally natural result of a 
weak and imprudent concession. Which it is, the future must decide. 
Two remarks only we would venture before concluding. 

" One is tjiis — that the present arrangements offer little prospect of 
permanence. Between the English Ultra- Reformers and the French 
Colonists there is no real commmiity of interest or principle. The 
patriarchal habits of the latter, their unenterprising though indus- 
trious characters, their prejudices, simplicity, and native refinement 
of feeling, render them no natural allies of the active, pushing, inde- 
pendent, money-making English Radical ; and any continued union 
between two such parties, however possible in the loose warfare of 
opposition, can neither be hoped nor feared from them when engaged 

CANADA. 231 

first, because the French Canadian must see that justice 
is done to his claims, as representing one good half of 
the Canadian population. The second, because it must 
equally assure him that Great Britain is not afraid of 
his counteraction. I could add another ; and I may as 
well, for I believe, from the bottom of my heart, that 
the French Canadian is, as I before have said, a gentle- 
man when educated, and an excellent fellow at all 
times, when undisturbed by demagogues. But with 
" The Times^^ and with its opinions, I conclude this 
chapter, and nearly this book. 

As hereafter it will be very interesting to the 
Canadian public to know who composed Sir Charles 
Bagot's Parliament, I subjoin the most accurate 
list I can ' obtain, taken from the Montreal Gazette^ 

in the practical details of legislation and administration. The present 
coalition is a mere transition state ; we shall have another shuffling 
of the cards before we can tell what is to turn up for Canada. 

*' Secondly, if we did not look forward to this second breaking up 
of parties, our expectations would be more gloomy than they are. 
Already from within the Government's Cabinet we hear sentiments 
broached of no favourable nature to British supremacy — intimations, 
if we rightly understand them, of doubt whether the act of the 
Imperial Legislature is conclusively binding on the Colonies without 
the additional sanction of the colonial ratification. If this is to be the 
tone of the coalition, speedy be its dissolution ; for such administering 
of the affairs of the Colony on the principle now apparently conceded 
of " responsible," that is, in fact, independent, local Government, 
would be indeed a dangerous enemy to the Home authority ; as the 
shrewd Yankee press has found out, telling us with some admixture 
of contempt, that however generous, however worthy of a new era in 
government that principle may be, it is palpably at variance with the 
laws of colonial empire, and must disable us from holding that empire 
together one year after it has ceased to be supported by the most 
palpable and present coincidence of interests." 

[There is also an admirable commentary in the Standard of the 
same time.] 

232 CANADA. 

and from the Toronto Patriot of October 4th, 



The names of Members and Places arranged alphabetically. 

Speaker — Hon. Austin Cuvillier. 

Names of Members — alphabetically, 

' Armstrong, D. M Berthier. 

Aylwin, T. C Portneuf. 

Baldwin, Robert Hastings. 

Boulton, H. J Niagara. 

Boutillier, Dr. T. St Hyacintbe. 

Bartbe, J. G Yamaska. "■ 

t Bertbelot, Amable Kamouraska. 

Bucbanan, Isaac Toronto, City. 

Borne, Micbael Rimouski. 

Black, Hon. Henry Quebec, City. 

Burnet, David Ditto. 

Boswell, G. M Nortbumberland, Soutb Riding. 

Crane, Samuel Grenville. 

Cuvillier, Hon. Austin ,,.,.. Huntington. 

Cook, Jobn Dundas. 

Cartwrigbt, J. S Lenox and Addington. 

Cbesly, S. Y Cornwall. 

** Cameron, Malcolm Lanark. 

Cbristie, Robert Gasp€. 

Cbild, Marcus -. . . Stanstead. 

Daly, Hon. D Megantic. 

Draper, Hon. W. H Russell. 

Dewitt, Jacob Leinster. 

Dunlop, William Huron. 

Dunscombe, J. W Beauhamois. 

Derbishire, S Bytown. 

Duggan, G. R York, Second Riding. 

Delisle, Alexander M Montreal, County. 

Dunn, Hon. J. H Toronto, City. 

Durand, James Halton, West Riding. 

Forbes, C. J Two Mountains. 

Foster, Dr. Sewell ShefFord. 

Gilchrist, Dr. John Northumberland, North Riding 

Harrison, Hon. S. B Kingston. 

CANADA. 233 

Since this List was made, there were some remark- 
able changes in the Cabinet. 

Holmes, Benjamin , Montreal, City. 

Hale, Edward Sherbrooke, Town. 

Hopkins, Caleb Halton, East Riding. 

Hincks, Hon. Francis ....*. Oxford. 

Hamilton, John R. Bonaventure. 

Jones, Hon. Robert ...*.... Mississquoi. 

Johnston, James Carlton. 

Kimber, Dr. R. J «... Cfhamplain. 

Killaly, Hon. H. H. London. 

Lafontaine, L. H York, Fourth Riding. 

Leslie, James V ercheres. 

Moore, John Sherbrooke, County. 

Morris, James ^ . .' Leeds. 

Moffat, Hon. George Montreal, City. 

Merritt, W. H Lincoln, North Riding. 

M'Nab, Sir A. N Hamilton. 

M'Donell, J. S » Glengarry. 

M'CuUoch, Dr. M Terrebonne. 

McLean, Alexander Stormont 

M'Donald, Donald Prescott 

Noel, Dr. J. B • Lotbiniere. 

Neilson, John * Quebec, County. 

Ogden, Hon. C. R Three Rivers. 

Papineau, D. B Ottawa. 

Powel, Israel M Norfolk. 

Prince, John Essex. 

Parent, Etienne Saguenay. 

Parke, Thomas Middlesex. 

Price, James H York, First Riding. 

Quesnel, F. A Montmorency. 

Roblin, J. P Prince Edward. 

Simpson, John Vaudrueil. 

Smith, Henry, jun Frontenac. 

Small, James E York, Third Riding. 

Sherwood, George Brockville. 

Smith, Dr. Hermanns Wentworth. 

Steel, Elmes * Simcoe. 

Tachg, Dr. Etienne L' Islet 

Turgeon, Abraham Bellechasse. 

Turcotte, J. E St Maurice. 

234 CANADA. 

The Honorable Mr. Draper resigned the Attorney- 
generalship for Canada West^ and the Attorney-general 

Tborburn, David Lincoln, South Riding/ 

Tachereau, A. C Dorchester. 

Thompson, D Haldimand. - 

Viger, Hon. D. B Richelieu. 

Viger, L. M Nicolet 

Walker, William Rouville. 

Watts, R. N Drummond. 

Williams, John T Durham. 

Woods, Joseph Kent. 

Yule, John Chamhiy. 


Speaker — Hon. R. S. 



, R. S. Jamieson. H< 

}n. John M'Donald. 


P. B. De Blacquiere. , 

4 Adam Ferrie. 


Peter M'GiU. 

, J. B. Tache. 


R. B Sullivan. , 

, P. H. Knowlton. 


R. E. Caron. , 

« Thomas M'Kay. 


William Morris. , 

, Gabriel Roy. 


George Pemberton. , 

, P. H. Moore. 


Alexander Fraser. , 

, Robert Dickson. 


Barthelemi Joliette. , 

, Amable Dionne. 


James Crooks. , 

, Joseph Dionne. 


Adam Fergusson. , 

, George Goodhue 


John Fraser. , 

, I. P. Sherwood. 


John Macaulay. , 

. William Walker. 


John Hamilton. , 

, Sim. Washburn. 


F. P. Bruneau. 

Names of Places — alphabetically, 

Brockville George Sherwood. 

Berthier D. M. Armstrong. 

Beauhamois J. W. Dimscombe. 

Bellechasse A. Turgeon. 

Bonaventure J. R. Hamilton. 

Bytown S. Derbyshire. 

Carlton James Johnson. 

Champlain Dr. R. J. Kimber. 

Chambly Jolm Yule. 

CANADA. 235 

for Canada East^ Mr. Ogden^ was displaced. Mr. 
Sherwood, Solicitor-general for Upper Canada, was 

Cornwall S. Y. Chesley. 

Dorchester A. C. Tachereao. 

Drummond K. N. Watts. 

Dundas John Cook. 

Durham J. T. Williams. 

Essex John Prince. 

Frontenac Henry Smith, juD. 

Gasp6 R. Christie. 

"Glengarry .* J. S. M'Donell. 

Grenville S. Crane. 

Hamilton Sir A. N. M'Nab. 

Halton, East Riding Caleb Hopkins. 

Ditto, West Riding J. Durand. 

Hastings Robert Baldwin. 

Haldimand D. Thompson. 

Huntingdon Hon. A. Cuvillier. 

Huron Dr. W. Dnnlop. 

Kent . . Joseph Woods. 

Kingston Hon. S. B. Harrison. 

Kamouraska Amable Barthelot. 

Lanark » Malcolm Cameron. 

Leinster Jacob De Witt 

Leeds James Morris. 

L'Islet Dr. E. Tachg. 

London « Hon H. Killaly. 

Lincoln, North Riding W. H. MerritL 

Ditto, South Riding David Thorburn. 

Lenox and Addington J. S. Cartwright 

Lotbiniere Dr. J. B. Noel. 

Megantic Hon. D. Daly. 

Montreal, City J »°"- ^*"'8f ^"^^ 

I Benjamin Holmes. 

Ditto, County Alexander Delisle. 

Middlesex Thomas Parke. 

Montmorency F. A. Quesnel. 

Mississquoi Hon. Robert Jones. 

Niagara H. J. Boulton. 

Nicolet L. M. Viger. 

Norfolk L. M. Powell. 

Northumberland, N. Riding. . Dr. John Gilchrist 

236 CANADA. 

also superseded^ as well as Mr. Davidson and Mr. 

The Cabinet was then recomposed, as follows : 
The Hon. Mr. R. B. Sullivan, President of the 


Northumberland, South Riding . . G. M. Boswell. 

Ottawa D. P. Papineau. 

Oxford Hon. Francis Hincks. 

Prince Edward ' J. B. Roblin. 

Portneuf T. C. Aylwin. 

Prescott Donald M'Donald. 

Quebec, City /^°"- ^- ^"^"^ 

ID. Burnet. 

Ditto, County John Neilson. 

Russell Hon. W. H. Draper. 

Richelieu Hon. D. B. Viger. 

Rouville W. VSTalker. 

Rimouski Michael Borne. 

Shefford Dr. Sewell Foster. 

Stanstead Marcus Child. 

Simcoe Elmes Steele. 

Stormont Alexander M'Lean. 

Sherbrook, Town Edward Hale. 

Ditto, County John Moore. 

Saguenay Etienne Parent ^ 

St Maurice J. E. Turcotte. 

St Hyacinthe Dr. T. Boutillier. 

Three Rivers Hon. C. R. Ogden." 

Terrebone Dr. M. M'Culloch. 

Toronto r Hon. J. H. Dunn. 

\ Isaac Buchanan. 

Two Mountains C. J. Forbes. 

Vercheres James Leslie. 

Vaudreuil John Simpson. 

Wentworth Dr. Hermanns Smith. 

Yamaska J. G. Barthe. 

York, First Riding J. H. Price. 

Ditto, Second Riding George Duggan, Jun. 

Ditto, Third Riding J. E. Small. 

Ditto, Fourth Riding L. H. Lafontaine, 


CANADA. 237 

The Hon. Mr. Harrison, Secretary, C.E, 

Dunn, Receiver-general. 
Killaly, President of Board of 
„ Hincks, Inspector-general of 

Public Accounts. 
Baldwin, Attorney-general, C.E. 
Small, Solicitor-general, C.E. 
Daly, Secretary, C.W. 
Lafontaine, Attorney-general, C . W. 
,^ Aylwin, Solicitor-general, C.W. 

„ Morin, Commissioner of Crown 


In 1842, the House of Assembly was divided as 
follows, according to the Toronto Examiner : 

Firm supporters of the above Ministry . 60 
Decidedly opposed . . . .13 

Doubtful ...... 11 


Of the 60 Ministerial supporters, the Patriot said 
as follows : 

Ministers themselves . , . .10 
Other OflSce-holders during pleasure, chiefly 

local ...... 17 


Other Members, including those whose 

seats were questionable . , .33 


238 CANADA. 

Of the 24 opposed or doubtful^ are Office- 
holders during pleasure (mostly 
local officers) .... 8 

Other Members . . . . .16 


Total Office-holders . . . . .35 
Others ...... 49 


Sir Charles Bagot^ in short, worked with a majority 
of Reformers chiefly through -a French interest, as 
Lord Sydenham had worked with a British one ; and 
although he slept not on a bed of roses, he resigned 
his life respected for the purity of his intentions, and 
with the character of the old English gentleman, — his 
honour untarnished, and his sufferings from illness 
deeply and universally regretted. 

From the mass of intelligence in the United Legis- 
lature, there was every reason to believe that harmony 
would at length arise upon most of the questions of 
real interest to the Colony ; and there was very little 
doubt that Sir Charles Metcalfe was the most proper 
person who could have been selected to work that 
desirable end, and that he would succeed in governing 
Canada upon open and manly terms was scarcely to 
be doubted. 

It was useless to listen to the unreasonable cry of 
swamping the French, and making Upper Canada 
interests alone the rule. The immense emigration 
from Britain yearly would alone operate as a counter- 
check to French principles, or to any fear of Lower 

CANADA. 239 

Canada having an undue preponderance; whilst the 
impetus given to exertions by the magnificent scheme 
of opening the St. Lawrence to Lake Superior for 
ocean-going vessels^ will go far to annihilate the feudal 
barbarism of the race which borders upon the banks of 
that father of floods; for steapiboats will make com- 
merce^ and commerce will make population^ and the 
back country must be opened. See what steamboats 
have done for the Mississippi. Before they rode upon 
the muddy waves of that river, the Louisianian French 
alone occupied its best littoral ; now the Anglo-Saxon 
only appears, and a thousand miles of water and forest 
own his sway, and bear annually vast tokens of his 
increase, of his active mind, and of his dauntless 
exertions. So it will be with the St. Lawrence, On- 
tario, Erie, and Huron, when steamboats pass unin- 
terruptedly from Quebec into Lake Superior. 

240 CANADA. 


Reflections on the probable future destinies of Canada, and general 
polity of the Colonial £mpire of Great Britain in Northern 

It is with the utmost pleasure I turn from the tire- 
some and laborious work of fonning the outline of 
Canadian politics^ given in the last chapter^ to " matter 
more attraclive^^^ and in which the mind has its free 
scope. The first thing which must now occupy the 
inquisitive reader is the financial condition of the 

The following is the statement of the Inspector- 
general, down to the end of the December quarter of 
1841, of the monetary aflfairs of the Province of 
Canada ; and as it gives, at one glance, the extent' of 
the Public Works, the Public Debt, and the Public 
Credit, I shall not curtail one word of it, or one figure, 
and thus place it under the reader^s eye without note 
or comment. [See pp. 242 and 243.] 

The internal commerce of this fine country is rapidly 
increasing, and the lake ports of Ontario becoming 
yearly of more importance. In 1830, on Lake Ontario 
the traffic was confined to York, Kingston, and Niagara,. 

CANADA. 241 

whilst Coburg was only starting^ as a port^ into 
existence. Now these are numerous^ and several are 
driving a large trade with the interior^ and sailing or 
steam-vessels penetrate into every available " coign of 
vantage^^ along the whole of a shore which Nature 
has rendered it necessary for man to improve the com- 
munications of^ so straight and deficient of harbours as 
it is. I shall just give one instance to show how the 
Canadian shores of this beautiful lake are improving. 
The Newcastle District is, perhaps, the worst provided 
with natural harbours of any part of its circuit, either 
on the British or American littoral; and yet here, 
such have been the silent strides of commerce, that 
places unknown on the map yield a revenue to the 
Custom-house. There- has, in fact, been a great deal 
of enterprise in that district, which is one (jf the finest 
in the whole province. 

In the Revenue Returns I observe, for 1841, the 
undermentioned places are mentioned as becoming 
productive : 

Ports. Receipts. 

£ s. d. 
Bond Head and Darlington . . 201 2 3^ 

Coburg 1,005 ^ 

Newcastle and Trent .... 168 1 5J 

Port Hope 595 14 4J 

Windsor 380 13 8i 

Total . ... £2,350 12 4i 

In short, the revenue from the great Mediterranean 
fresh-water seas of Canada is steadily increasing ; for, 
notwithstanding the- pressure of the times, the im- 


242 CANADA. 


On the Z\st rf 


£ «. i. 

Sterling Debentures, interest payable at Glynn, 

Mills, Halifax, and Co., sterling, £450,000 444,444 8 10 

Sterling Debentures, interest payable at Baring 

and Co., sterling, £438,850 .« 487,511 2 3 

Balance due Glynn, Mills, Halifax and Co. ...... 28,26)11 6 

Balance due Baring Brothers and Co 11,703 8 1) 

Bank of Upper Canada 20,000 

Gore Bank 6,000 

Provincial Debentures, Upper Canada 289,544 I 2 

. Ditto Lower Canada 123,675 

Profit on Exchange sold by the Becelver-general 

Interest account, for interest on loans to Public 


Balance due to Public Accountants : 

Collectors of Customs 



Clergy Re«rye Fund, Canada West 

Clergy Reserve Fund, Canada East 

Clergy Reserve Fund 

Jesuits' Estate Fund 

School Land Fund 

Trinity Fund, Quebec 

Trinity Fund, Montreal 

Tonnage Duty Revenue 

Lunatic Asylum Fund 

n,411,239 11 


45,844 19 


18,083 13 


225 7 


16 9 


£59,155 9 


18,982 18 


811 9 


11,606 19 


23,502 I 


2,055 5 


2.215 16 


645 10 

616 2 

1,577 6 


£61,513 5 2| 

Consolidated Revenue Fund for balance of that 
Account 73,280 16 2J 

Civil List, Schedule B, 1841, for balance of that 
Account , 1,621 13 \\ 

Receiver general Dunn, balance per 
his account current, sterling £2,525 17 

Warrants issued for the service of 
1841, and credited him, but un- 
paid i 50,524 8 11 

£56,998 11 11 

63,331 15 4i 

Currency £1,670,142 10 lOi 

F. HiKCKS, IfupeeioT'-general. 

Kingston, 21 st September, 1842. 

CANADA. 243 

December f 1841. 


£ «. d. 

Home District Toll-roads 95,723 4 0| 

Hamilton and Bran tford-road 45,804 12 1 

Dundas and Waterloo-road •» 29,246 16 4 

Kingston and Napanee-road • ?0,555 2 3 

Brockville and St. Francls-TOad 7,692 17 

Erie and Ontario Railroad Company 5,514 1 8 

Oakville Harbour Company 3,723 16 6 

Coburg Harbour Company 5,211 18 3 

Port Hope Harbour Company 3,075 8 

Desjardins Canal Company 22,415 14 1 

Grand River Navigation Company 588 16 II 

Tay Navigation Company 1.461 2 

Grantham Academy 318 2 7 

Montreal Turnpike Trust 1,211 16 

Quebec Turnpike Trust 400 19 


£283,524 14 II J 


Welland Canal ^ 462,856 18 10 

St. Lawrence. Canal 440,097 11 

Trent Navigation 23,364 11 7 

Inland Waters Newcastle ^District 21,660 

Kettle Creek Harbour ...'.« 6,500 f 

Paris Bridge 2,000 

Trent Bridge 4,800 

Chatham Bridge 2,000 

Brantford Bridge 2,000 

Dunville Bridge 1,700 

Garafraxa-road ^2,500 

New Brunswick-road... M •• 2,500 

Kingston Penitentiary 43,198 15 9 

Kingston Hospital 3,000 

Parliament Buildings, Toronto „ 5,000 

West Gwillimhury-road and Bridge m. 955 S 5 

St. Ann's Rapids 4,308 16 44 

Harbour of Montreal 87.175 

Chambly Canal 85,000 

Steam Dredge, Montreal 1,500 

Thomas Wilson and Company, for this sum 

owing the Province ••.«•.»■•••...•• 66,140 1 

£1,225,346 17 3i 


Collectors of Customs 59,095 110 

Inspectors 4,528 }% 1^ 

Commissioner of Crown Lands ^ ^ 3,733 8 

Receiver of Licences ». ».... 3,696 

Na«ral Officer 4,732 9 8 

Outstanding Bonds, Montreal 18,312 6 5 

Outstanding Bonds. Quebec 8,242 11 

Outstanding Bonds, St. John's 1,291 5 10 

Thomas D. Harrington 287 16 9 

Post Office Commission 285 

£103,204 8 Si 
Receiver-general Dunn, balance due by him for 

special funds 40,019 5 11 

Civil List, Schedule A, advance for 1842 191 15 6i 

Civil list. Schedule A, advance for 1841 875 17 6] 

Territorial Revenue, Special Account, being 

debt due to the Clergy Fund for Land Rights 15,661 8 11 

Board of Works to be accounted for 1,337 2 

Currency M. .«••».»... M M.».t..tM...£l,670|142 10 10^ 

244 CANADA. 

porters have done^ and are doings a very extensive basi- 
nesSy and the towns favourably situated are rapidly in- 
creasing in population ; and when the St. Lawrence and 
Welland Canals^ and the Ottawa Navigation are com- 
pletely finished^ so that the expenses of transhipment 
will be avoided^ it is impossible to foretell the increase 
of the carrying trade^ as no doubt the Americans on 
Lakes Michigan and Erie will prefer the cheaper mode 
of sendmg down flour, peltries, ashes, staves, &c., by 
the Great Welland Canal, to the tedious and dearer 
navigation of that of Erie. The Welland Canal, I 
have always argued, is the most important of all to 
Canada. It opens out the whole of Western America, 
from the Columbia on the Pacific, and the mouths of 
the Mississippi, to the Hudson's Bay Territory and the 
fur-hunting countries of the North ; whilst the great 
wheat-growing Western States find a new road to the 
ocean by it ; and all the best part of Canada, its wheat, 
its hemp, its flax, and its tobacco-grounds, are imme- 
diately in its vicinage. 

To show the British reader the great importance of 
this public work, which has now passed into the hands 
of the Provincial authorities, after having long been 
a source of mere private speculation, I shall annex 
a statement of the Tolls for the years 1841 and 1842 : 

CANADA. 245 

Welland Canal Tolls. 

£ 8. d. 
From August 31st, 1840, to 

Sept. 30th, 1841 .... 15,453 2 OJ 
From August 31 st, 1841, to 

Sept 30th, 1842 ... . 19,733 OJ 

Increase. .... 3,279 18 0^ 

Tolls for all 1841 20,210 19 9 

Tolls to 30th Sept. only, 1842 . 19,733 OJ 

Now if this Canal, in its wretched and unfinished 
state, fit for mere barges only, could be made to yield 
twenty thousand a-year by the very side of the Erie 
Canal, what will it do when it is properly finished as 
a Ship Canal ? Why, the whole of the produce of the 
Western countries would go down it ; and if a judicious 
tariff between the State of New York and Canada was 
established, all the European and Asiatic merchandize 
used in Western America would be conveyed along its 
line, instead of by the tortuous and tedious route of the 
wooden works of the Erie navigation. 

To prove that this is now advancing beyond a ques^ 
tion to a state which will bear out this assertion, I 
shall just notice the advantages which the Welland 
navigation has over the Erie. 

In the first place, the entrance and exit of the Wel- 
land Canal is free from ice some Weeks before and 
after the artificial harbour of Buffalo is open, and as 
the whole line of the Welland runs through an isthmus 
in which winter, by a singular provision of nature, is 
less severe than in the neighbouring region, so the 
feeders are available both earlier and later in like man<» 

246 CANADA. 

ner ; and when the supply waa drawn ojST^ all that was 
necessary to carry on internal communication was the 
railroad between Queenstown and Chippewa, in order 
to open Eastern and Western Canada to each other. 
The Welland is a canal of only a few miles in length, 
the Clinton, or Erie inland navigation, embraces some 

The lakes are a road of themselves, from the Falls 
of St. Mary on Superior to .the mouth of the Welland 
Canal on Lake Erie. Passing through this short water- 
course to its exittis on Lake Ontario, that lake com- 
. municates with the Atlantic Ocean by the magnificent 
works of the Rideau and the St. Lawrence; and all 
that was wanted to prevent transhipment, was the 
enlargement of the Lachine Canal, which I have always 
thought would have been much better placed at the 
back of Isle Jesus, so as to admit of a free opening 
both to the Ottawa and the St. Lawrence works. 

Nobody at home can form an idea of the grandeur 
of the rivers St. Lawrence and Ottawa, or of the mighty 
canals which have surmounted the perils and difficul- 
ties of their rushing and rapid waters. The Rideau is 
without a doubt the finest specimen of a stone-built 
canal in the world, and the St. Lawrence rivals it. 
This splendid colonial work, erected under the superin- 
tendence of an officer of engineers, who had Colonel 
By^s achievement on the Rideau constantly before his 
eyes, was opened in 1842, by the passage of the Hiffh* 
lander steamboat through its finished lock. Thus the 
obstacle of the great rapid of the Longue Sault, or 
Long Leap, was overcome. 

A mere outline of the gigantic scheme of inland 
navigation is, of course, all that can be expected in 

CANADA, ^ 247 

a work chiefly devoted to military history ; but it is a 
proud reflection for the Corps of Royal Engineers, that 
it has had so large a share in bringing this noble 
scheme to maturity. 

The line of inland navigation commences with the 
La Chine Canal at Montreal, cut to avoid the rapids 
of the St. Lawrence at that place, for a distance of 
nine miles. This work, originally very perfect for 
barges, has been enlarged, so as to form the main 
leader to the seas of Canada. It opens upon Lake 
St. Louis, a great but shallow expansion of the St. 
Lawrence and Ottawa rivers, twenty-one miles from 
Beauharnois. The next cutting is at the Cascades, at 
the village of Beauharnois, where the new Canal (called 
after the village) commences, and extends fifteen miles 
to a point opposite Coteau du Lac, and surmounts the 
Bapids called the Cascades, the Cedars, and the Coteau, 
all about sixty feet fall, and which had already a small 
canal, inadequate for anything but boats or barges. 

The 'Beauharnois Canal, commenced in 1842, leads 
into the Lake St. Francis, another large and shallow 
opening out of the St. Lawrence, which extends to 
Cornwall, a distance of thirty-five miles. 

Here, on the line of latitude 45 degrees, begins the 
Cornwall Canal, at the pretty little town so called, and 
which extends as far as Dickenson's Landing, or eleven 
and a quarter miles, with a fall of about fifty feet. 
This, which was commenced under the superintendence 
of Lieutenant-colonel Fhillpotts of the Royal Engineers, 
and nearly completed by him, is an excellent specimen 
of the whole St. Lawrence Canal work. It has six 
locks of the best and most beautiful solid masonry, 
constructed in the most lasting manner, each chamber 

248 CANADA. 

being 200 feet in length by 50 in width, with 10 feet 
water, and calciilated for the largest class of the steam- 
boats and sailing vessels which ever ply upon Lake 
Ontario, or on the Lower St. Lawrence from Montreal 
to Quebec. It was opened on the 25th of November, 
1842, by the steamboat Highlander. 

This canal, styled par excellence the St. Larvrence, 
was undertaken to overcome the worst part of the 
fiapids of the Longue Sault, near Cornwall, and passes 
by the villages of Mille Rochers and Moulinette, and 
has near its centre, towards the south, the celebrated 
Bamhart^s Island, which was conceded by treaty to 
the United States. 

From Dickenson's landing to Prescott is thirty-eight 
miles, in which the undermentioned short canals were 
required to overcome the Galloppe, Point Cardinal, 
Rapide Plat, and Farren's Point Rapids, the first half 
a mile, the second only three-tenth^ of a mile; the 
Rapide Plat, however, three and nine-tenths miles, and 
the fourth eight-tenths of a mile ; in all five miles and 
a half. But steamers and Ericson's propellers have 
treated these obstructions with very little regard ; yet 
still they are necessary to be canalized, as danger lurks 
in their whirling waters. Thus the whole length of the 
St. Lawrence, Canal is only thirty-one and a half miles.* 

I have mentioned the Rideau Canal so much at 
large in a former work, that it is unnecessary now to 
compare it with the St. Lawrence; but I shall put the 
reader in possession of circumstances gathered from 
Lieutenant-colonel Phillpott's and Mr. Killaly's reports, 

* Mr. Thomas Keefer, one of the most distinguished civil engi- 
neers in Canada, has prepared admirable plans for deepening th« 
rapids of the St Lawrence, — EoiToa. 


CANADA. 249 

which will show at once the extent and capabilities of 
the vast works of the St. Lawrence Canal. The 
calculations of Colonel Phillpotts are followed, although 
there has been great discussion about placing the canal 
at Beauharuois, or on the north side; the former 
route is a mile or so longer.* 


From the Ocean Port of Quebec by the 

St. Lawrence to Montreal . . ,180 
Montreal or La Chine Canal .. . 9 

La Chine to Cascades by Lake St. Louis . 21 
Beauhamois Canal, to avoid the Cascades, 

Cedars, and Coteau du Lac Rapids . 14f 
Lake St. Francis to Cornwall . . 35 
Cornwall Canal to Dickenson^s Landing . 11^ 
Dickenson^s Landing to Prescott, in which 
five and a half miles of canal are ne- 
cessary 38 

Prescott to Kingston ... 70 . 

Kingston to Port Dalhousie on Welland 

Canal 180 

Port Dalhousie, by Welland Canal, to Port 
Colborne, on Lake Erie ... 28 


Five hundred and eighty-seven miles of inland 
water communication is thus opened from Quebec 
tide-waters to Lake Erie, and to Lakes Michigan and 
Superior, or 2,000 miles, of which 526| are natural, 

* The Beauharnois Canal was placed on the south side of the river 
to serve local interests, and it is thus unfortunately within sixteen 
miles of the United States frontier. — Editor. 

M 3 

250 CANADA. 

and only 60^ artificial^ whilst^ by a short cut of a 
mile or so at the Falls of St. Mary^ the whole of Lake 
Superior^ for 400 miles more would be thrown open. 

This will therefore give Great Britain an exclusive 
and direct road from London to the vast Far West^ and 
opens to the Hudson's Bay merchant a new and facile 
path for the produce of his industry, whilst the wheat- 
growing lands of the American Union will at once be 
thrown open to commerce. 

In this 60^ miles of canal there are 63 locks and 
517 feet of lockage; and, according to Lieutenant- 
colonel Fhillpotts, the expense required was i&2,228,700 
to bring the surplus produce of the vast Western States 
of Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, Indiana, 
Missouri, Michigan, Illinois, Mississippi, Alabama, 
Wisconsin, and Iowa to the Atlantic, by way of 
Montreal and Quebec, instead of altogether by the 
routes of the Mississipi to New Orleans; the Ohio 
and Chesapeake Canal to Baltimore; the Ohio and 
Pennsylvania Canal to Philadelphia; by the Ohio, 
Kanawha, and James River to Richmond in Virginia ; 
and by the tediously long Erie Canal from Buffalo to 
New York. 

The Buffalo merchants^ ship produce from Chicago, 
that growing emporium of the West, chiefly in steam- 
boats ; and have, of course, frequent transhipments and 
unloadings to undergo before the cargoes reach the 
Atlantic at New York. The obvious gain by a ship 
cana], such as the Welland, in even sending goods 
from the West only as far as Oswego is clear ; but if 
the Americans obtain a transit trade to the ocean 
without unshipping, it becomes a matter of specula- 
tion whether Monti*eal and Boston would not, instead 

CANADA. 261 

of New York, become the emporiums of the West. 
In short. Nature and the command of capital has 
created for England a water road through the heart of 
America, which almost realizes the fairy visions which 
caused the discovery of that continent, as the meta 
incopiita appears verily to have been found, in the 
noble St. Lawrence, and the trading path is nearly 
opened which leads to the slumbering waters of the 
Pacific and the Golden Cathay. 

To efiect this approach to so desirable a consumma- 
tion as that of rendering Canada as important as she 
deserves to be, we find that Great Britain stepped 
forward with a loan of a million and a half, and the 
princely merchants of London came forward to acce- 
lerate the disposal of that vast sum. I was at first 
much opposed to the immense outlay required in 
constructing the St. Lawrence Canal, when the Bideau 
answered every purpose for small steamboats ; but my 
mind has since been convinced that the two are 
perfectly compatible with the best interests of the 
province, the one as a miUtary, the other as a com- 
mercial canal. Besides, the Rideau Canal leads 
directly from Lake Ontario to that part of the great 
Ottawa, which must hereafter be rendered navigable 
for the immense and fertile region embraced between 
the Ottawa, the Nipissing country. Lakes Huron, 
Simcoe, and Ontario ; it will soon be explored fully, 
and the tide of emigration turned into its silent and 
splendid forests and rivers.* " 

• Between the Ottawa and Xake Huron, and in other parts of 
Canada, free grants of fifty acres of land may be obtained on the con« 
ditions of settlement, cultivation, and keeping the road in repair 
opposite the lot.— Editor. 

252 CANADA. 

The Welland Canul tolls amounted^ in the dis* 
tressed season of 1839, to ^12,700. The tolls of the 
fiideau in 1839, were only £7,000; the La Chine, 
;£6,638 10s. 4^. ; the Grenville or Ottawa canals, 
£2,000. Thus the Welland was in 1841, nearly as 
productive as all the others put together; for even 
granting that the others in 1841 had risen, they rose 
only in the same proportions. 

The Erie Canal tolls in 1838, when the Cana« 
dian rebellion had paralyzed commerce in Canada, and 
consequently assisted the transit trade to New York, 
amounted to £318,189 3s. sterling, which alone 
showed the vast amount to be gained by making the 
Welland a ship canal. Before it was excavated, all the 
carrying-trade was by portage across the Niagara fron- 
tiers and to the ocean by Montreal and Quebec ; but 
the moment Clinton finished his stupendous under- 
taking, the carrying-trade departed from Canada 
entirely, until some enterprising spirits got up the 
Welland Canal speculation,* 

The Erie navigation is only 40 feet wide and 4 feet 
deep, and thus fitted merely for shallow covered barges. 
It is 363 miles long, and connects Lake Erie with the 
tide waters of the Hudson River at Albany. It was 
conmenced in 1817, and completed in 1825, in which 
year the WeUand Canal was commenced. 

The cost of the Erie navigation was great, — 
£1,607,127 11*. 6d. About a quarter of that sum 
was required, or £416,571 5*. Id., according to 
Mr. Killaly's original report, to render the Welland 
Canal fit for large steamboats. 

* Among whom is to be distinguished Mr. Hamilton Merritt. 

CANADA. 253 

In 1841, the canal tolls of the State of New York 
amounted to the great sum of 1,792,485 dollars. In 
1842, they diminished to 1,525,525 dollars, probably 
owing to the New TariflF and the increased transit 
trade by ^he Welland. But at all events the transit 
trade by canal in that State has befen worth nearly 
three quarters of a million sterling a year to the 
revenue; whilst from the paltry construction of the 
Canadian Canal, one quarter at least of that sum was 
lost to the province. 

The arguments for and against the imposition of a 
protective duty on American produce passing through 
Canadian canals or water routes, would occupy too 
much space, so I shall merely add the result of Mr. 
Merritt's experience in a debate upon the subject. 

It is asserted that Canada does not at present grow 
wheat enough even for her own consumption. This 
argument does not, however, hold good for the future 
condition of the country j and be it remembered that 
immigration is going on at the rate of 40,000 persons 
a year. 

I confess I like the reasoning of those persons who 
say that there is not enough attention paid to mer- 
cantile interests in the Government of Canada, '^as 
neither the Executive, nor the Legislative Council 
contains that infusion of mercantile intelligence abso- 
lutely essential to ensure a faithful representation of 
commercial interests. The Executive, in particular, is 
deficient on this point,— an evil which might be cured 
by the creation of a Colonial Board of IVade, with an 
ex-officio seat for its President in the Cabinet.^' 

The same Montreal paper from which I have ex- 
tracted the above, makes another observation, which it 

254 CANADA. 

will be well to bear in mind: — '^ Timber^ ashes, and 
provisions, are the staples, at present, of the Canadian 
export trade/^ The writer, however, forgets that 
tobacco, and hemp, and flax, will soon bear a large 
share in it. 

" The agriculturists of Western Canada,^^ he says, 
and it is true, — ^^ oppose the admission, of American 
produce for consumption, whilst the merchants favour 
it because it secures them the export trade/^ Let both 
parties unite in a petition to the Imperial Government 
to sanction the admission of American wheat which has 
passed through Canada, upon the same terms as the 
colonial produce, under the seal of the bonded system. 
In what other mode will the expense of the Welland 
and St. Lawrence Canals be covered ? But to Mr. 
Merritt and his calculations, and the extent to which 
mercantile transactions will be affected by the New 
British Possessions Act, passed on the 16th July, 
1842, and which came into operation in Canada on 
the 5th July, 1843, I shall refer the reader to the 
Appendix, as there the Act itself, imposing a duty 
of 2s, per barrel on wheat flour from the Colonies, and 
Mr. Merritt^s arguments concerning the transit trade, 
are placed at length ; but the commercial reader will 
find in the following extract from the Montreal 
Gazette, an analysis of the difference between the 
new and the old Acts highly useful. 

With the view of aiding our readers in estimating the .extent to 
which the transactions of 1843 must he affected hy it, we have com- 
piled the following comparative statement of the duties on the chief 
articles of our trade leviable under the existing and future law. It 
must, however, be home in mind, that imder the former, the excess 
of th^ Imperial duty over the Colonial, only, was collected ; whereas, 
under the latter, the Imperial duty is levied without reference to the 
Colonial : — 


Fish, dried or salted . . . . 

^sh, pickled 

Fish oil, blubber, &c 


Wheat flour 

Meat, salted or cured . . . . 






Sugar, unrefined 

Do., refined 

Do., do., in bond 




Wines, French, in bottle . . 

Do , in wood. . .^ 

Do., all other, in bottle, 

Madeira excepted 

Do., in wood 

Do., if from Great Britain, 

Malta, or Gibraltar .... 


Manufactures — 



Linen . s 




Hardware • . . « 


Clocks and watches 


Candles, other than Sperm 

Corks, cordage 


Articles, non-enumerated. . 


Duties now payable. 





Do. ...; 



15 per ct ad val. 

15 do 

5s. per cwt. ...... 

58. do 

4s. 6d. do. 

5s. do 

20 per ct ad val. 

20 do 

Is. per gal 

Is. 3d. do. 




Duties payable after 

July 5th, 1848. 
Id. per lb. 

2s. per cwt 

4s. per l^arrel. 

15 per ct ad val. 

15 do. 

28. per barrel. 

3s. per cwt 

8s. do. 

5s. do. 

5 s. do. 

I's. do. 

3s. do. 

5s. do. 

20 per ct ad val. 

10 do. 

6d. per gallon. 

Is. do. 

Is. do. 

Is. 3d; do 

£1 7s. per tun . . . . ^ 
7 J per ct ad val. 
Is. per doz. bottles 
7^ per ct ad val. 

}ie7 7s. per tun.. .. y ^, ^ , , 

Is. per doz. bottles y '^ 
7s. per ton. ...... 


10s. do. 
£7 do. 

15 ditto. 


20 per ct ad val.l 

30 do J 

20 do 

30 do 

15 do.' 

30 do 

80 do..: .... 

15 do 

20 do 

30 do 

20 do 

15 do 

15 do 


15 per ct. ad vaL 4 ditto. 

) 7 ditto. 

256 CANADA. 

With reference to the latter class, we name a few of the articles it 
compromises, and in which considerahle business already exists, or 
may arise ; — ale or beer ; spices ; arrow-root ; bees- wax ; cabinet- 
ware i leather ; carriages ; feathers ; floor-cloths, painted ; flower- 
roots ; furs ; glue ; horn, and articles made thereof ; lead, and 
articles made thereof; Indian rubber, and articles made thereof; 
lard ; linseed oil ; mats ; medicines ; paints, and brushes of all de* 
scriptions ; perfumes ; quills ; silver, and gold, and articles manu- 
factured thereof, except watches ; salt ; slates ; straw, and articles 
made thereof ; types ; and zinc. 

It is also provided that if any goods, charged with duty, tea and 
sugar excepted, shall be imported through the United Kingdom, 
having been warehoused therein, and having been exported from the 
warehouse, or the duties thereon, if there paid, having been drawn 
back, such goods shall only be charged with three-fourths of the 
duties named in the Act 

The internal navigation of Canada is not however 
merely to be considered as effected by the construction 
of the St. Lawrence Canal, and by the enlargement 
of the Welland and La Chine Canals. These merely 
create a water road from the Western States, and 
Western Lakes to the Atlantic. The producer in 
Canada must • have other means of reaching this 
main artery, and thus the following works are more 
essential to his well-being.* ' ^ 

* To show the enormous trade carried on by means of the Erie 
Canal, with the Lakes Erie, Michigan, and Huron, I subjoin the 
following return : 

From the Buffalo Daily Mercantile Courier^ Dec. 7. 

Below is a table made up from the books of the Canal Collector of 
the shipment of property down the canal during the year 1842, with 
a similar table for 1841, for the purpose of comparison. The 
sudden closing of the canal has arrested flour and wheat enough at 
tills place to have increased the former article to 660,000 and tlie 
latter to 1,250,000 bushels, which would show a trifling increase 
over 1840, when the navigation lasted until Dec. 1 ; notwithstanding 
a large amount has gone through Canada. 

CANADA. 257 


The Trent Davigation^ for which the small sum 
of £23^364^ and the Inland waters navigation of the 

Of other articles some show an increase, some a diminution, and 
some articles, viz. : square timber and barley, have been shipped 
from this port which were not reported at all last year. A large 
increase will be noticed in wool, lead, flax-seed, butter and lard, 
cheese, ashes, com, and oats ; and a great reduction in ship stufik, 
peas and beans, dried fruit, leather, hides, iron, staves, boards and 
scantling, and domestic spirits. 

1842. 1841. 

Ashes, barrels 17,828 10,166 

Pork, barrels 52,489^ 67,007 

Beef, barrels 4,293 3,218 

Fish, barrels 2,347 1,844 

Flour, barrels 640,277 648,686 

Wheat, bushels 1,171,651 1,207,125 

Rye, bushels 2,075 3,057 

Com, bushels 279,953 148,727 

Barley, bushels 2,933 

Oats, bushels 161,410 34,262 

Ships' stuffs, bushels 17,836 33,851 

Peas and beans, bushels .... 5,554 11,625 

Dried fruit, lbs. 28,930 280,98 1 

Clover and Grass Seed, lbs. . 1,289,314 1,378,842 

Flaxseed, lbs 675,270 370,174 

Hops, lbs. 1 8,394 2,745 

Tobacco, lbs. 979,874 805,595 

Cotton, lbs. 48,603 73,016 

Wool, lbs 577,078 ? 340,229 

Leather, lbs. 105,159 210,845 

Hides, lbs. 208,646 497,879 

Bar and Pig Lead, lbs. 1,454,558 107,41 1 

Pig Iron, lbs 34,300 67,239 

Iron Ware, lbs 23,422 60,024 

Butter and Lard, lbs 6,242,072 5,147,246 

Cheese, lbs. 2,807,983 1,211,585 

Merchandise, lbs 242,348 363,3 18 

Furniture, lbs 698,658 902,019 

stone. Lime, &c., lbs 436,378 509,878 

Gypsum, lbs 2,032 

Mineral Coal, lbs. 2,981 5,150 

Furs and Peltries, lbs 291,177 363,751 

Staves 34,851,010 56,623,456 

258 CANADA. 

Newcastle district, for which i;21,660 was set aside, 
are most important works, as they open oat a vast 
interior of the most fertile description to the agri- 

If there is any portion of the unsettled region of 
Canada more fertile and delightful than another; it 
is the splendid section through which the Trent, the 
Bice Lake^ the Otonabee, and the chain of lakes and 
streams, including Balsam Lake, run and communicate 
with Lake Simcoe, and approach the Moon River and 
Lake Nipissing. Here Nature has spread out her 
bounties with no sparing hand. 

Peterborough stands at the foot of a series of rapids 
formed by the Oton£ibee, and the tributary lakes and 

Boards and Scantling, feet . . 5,232,323 9,123,994 

Sliingles, M 150^ 211 

Timber, 100 ft 8,172 

Wood, cords 973 13 

Domestic Spirits, gallon 373,520 717.040 

Sundries, lbs 3,251,835 2,205,959 

The amount collected in 1842 Dollars 374,448*89 

„ „ 1841 „ 848,482-08 

Excess in favour of 1842 ..... .^ ..<... . 25,966.81 

Whole number of clearances in 1842, 5,171 


Deficiency of clearances in 1842, 611 

Canal Tolls. — Account of tolls received on all the canals of this 
State during the last week in November, and the totals to the 80th 
November in each of the years following, viz. : 

Last week in Nov. Totals to SOth Nov. 

Dollars. Cents. Dollars. Cents. 

1835 21,191 03 81,544,841 14 

1836 18,081 72 1,613,028 85 

1837 18,325 26 1,283,934 75 

1888 12,074 81 1,590,244 66 

1839 5,041 56 1,599,028 00 

1840 20,190 47 1,773,582 51 

1841 21,734 11 2,033,261 77 

1842 5,380 09 1,748,869 88 

Comparing this year with the last, there was a falling off in the 

last week in November of 1 6,354*02, and the total falling off to the 
SOth of November is 284,391*89 dollars.— ^/tony Argut, 

CANADA. 259. 

streams spriDging out of the depths of this vast and 
unopened forest ; and Nature^ although she has placed 
impediments in the way of the natural water route^ 
to that king of fresh water seas^ Lake Huron, has 
nevertheless interposed one of the finest and safest 
expanses of inland water between Lake Ontario and 
it, — Lake Simcoe, to assist the engineer in surmount- 
ing all obstacles, through a series of wild turbulent 
streams, noisy cascades, and splendid sheets of rapids ; 
which for eight miles beyond Peterborough, are 
encountered at every half-mile through a limestone 
country where materials are everywhere at hand. 
Beyond this angry portion gI the Otonabee, is a scene 
which Qsinnot be adequately described, as the waters 
spread out into every variety of form, which islands, 
lakes, and rivers can present. 

Lakes incessantly follow each other, some not more 
than a mile, others ten miles long, whose banks con- 
sist of a rolling outline covered down to the pure 
margin of the water, with the most rich, luxuriant, 
and magnificent forest scenery, in a fertile and rich 
soil. For nearly an hundred miles the traveller passes 
through scenes which awaken all the most splendid 
conceptions of the grandeur with which forest and 
fell combuie in the scenery of the New World ; and 
here sailing along, or paddling at his ease, nothing 
disturbs the reign of Nature but the solitary cry of 
the loon, the sharp note of the kingfisher, the tapping 
of the great woodpecker, the screams of the wild 
geese, and the noisy wing of the splashing duck, or 
the occasional dart of a maskanong^, a huge species 
of pike, from his deep abode. Now and then you see 

260 CANADA* 

the Red Indian^ as silent as his native woods, engaged 
in hunting or fishing; but in general, with the ex- 
ception of some solitary clearings at long distances, 
all is solemnly still, and in magnificent repose. At 
the end of his journey on these beautiful waters, after 
passing along a deep, black, placid stream, whose 
frowning cliffs bound the prospect, a beautiful little 
Niagara is reached, and the river pitches over a 
regular parabolic curve, about thirty feet in height. 
So regular is the descent, and so smooth the edge of 
this Horse-shoe Fall, that a curious visitor may, it is 
said, pass entirely across under it, from shore to shore, 
behind a magnificent liquid curtain without danger, 
and without being wetted by its spray. 

This splendid fall comes from Balsam Lake, a very 
deep and very extensive sheet of water, which conamu- 
nicates by shallow streams and portages with Lakes 
Simcoe and Huron to the eastward, and with the great 
Ottawa to the west; whilst the Nipissing Lake and 
French River, which join the Ottawa and Lake Huron, 
are approachable to the north. Peterborough com- 
municates with Lake Ontario by the Otonabee ; Rice 
Lake and Trent River at the Bay of Quinte. The 
Trent River passes through some of the finest land in 
the province, and one of its picturesque falls in the 
township of Seymour makes a fine sketch; but 
the canal will be incomplete unless the harbour of 
Presqu'ile, on Lake Ontario, is made available, and the 
Bay of Quinte united with Lake Ontario by the much- 
required canal of a mile or two in length across the 
isthmus, near Presqu'ile, which appears now once 
again to be forgotten, — although it would secure a safe 

CANADA. 261 

navigation of at least one-fourth of Lake Ontario, and 
that, too, where it is most studded with shoals and 
islands, and give a vent for the industry of the farmers 
of Prince Edward, that most industrious and flourish- 
ing of districts. 

I shall not touch upon the other great internal 
public works, such as roads and harbours, any further 
than to observe, that it is to be hoped that roads will 
be thought of before anything else, as without them 
all the outlay on the harbours and canals, as far as 
Canada will be concerned, will be nearly useless. 

To show what the export trade of the United Pro- 
vinces was, in 1842, and where that trade was directed 
to, I append* an accurate list of the ports in Great 
Britain to which 714 vessels were directed, embracing 
a tonnage of 272,400 ; and those of the British Ame- 
rican possessions, and South America, for which 175 
ships, holding ] 3,090 tons sailed, making altogether 
889 vessels and 385,490 tons. What will this export, 
amount to when the internal navigation is fully 
opened from Lake Superior to the sea? It is in-* 
calculable. London, Liverpool, Belfast, Cork, Bristol, 
Hull, Limerick, and Newcastle, appear to be the great 
emporiums of the Canada export trade. 

The value of the Canadas to Great Britain is there-r 
fore so obvious, that it is useless to insist upon it, and 
we must therefore only glance, in parting with' the 
reader, at the future destinies of this New India* 
Sir Charles Bagot^s health having failed, his consti-. 
tution became unequal to the onerous task of setting 
the house in order, which had so long been at dis-' 

* See Appendix. 

262 CANADA. 

iinion^ and he was replaced by Sir Charles Metcalfe, 
80 well known for his distinguished civil services in 
India and in Jamaica. 

The experiment of amalgamating the French Cana- 
dians with the Reformers of Upper Canada was under 
his auspices, tried; and although the Government 
had a most triumphant and decided majority in the 
Parliament, still great dissatisfaction existed in the 
country, on account of the persons who took a leading 
part in the rebellion having been rewarded with the 
loaves and fishes, and the British residents, and the 
British Canadians loudly and plainly proclaimed their 
sense of the injustice. 

Amongst these, the Quebec Gazette, decidedly one 
of the most talented (to use the Irish phrase) of the 
Canadian journals, thus spoke in the person of the 
Hon. John Neilson, M. P. P., the Nestor of Reform, 
and whose opinions, were perhaps decisive of the 
general feeling. He was the proprietor of the paper. 
"We have no doubt, however, that the majority of 
the newspapers, and the majority of newspaper 
readers in Canada, disapprove of the present Provincial 
Administration, or are waiting to seC what they may 
do, in order to take a more decided stand upon th^ 

That the French Canadians should be admitted at 
once, manfully, and for ever, to an equal share in the 
business, and management of the business, of Canada, 
was so self-evident, that it is utter loss of time to 
ai^e about it at all; but that persons recently in 
hostile array against the Government, and whose 
example stimulated the decent and excellent pea- 
santry to take up arms, should absorb every place 

CANADA, 263 

and office of profit and of power^ seems little less 
than to acknowledge that theirs was a just cause. 

It was wise, and a policy that might have been 
expected from the new ministry, to calm the excited 
feehngs of the Lower Canadian, and even to go many 
steps out of the way to do so ; but parties are much 
more equally balanced in Canada than election returns 
show, and the British and the French numerically 
unequal, the majority being in favour of the Saxon, 
instead of the Norman race. 

Disquiet must therefore always reign in that fine 
Province, unless justice is firmly and impartially 
administered to both, without caring a jot for personal 
pretension, or the pretension of class and race ; and 
I can conceive very little difficulty beyond the usual 
nine days^ wonder, in selecting such an administration 
a$ will be able to carry out the principal of equal 
rights, without admitting either race to ride rough- 
shod over the other. 

The majority of the British settlers are devotedly 
loyal;* the French are, we trust, also disposed to 
honour the Crown, and they dislike their neighbours 
too much to render it probable that they will ever 

* The Emigrants to Canada in 1842 were distributed as follows : 

To Canada West, formerly Upper Canada .... 26,900 

To the New Ottawa settlements 4,250 

To Glengarry- and Beauhamois 1 ,946 

To the Eastern Townships of Lower Canada . . 2,755 

To the North of Montreal 1,175 

N To the Public Works, and as Servants 3,479 

Total > 40,505 

13,060 were forwarded by Government 884 oiily were on the rick- 
list during the season, and 59 died after landing ; 1,850 went to the 
United St&tes.'-Kingston Chronicle^ Feb. 25, 1843. 

264 CANADA. 

sincerely join them. The Queen has declared that 
her whole power shall uphold the connection with 
England^ and therefore all that is wanted is firm- 
ness and impartiality in the making of that power 

The future of Canada is bright, and the general 
polity of the colonial empire is now so clearly marked, 
that Canada will neither ''be lost nor given away/' and 
every friend to Britain looks anxiously to a permanently 
settled system of emigration thither, on a large and 
well-conducted scale; for as it must remain, and will 
be essentially a British province, the central dominion 
of English laws and English feeling in North America, 
the day will come, in the ripeness of time, when the 
five provinces will form one great whole, with Quebec 
for the metropolis, of a country which must extend from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific, and control the destinies 
of one grand and powerful division of the Anglo-Saxon 

Let us therefore hope that the French Canadian 
will see that his real interest and his real glory consist 
not in vain opposition to a power before which the 
Roman and the Greek empires of old sink into insig- 
nificance. Let him bless the hour when its mighty 
aegis was thrown before him for his protection, and 
instead of attending to the cabals of interested indi- 
viduals, let him rouse himself to open out the endless 
resources of his native soil, and hand down to his 
posterity the proud boast of bein^ the active labourer 
in perfecting the grand schemes now afoot to render 
Canada the cynosure of Transatlantic States, and the 
right arm of Great Britain. 

CANADA. 265 


Serious riots in Montreal in 1849 — Destruction of the Houses 
of Parliament — The Governor-general assailed — Death of 
Lieutenant-general Sir Benjamin D' Urban. 

The Right Honourable the Earl of Elgin and 
Kincardine having been appointed to the Govern- 
ment of British North America in succession to 
Lord Metcalfe* and Earl Cathcart,t and after having 
successfully administered the government of Jamaica^ 
His Excellency arrived at Halifax, in the beginning 
of 1847, and, on being presented with a con- 
gratulatory address by the principal inhabitants, 
showed himself to be a nobleman of great intelligence 
and a scholar, by the happy manner of his reply. 

His Excellency then proceeded to Montreal, where 
he took up his residence at Monklands, three miles 
from town, and devoted himself, to the best of his 
judgment, in promoting the interests of the extensive 
regions under his authority. Though some of His 
Lordship^s ministers had been disaffected to British 
authority during the rebellions of 1837-38, yet 

* Whose admirable career has yet to be written, 
f A highly distinguished officer. 


266 CANADA. 

His Excellency's goyemment worked with tolerable 
smoothness till the spring of 1849^ when the 
following serious occurrences took place. 

The season was an open one; the St. Lawrence 
was early free of ice, and, owing to the unexpected 
- arrival of vessels with merchandise at the port of 
Quebec, it was deemed advisable that His Lordship 
should proceed, on a short notice, to Parliament, 
on the 26th April, in- order to give the Boyal 
Assent to a Customs Bill^ which had that ' day 
passed the Legislative Council. Lord Elgin deemed 
it expedient, at the same time, to dispose of the 
other Acts, in which the two branches of the local 
Parliament had, at an earlier period of the session, 
concurred, and which still awaited his decision ; 
among these was the Act to provide for the indemnifi^ 
cation of parties in Lower Canada, whose property 
was destroyed during the rebellions of 1837-38, 
with respect to which much excitement had been 
stirred in and out of Parliament. 

Many persons had disapproved of the measures 
respecting rebellion losses in Lower Canada, which 
had been introduced by the Government, and which 
the local Parliament had passed by large majorities ; 
and, in the minds of others, to use the language 
of a despatch, "it stirred national antipathies, which 
designing politicians sought to improve for their 
own selfish ends." 

The British party in Lower Canada, who had 
turned out most loyally and gallantly in the re- 
bellion, could not brook that those who had pursued 
an opposite course should now entertain the idea, 

CANADA. 267 

that their losses during the rebellion should be 
made good^ and that a tax should be imposed for 
this purpose. 

The British party imagined, that, by the In- 
demnity Bill, all indiscriminately who had suffered 
loss during the rebellion should be indemnified, 
whether they had turned out against the Govern- 
ment or not; when it was alleged by the opposite 
party, that, after due inquiry, only those who had 
incurred losses by no fault of their own should 
be indemnified. 

The Parliament was denounced as French in its 
composition, and the Government as subject to 
French influence ; and doctrines had been broached 
with respect to the right which belongs to a British 
minority, of redressing by violence any indignity to 
which it might be subject from such a source. 

When Lord Elgin left the Parliament-house, after 
giving the Royal Assent to the Bills above alluded to, 
among others the Rebellion Losses Indemnity Bill, 
as he entered his carriage (which was escorted by 
provincial cavalry) he was received by a crowd with 
hootings and groans, whilst a knot of individuals, 
respectably dressed, pelted the carriage with various 
missiles collected at hand. 

The Houses of Parliament were under one roof; 
the building was formerly the St. Anne^s market, 
which had been fitted up for Legislative purposes 
after the seat of Government, which had been 
at Eongston, was removed to Montreal. Besides 
two spacious halls, for the Legislative Council and 
the Legislative Assembly, well furnished, and oma- 



268 CANADA. 

mented with handsome pictures of Her Majesty, 
there were valuable Ubraries belonging to the above 
two bodies^ and archives and records of the United 

Notwithstanding the great excitement which pre- 
vailed outside the Parliament House after the Go- 
vernor-general had retired^ the House continued in 
session^ and^ apparently, in perfect confidence, 
although Sir Allan Macnab had warned the party 
of the ministers, that it would be advisable to call 
for military assistance^ as the populace were un- 
derstood to be in a state of ferment, and a riot 
might be expected. , 

It soon became known that a public-meeting 
had been called; a caleche passed, with a bell, 
and ^ person, announcing the meeting to take 
place in the Champ de Mars^ at eight o^clock, was 
heard from the House; the fire-bells were also rung 
in the city^ to create an excitement. 

Accordingly, at the Champ de Mars, a large 
number of persons assembled ; the sloping bank 
and the stone steps there were crowded with persons, 
many of whom bore torches. Some inflammatory 
speeches were made on the occasion, with reference 
to the Rebelhon Losses Bill, &c., and suddenly 
there was a cry, '^ To the Parliament House V^ 

The crowd immediately organized themselves hastily 
into a sort of procession, and first marched and then 
ran down, in an excited state, to the Parliament 
buildings. It was nine o'clock, and the House of 
Assembly was engaged in discussing the Judicature 
Bill for Lower Canada; there was neither police nor 

CANADA. 269 

military in the way, when a loud shout, mingled with 
yellings, gave the members unmistakable evidence 
that a riot was fermenting outside, and immediately 
after a number of stones were driven through the 
window^. The strangers' gallery was immediately 
deserted, some of the members escaped by it, and 
others took refuge behind the Speaker's chair, whilst 
the stones continued to be thrown incessantly. 

The missiles came at first from the front of the 
building, but presently they came from the back 
also, till very little glass was left in the windows. 
There was a short cessation in the attack and several 
of the members again entered the house from the 
lobbies, but the stones were again thrown and fell in 
the centre of the hall through the shattered windows ; 
then a cry was raised from the library end df the 
building— '' They come !" and the members and clerks 
there rushing across the hall disappeared at the 
opposite end. 

A dozen persons now entered the Hall of Assembly 
from the library end, armed with sticks ; one of them, 
a man with a broken nose, walked up the steps mid 
seating himself in the Speaker's chair, said in Crom- 
wellian style, and waving his hand, ^* I dissolve this 
house !'' The others then commenced the work of de- 
struction, the papers were struck off the members desks 
into the middle of the floor with sticks. Some tore up 
the benches and hurled them also into the middle of 
the floor, whilst others threw their sticks at the chan- 
deliers and globe-lights on the walls, and demolished 

Tlie splendid mace, silver-gilt and ornamented with 

270 CANADA. 

the imperial crown and Canadian beavers^ lay under 
the table^ as the House was in Committee^ but one of 
the rioters seeing it, he seized it up and carried it off 
on his shoulders, when the Serjeant-at-arms, whose 
province it was to guard the mace, rushed upon the 
man who bore it, and endeavoured to rescue it, but 
he was overpowered by others, and the mace was 
borne into the street. 

The Honourable William Robinson, M. P. P., and 
Colonel Gugy, M.P.P., exerted themselves to expel the 
rioters from the House. Sir Allan Macnab assisted to 
save the Queen^s picture, when suddenly a red glare 
of light from below showed that the building had 
caught fire. It is* not believed that the rioters had 
any intention originally to fire the Parliament-house ; 
they ^certainly wished to testify their indignation by 
pelting and hooting those who had been instrumental 
in passing the obnoxious Rebellion Loss Bill, but 
meeting with little or no opposition in the work of 
destruction, and heated with passion, they probably 
broke the gas-pipes, and thus the fire rapidly spread to 
all parts of the building. 

Sir Allan Macnab, the Honourable Mr. Badgley, 
Mr. Turner, Editor of the Courier, and others, tried to 
save some of the valuable books in the library of the 
Assembly, the other picture of the Queen, in the 
Council-chamber, was also carried out by Mr. W. 
Snaith, JuUi and Mr. Hargrave ; it cost £500 and was 
painted by Partridge, and for a time disappeared. 
Bat now the flames spread so rapidly that every one 
was obliged to seek safety in flight, and Sir Allan^ 
Mr. Badgley, Mr. Steers and Mr. Macfarlane, were 

CANADA, 27 1 

pursued by the flames^ were scorclied^ and were 
eventually taken off a gallery with ladders. 

The flames now enveloped the whole of the build- 
ings and the military having been sent for^ when too 
late, could only keep back the crowd, which drew up 
on the foot-path to vie^ the conflagration, which 
illuminated the whole city and rolled its black volumes 
of smoke towards the Montreal mountain. Some fire- 
engines tried to play on the building but ineffectually ; 
however they saved some neighbouring houses which 
had caught fire, also the Grey Nunnery. There was a 
smart breeze blowing, and burning paper, in great 
quantities was carried along the ground in flakes of 
fire. It was altogether an imposing but a very painful 
sight, chiefly on account of the destruction of the two 
Valuable libraries and a large portion of the public 
records of the Province. The Pilot office, where the 
Ministerial paper was printed, was visited by the mob, 
and the windows demolished, after which, for that 
evening the work of destruction closed, and the morn- 
ing sun looked ob the smoking and empty walls of the 
late Houses of Parliament. 

On their way from the Parliament building, the mob 
escorted the person carrying the mace, in a caleche, 
and when they came opposite Donegani's Hotel, where 
Sir Allan Macpab lived, a cry was raised that the mace 
should be left in his keeping, as the late popular 
Speaker ; but a struggle taking place for its possession, 
some of the beavers were broken off — however the 
mace eventually was carried into Sir Allan's room. 

The Commander of the Forces, his Excellency Lieu- 
tenant-general Sir Benjamin D'Urban, G.C.B., — an 

272 CANADA. 

officer of the highest character, and of great experience 
as a soldier and as a civil governor, — now arrived with 
his staff from his country residence at Sorel,* and 
made arrangements for the suppression of riot and 
disorder ; but for a whole month the city continued in 
a ferment, — so roused had the people become, — so 
infuriated against each other were parties, — ^the British 
or the old Loyalists, and the French or Ministerial 

The Government now made several arrests. Messrs^ 
Heward, Montgomerie, Mack, Esdaile, and Ferrea 
were taken into custody, and marched ^ff to gaol, on 
the plea that they had excited and headed the rioters 
at the destruction of the Parliament House. The 
people threatened to rescue them, and beat and in- 
sulted several of the Members obnoxious to them, wh5 
came in their way, — as Mr. Holmes, Mr. Watts, Mr. 
H. Boulton. The military were drawn across the 
street at the old Government House, in Notre Dame- 
street, where the Ministers were sitting in council 
and the mob continued to hoot and |telt the members 
of the Ministry and their supporters who attempted 
to come out of the conclave within. The soldiers 
every now and then cleared the ground, by marching 
to and fro with fixed bayonets, and the people always 
retired before them, cheering and laughing, as there 
was, of course, no ill feeling between them and the 

At night, the assemblage in front of Gk)vemment- 

* His personal staff at this time consisted of Captain Kirkland, 
Military Secretary, Major Talbot, Sir J. £. Alexander, and Captain 
V. Murray, Aides-de-camp, 

CANADA. 273 

house became more dense ; signals were passed among 
the crowd, and suddenly a large body moved oflF 
towards the St. Antoine suburb, where, attacking the 
residence of the Prime Minister, Mr. Lafontaine, 
the stables were destroyed by fire, and the house 
ransacked inside; the furniture broken, feather-beds 
emptied to the wind, books tumbled from their shelves, 
and the whole house became a wreck. Fortunately for 
the family, they escaped before the rioters arrived. The 
mob moved so swiftly and silently, that the military 
did not reach the house of Mr. Lafontaine — who 
omitted to have a guard there, after the warning he 
had had by the destruction of the Parliament House, 
— ^till the mischief was done. 

The rioters next visited Mr. Drummond^s house; 
there they found a guard, and no damage ensued. At 
Messrs. Baldwin and Cameron^s boarding-house the 
windows were broken; also at Dr. Wolfred Nelson's 
residence, and at the houses of Messrs. Hincks, 
Holmes, and Charles Wilson.* 

The Executive had in a manner left the city for two 
days in the hands of the mob, though a powerful 
military force only waited the requisition of the civil 
authorities to turn out and maintain the supremacy of 
the law ; and now perhaps, because the military had 
not come up in time to prevent the unexpected move 
on Mr. Lafontaine's house, the singular expedient 
was resorted to of arming with cutlasses and pistols 
500 partizans collected from the suburbs, young French 
Canadians, Irishmen, &c., ^' for the protection of lives 

* The energetic Mayor in 1851. ^Editor. 


274 CANADA* 

and property/^ If the householders had been asked^ 
they would immediately have turned out as special 
constables, and acted with the two strong regiments in 
garrison, the 19th and 23rd.* 

The drilling of the armed constables during the night 
at the Bonsecours Market occasioned an immense 
ferment among the opposite party. They again 
organized themselves, and were marching to disarm 
the constables by force, when they were met by General 
Gore and Colonel Gugy, who harangued them, said the 
arming was " a mistake,^^ and that next morning one 
part of the population should not be armed against the 
other. The mob was accordingly pacified and retired. 
If they had gone on there would have been a fearful 
scene of bloodshed. 

Another riot was nearly excited by the arrival from 
Quebec of a deputation to offer protection to the 
Governor-general ; but the members of this deputation, 
learning that they would probably be met on the 
wharf by an angry mob, prudently left the steamer, 
and landed in the outskirts of Montreal and entered the 
City in the evening, without exciting observation.f 

The loyal inhabitants of the city now held a meeting, 
and put forth an address, signed by 200 respectable 
names, inviting the citizens to preserve peace and 
order. This had, to a certain extent, a tranquillizing 
effect ; but a new source of uneasiness arose from the 

* The want of &n efficient civil force at this time in Montreal, 
caused the military authorities to remonstrate against the employment 
of the troops for police duties, this may explain the expedient of the 
armed constahles. 

^ f The address from Quehec was one of a number presented at this 
time to Lord Elgin from different parts of the country. 


ministry having arranged to get up an address of 
confidence in the Governor-general, and deciding that 
his Excellency shoidd receive it in town, instead of at 
his official country residence at Monklands."!^ 

Lord Elgin accordingly drove into town in his 
carriage and four to receive the Address at the Old 
Government-house. His Excellency was accompanied 
by the Honourable Colonel Bruce, his brother and 
Military Secretary, Lord Mark Kerr, and Lieutenant 
Grant, A.D.C^s., and he was escorted by Captain 
Joneses troop of Provincial Dragoons. The Infantry 
were drawn up opposite Government-house. As His 
Lordship entered the city, he was assailed by a shower 
of stones in the Haymarket and Great St. James-street, 
thrown by some stout mechanics in fustian jackets ; 
and again as he proceeded along Notre Dame-street, 
he was obliged to keep his hat before his jeyes to 
guard his face from the missiles, and entered Govern- 
ment-house, carrying with him a 21b. stone, which he 
picked up from the bottom of the carriage : altogether 
most unusual treatment for Her Majesty^s Represen- 
tative to receive, and very painful to witness. 

There was a great and angry crowd in the streets, 
who, expecting His Lordship^s return by the same 
route he had passed along, had made preparations for 
obstructing him, and for upsetting his carriage by 
drawing cabs across the street ; but it was a maxim of 
the renowned Rob Roy, ^' never to return by the same 

* It was considered that the address was a necessary sequel to the 
events which had preceded it, and that its presentation at the Govern- 
ment Buildings, in Montreal, was the proper and customary course, 
and that on constitutional grounds it could not have been presented at 

276 CANADA. 

road you went, if you expect any trouble/' accord- 
ingly, whei^ His Lordship re-entered his carriage^ 
instead of turning round, he directed the carriage to 
proceed straight forward, and doubling on the mob, he 
passed rapidly along St. Denis and Sherbrooke-streets 
to gain Monklands by a circuitous route.* 

When the mob perceived this clever manoeuvre, they 
were much exasperated, and rushing on foot and in 
cabs by by-streets to intercept the carriage in Sher- 
brooke-street ; a considerable number came up in time 
to assail it with stones at " Molson's comer.'* Colonel 
Bruce's head was cut and bled, Colonel Ermatenger, 
PoUce-Magistrate, was stunned; also Captain Jones, 
and every panel of the carriage was stove in. The 
escort was not loaded, or several lives would have been 
lost ; the postilions, as the rioters were crowding in 
front, turned sharp up the Mile-end-road, and by good 
and rapid driving, soon cleared the excited multitude. 
His Lordship reached Monklands in safety, though he 
had certainly a very narrow escape from personaL 
injury, — the exasperation was so great against him 
for signing the obnoxious Rebellion Loss Bill. 

About this time there was some bloodshed, in con- 
sequence of the Ministers and their friends having 
given a political dinner at Tetus Hotel to a deputation 
from their party at Toronto. Toasts were given, and 
there was a good deal of cheering ; this was answered 
by groans from without. A crowd had collected, and 

* This arrangement was made ybr not hy Lord Elgin ; it originated 
with the heads of the military and civil force, on the spot, who urged 
it most strenuously, and the welcome prepared at Ndtre Dame- street 
justified the advice. 

CANADA, 277 

empty bottles having been imprudently thrown out at 
them, stones were returned, and an attempt made to 
force the door, which was resisted with knives and 
pistol shots ; two or three of the mob were wounded, 
and the house ran the risk of being fired, had not a 
strong party of the military (horse and foot), under 
Colonel Hay (Commanding 19th Regiment), promptly 
arrived and quieted the disturbance. 

Mr. Lafontaine^s house was again attacked, but 
this time being prepared for the mob, they were 
received with a volley of musketry from the windows ; 
which taking effect fatally on a young man named 
Mason, the rioters dispersed. At the Coroner's 
Inquest, Mr. Lafontaine being present to give 
evidence, the hotel (where it was held) was set on 
fire from above, and an attempt was made to do 
violence to Mr. Lafontaine in the confusion, but a 
party of the 71st Highlanders saved him. 

The Parliament now held its sittings in the new 
building of Mr. Hays, in Dalhousie-square. Sir J. 
E. Alexander had searched for and recovered in 
different places, in the outskirts of the city, the 
portraits of Her Majesty, which had been carried 
off the night of the burning of the Parliament- 
house. They were repaired, and resumed their places ; 
and things were beginning to assume an air of com- 
parative tranquillity after a month of intense an^ety 
and excitement, when the closing scene of this pabful 
history was the sudden demise of one of England's 
most accomplished generals. His Excellency, Sir 
Benjamin D'Urban, — ^wom out in the service of his 
country, and having fought her battles in the Peninsula 

278 CANADA. 

and Sooth of France^ and in Africa^ anil administered 
the Governments of Antigua^ British Guiana^ and the 
Cape of Good Hope^ with the greatest advantage to 
the pubUe^ — ^fell back on his bed^ on the 25th of 
April, and expired at the age of seventy-two, from 
an affection of the throat. As an Obelisk^ erected to 
his memory by the officers serving in Canada^ records^ 
'^ He died as he had livedo in the faithful discharge of 
his duty to God and his sovereign/' 

The ParUament was prorogued by Lieutenant- 
general Bowan^ C.B.^ now appointed to command 
Her Majesty's Forces, and Lord Elgin proceeded to 
Toronto, as the seat of Government, which^ in 1851, 
is transferred to Quebec. 



To take ^ect in Canada on the 6th July, 1843. 



An Act to amend the laws for the Regulation of the 
Trade of the British possessions abroad. — [16th July, 

Whereas an Act was passed in the third and fourth 
years of his late Majesty King William the Fourth, 
intituled An Act to regulate the Trade of the British 
Possessions abroad, hereinafter designated as ^^The 
Possessions Act :" And whereas it is expedient to pake 
certain alterations and amendments therein : Be it there- 
fore enacted by the Queen's most Excellent Majesty, 
by and with the advice of the Lords Spiritual and 
Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament 
assembled, and by the authority of the same, that, 
except as hereinafter is provided, from and after the 
fiftii day of July one thousand eight hundred and forty- 
three, so far as relates to the British possessions in 


North America^ and firom and after the fifth day of 
April one thousand eight hundred and forty-three, so 
far as relates to the British possessions in South America 
and the West Indies, and from and after the fifth day 
of July one thousand eight hundred and forty-three, so 
far as relates to the Mauritius, this Act shall come into 
and be and continue in full force and operation for all 
the purposes mentioned herein. 

II. And whereas, under or by virtue of an Act passed 
in the fourth year of his late Majesty George the Third, 
intituled an Act for granting certain duties in the 
British Colonies and Plantations in America, for con- 
tinuing, amending and making perpetual an Act passed 
in the sixth year of the Reign of His late Majesty King 
George the Second, intituled An Act for the better 
securing and encouraging the trade of his Majesty's 
Sugar Colonies in America; for applying the produce 
of such duties and of the duties to arise by virtue of 
the said Act, towards defraying the expenses of defend- 
ing, protecting and securing the said Colonies and 
Plantations ; for explaining an Act made in the twenty- 
fifth year of the Reign of King Charles the Second, 
intituled an Act for the encouragement of the Green- 
land and Eastland trades, and for the better securing 
the Plantation trade ; and for the altering and disallow- 
ing several drawbacks on exports from this Kingdom, 
and more effectually preventing the clandestine con- 
veyance of goods to and from the said Colonies and 
Plantations, and improving and securing the trade 
between the same and the United Kingdom, the fol- 
lowing duties are chargeable upon wines imported into 
the British possessions in America; (that is to say). 

". "1 


For every ton of wine of the growth of the Madeiras, 
or of any other island or place from whence such 
wine may be lawfully imported, and which shall be 
so imported from such islands or places, the sum of 
seven pounds : 
For every ton of Portugal, Spanish, or any other wine 
[except French wine], exported from the United 
Kingdom, the sum of ten shillings : 
And whereas, under or by virtue of an Act passed 
in the sixth year of the Reign of His late Majesty King 
George the Third, intituled an Act for repealing certain 
Duties in the British Colonies and Plantations granted 
by several Acts of Parliament, and also the Duties 
imposed by an Act made in the last Session of Parlia- 
ment upon certain East India goods exported from the 
United Kingdom, and for granting other duties instead 
thereof, and for further encouraging, regulating, and 
securing several branches of the trade of this Kingdom 
and the British dominions in America, the following 
duties are chargeable upon molasses and syrups and 
British pimento imported into the British possessions 
in America ; (that is to say). 
For every gallon of molasses and syrups [except as in 

the same Act is mentioned], one penny : 
For every pound weight avoirdupois of British pimento 
[except as in the same Act is mentioned], one half- 
penny : 

And whereas, under or by virtue of an Act passed in 
the fourteenth year of the Reign of His late Majesty 
King George the Third, intituled an Act to establish a 
fond towards further defraying the charges of the 
Administration of Justice and support of the Civil 


Govemment within the Province of Quebec in America^ 
the foUowing duties are chargeable on brandy^ rum, 
and spirits^ imported in any port of Canada; (that is 
to say), 

For every gaUon of brandy or other spirits of the manu- 
facture of the United Kingdom, threepence : 
For every other gallon of rum or spirits which should 
be imported or brought from any of His Majesty's 
sugar colonies in the West Indies, sixpence : 
For every gallon of rum or other spirits which should 
be imported or brought from any other of His 
Majesty's colonies and dominions in America, nine- 
pence : 
For every gallon of foreign brandy, or other spirits 
of foreign manufacture, imported or brought from 
the United Kingdom, one shilling. 
For every gallon of foreign brandy, or other foreign 
manufacture, imported or brought from the United 
Kingdom, one shilling. 
For every gallon of rum or spirits of the produce 
or manufacture of any of the Colonies or plan- 
tations in America not in the possession, or under 
the dominion of, His Majesty, imported from any 
other place except the United Kingdom, one 

And whereas it is expedient ^that the several 
herein before-mentioned duties imposed by the said 
Acts respectively should be repealed, be it therefore 
enacted, that so much of the said three several Acts 
of His late Majesty King George the Third, as 
imposes or authorises the charge of the herein 
before-mentioned duties upon wine, molasses^ pimento^ 


and spirits respectively^ shall be^ and the same is^ 
hereby repealed. 

III. And whereas by the said Possessions Act it 
was enacted, that the several sorts of goods enu- 
merated and described in the table therein men- 
tioned, denominated, *' A table of prohibitions and 
restrictions," should be prohibited to be imported, 
or brought either by sea or inland navigation, into 
the British possessions in America, or should be so 
imported or brought only under the restrictions 
mentioned in such table, according as the several 
sorts of goods are set forth therein, and that if any 
goods should be imported or brought into any of 
the British possessions in America contrary to any 
of the restrictions mentioned in such table in respect 
of such goods, the same should be forfeited; and 
that if the ship or vessel in which such goods 
should be imported should be of less burden than 
seventy tons, such ship or vessel should also be 
forfeited; and whereas it is expedient that the pro- 
hibitions established by the lastly herein before- 
recited enactment should be materially modified, and 
that for this purpose the said enacfments should 
be repealed, and such prohibitions should be enacted 
as herein before are mentioned; be it therefore 
enacted, that so much of the said Possessions Act 
'^as prohibits the importation of the goods enumerated 
and described in the table in the said Act, contained 
and herein before mentioned, and as declares the 
forfeiture of such goods, and of certain vessels im- 
porting the same, as herein before is mentioned, 
shall be repealed. 


IV. And be it enacted, that the several sorts of 
goods enumerated or described in the table following^ 
denominated^ ^'A table of prohibitions and restric- 
tions/' are hereby prohibited to be imported or 
brought^ either by sea or by inland carriage or 
navigation, into the British possessions in America 
or the Mauritius, or shall be so imported or brought 
only under the restrictions mentioned in such table^ 
according as the several sorts of such goods are 
set forth therein : (that is to say,) 


Gunpowder; ammunitions, arms, or utensils of war, 
prohibited to be imported, except from the United 
Kingdom, or from some other British possession; 
coffee; sugar, not being refined, in bond in the 
United Kingdom; molasses; rum, being the pro- 
duce or manufacture of any British possessions 
within the limits of the East India Company's 
Charter, except and subject as hereinafter pro- 
vided, or being of foreign produce pr manufacture, 
prohibited to be imported into any of the British 
possessions on the Continent of South America 
or in the West Indies, (the Bahama and the 
Bermuda Islands not included,) or into the Mau- 
ritius, except to be warehoused for exportation 
only, and may also be prohibited to be imported 
into the Bahama or Bermuda Islands by Her 
Majesty's Order in Council ; base or counter- 
feit coin; books, such as are prohibited to be im- 
ported into the United Kingdom, prohibited to 
be imported. 


And if any goods shall be imp<!>rted or brought into 
any of the British possessions in America or the 
Mauritius contrary to any prohibitions or restrictions 
mentioned in such table in respect of such goods^ 
the same shall be forfeited; and if the ship or 
vessel in which such goods shall be imported be 
of less burden than seventy tons, such ship or 
vessel shall also be forfeited. 

V. Provided always, and be it enacted, that it 
shall be lawful to import into any British pos- 
sessions in the West Indies and South America, 
and into the Mauritius, any coffee, the produce of 
any British possessions within the limits of the 
East India Company^s Charter, and also any sugar, 
the produce of any British possessions within the 
limits of the East India Company^s Charter, into 
which the importation of sugar, the produce *of any 
foreign country, or of any British possession into 
which foreign sugar may be legally imported, has 
been prohibited; and also any rum, the produce of 
any British possession within the limits of the East 
India Company^s Charter, into whidi the importation 
of rum, the produce of any foreign country, or of 
any British possession, into which foreign sugar or 
rum may be legally imported, has been prohibited; 
provided, nevertheless, that no such coffee, sugar, 
or rum shall be entered in any British possession 
in the West Indies or South America, or in the 
Island of Mauritius, as being the produce of any 
British possession -within the limits of the East 
India Company^s Charter, from which the same may 
be legally imported under the proviso last aforesaid 


unless the master of the ship importing the same 
shall have delivered to the collector or principal 
officer of the Customs at the port of importation 
such certificate of origin as hereinafter is men- 
tioned^ imder the hand and seal of the proper 
officer^ at the place where the same shall have been 
taken on board ; and such master shall also make and 
subscribe a declaration before the proper officer of the 
Customs that such certificate was received by him at 
the place where such coffee^ sugar^ or rum was taken 
on boards and that the coffee^ sugar^ or rum^ so im- 
ported is the same as mentioned therein; and such 
certificate of origin shall^ as regards coffee^ certify that 
a declaration in writing had been made and signed 
before the officer giving such certificate, the contents 
of which he believed to be true, by the shipper of 
such coffee, that the same was really and bond fide the 
produce of some British possession ; and such certifi- 
cate of origin shall, as respects sugat*, state the name 
of the district in which such sugar was produced, the 
quantity and quality thereof, the number and deno- 
mination of the packages containing the same, and 
the name of the ship in which they were ladeiL and 
the master thereof, to the officer giving the same, by 
the shipper of such sugar, and shall likewise certify 
that there had been produced a certificate under the 
hand and seal of the collector or assistant-collector 
of the land or customs revenue of the district within 
which such sugar was produced, that such sugar of 
the produce of the district, and that the importation 
into such district of foreign sugar, or sugar the growth 
of any British possession into which foreign sugar can 


be legally imported^ is prohibited ; and such certificate 
of origin shall^ as respects rum^ state the name of the 
district in which such rum was produced, the quantity 
and strength thereof, the number and denomination of 
the packages containing the same, the name of the 
ship in which they were laden and of the master 
thereof, and shall also testify that there had been 
produced to the party giving such certificates, by the 
shipper of such rum, a certificate under the hand and 
seal of the collector or assistant collector of the land 
or customs revenue of the district within which such 
rum was produced, that the same was the production 
of such district. 

VI. And whereas by said Possessions Act it is 
enacted, that there shall be raised, levied, collected 
and paid unto Her Majesty the several Duties and 
Customs, as the same are respectively set forth in the 
figures in the Table of duties therein after contained,' 
upon goods, wares and merchandize imported, or 
brought into any of Her Majesty's possessions in 
America^ and in and by the said Table certain articles 
are therein declared to be exempted from or free of 
such Duties; and it is by the said Possessions Act 
provided, that no greater proportion of the Duties 
imposed thereby, except as therein excepted, shall b« 
charged upon any article which is subject also to Duty 
under any of the Acts therein referred to, or subject 
also to Duty under any Colonial law, than the amount^ 
if any, by which the Duty charged by the said Posses- 
sions Act should exceed such other Duty or Duties, 
and it is thereby further provided, that the full 
amount of Duties mentioned therein, whether on 


account of such former Acts, or on account of such 
Colonial law, or on account of the said Possessions 
Act, shall be levied recovered and received under 
the regulations and by the means and powers of the 
said Possessions Acts : And whereas it is expedient 
that the said Duties should be repealed, and other 
Duties substituted in lieu thereof; be it therefore 
enacted, that the hereinbefore recited enactment^ 
imposing Duties upon goods, wares, and merchandize 
imported or brought into any of Her Majesty's 
possessions in America, and so much of the said 
Possessions Act as extend any of such Duties to the 
Mauritius, and the said Duties and exemptions so 
imposed and established by the said Possessions Act^ 
and the said several enactments in relation thereto, 
which are hereinbefore recited, shall be repealed. 

VII. And be it enacted. That there shall be raised, 
levied, collected, and paid unto Her Majesty the 
several Duties of Customs as the same are respectively 
set forth in Figures in the Table of Duties hereinafter 
contained, upon goods, wares, and merchandize not 
being the growth, production, or manufacture of the 
United Kingdom, or any of the British Possessions 
in America, or of the Mauritius, or of any British 
Possessions within the limits of the East India Com- 
pany's Charter, or the produce of any of the British 
fisheries, imported or brought into any of the British 
Possessions in America or the Mauritius by sea or by 
inland carriage or navigation : 




Wheat Flour the Barrel of 196 lbs. 

fn- 1 o IK X 1 • _ rDried or Salted, the 

Fish of roreign taking ' 

< cwt 

or cunng | 

LPiekled, the Barrel 

Meat^ salted or cured the cwt. 






Sugar, unrefined 

Refined sugar^ the produce of andl^ 20 per centum 

refined in foreign countries. J ^^ valorem- 
Tea, unless imported direct from"] 

China, or unless imported from 

the United Kingdom, or from C^' P°'^^ ^ ^ 

any of the British possessions. 
Bum per gallon 6 













Other spirits and cordials . . . 

Glass manufactures 

Silk manufactures 


Wine whether bottled or not 

Cotton manufactures 

Linen ditto 

Woollen ditto 

Leather ditto 

Paper ditto 

Hardware ditto 

Clocks and watches 



15 per cent, ad 

7 per cent, ad 

VOL. H. 


Manufactured tobacco 


Candles^ other than spermaceti . 
Corks^ cordage^ and oakum. 

7 per cent, 
ad valorem. 

.4 per cent, ad 

Oilj blubber^ fins^ and skins^ the produce of fish^ and 
creatures living in the sea^ of foreign fishings 
fifteen per cent, ad valorem. 

Articles not enumerated, except"^ 
such as are comprised or referred I 
to in the adjoining Table of Ex- | 
emptions. J 

And if any of the goods herein- 
before proposed to be charged 
iTvith duty, except sugar and 
tea, shall be imported through 
the United Kingdom [having 
been warehoused therein, and 
being exported from the ware- 
houses, or the duties thereon 
if there paid, having been drawn 

Such goods shall 
only be charged 
)»-with three-fourths 
of the duties here- 
inbefore proposed. 


Coin, bullion, and diamonds; horses, mules, asses, 
neat cattle, and all other live stock; hay and straw; 
tallow and raw hides; salt; rice; com and grain 
unground; biscuit or bread; meal or flour, except 
wheat flour ; fresh meat ; fresh fish ; fruit and veget- 
ables, fresh ; carriages of travellers ; wood and lumber; 
cottonwool; hemp, flax, and tow; drugs; gums and 
resins ; tortoise-shell ; manures of all kinds. 


Herrings, taken and cured by the inhabitants of the 
Isle of man, and imported from thence. 

Provisions and stores of every description imported 
or supplied for the use of Her Majesty's land and sea 

All goods imported from the United Kingdom, after 
having there paid the duties of consumption, and im- 
ported from thence without drawback. 

VIII. And be it enacted, that the articles enumerated 
or mentioned in the table of exemptions hereinbefore 
contained, shall be imported without payment of any 
duty under this Act, and also such of the following 
articles; (namely). 

Salted or cured meat; flour; butter; cheese; mo- 
lasses ; cork wood ; cordage ; oakum ; pitch ; tar ; 
turpentine ; leather and leather-ware ; fishermen's cloth- 
ing and hosiery; fishing craft utensils, instruments, 
and bait ; as shalPbe imported for the use of the British 
fisheries in America, into any place at or from whence 
any such fishery is carried on, subject to such regula- 
tions as the commissioners of customs, or the principal 
officer of customs at such place, shall make, and which 
they and he are hereby empowered to establish, for the 
purpose of ascertaining that such articles are bond fide 
intended to be applied to the use of such fisheries, or 
that such provisions or stores as aforesaid, are bond fide 
imported or supplied for the use of Her Majesty's land 
and sea forces. 

IX. And be it enacted, that there shall be raised, 
levied, collected, and paid unto Her Majesty a duty of 
ten pounds for every one hundred pounds of the value 
upon sugar lefined in bond in the United Kingdom, 



not being of the growth of any of the British posses- 
sions in America or of the Mauritius^ or of any of the 
British possessions within the limits of the East India 
Company's charter, imported or brought into any of the 
British possessions in America, or into the Mauritius, 
by sea or by inland carriage or navigation. 

X. And be it enacted, that if in any of the British 
possessions in America or the Mauritius any duty be 
chargeable by any colonial law upon any articles being 
the growth, produce, or manufacture of the United 
Kingdom, or of the British possessions in America, or 
of the British possessions within the limits of the East 
India Company's charter, or the produce of British 
fisheries, beyond the duty (if any) chargeable by such 
colonial law upon similar foreign articles, the imperial 
duty thereby imposed upon such foreign articles shall 
be increased by such excess or amount (as the case 
may be) of the duties so chargeable by such colonial 
law upon similar British articles ; and that if in any of 
the British possessions in America or the Mauritius 
any duty be chargeable by any colonial law upon tea 
imported direct from China, or imported from the 
United Kingdom, or any of the British possessions, 
beyond the duty (if any) chargeable by such colonial 
law upon tea not so imported, the imperial duty hereby 
imposed upon tea not so imported shall be increased by 
such excess or amount (as the case may be) of the 
duties so chargeable by such colonial law upon tea 
imported direct from China, "ot imported from the 
United Kingdom, or from any of the British pos- 

XI. And be it enacted, that it shall and may be law- 


ful for Her Majesty, by and with the advice of Her 
Privy Council, by any order or orders in Council, to be 
issued from time to time, to direct that any article 
described in such order, being an article chargeable un- 
der this Act as an unenumerate article, with a duty of 
four per cent, ad valorem, shall be added to the list 
of exemptions hereinbefore set forth, and shall be free 
from such duty, and from and after the time mentioned 
in such order for the commencement of such exemptions, 
not being less than six months from the date thereof, 
such exemptions shall take effect, and such article shall 
thenceforth, whilst such order shall continue in force, be 
free from such duty accordingly; and any such order 
may at any time be suspended or revoked by Her Ma- 
jesty, with the advice of Her Privy Council, by any 
other order in Council. 

XII. And be it enacted, that the duties imposed by 
this Act shall be levied and recovered and received 
under the regulations and by the means and powers of 
the Possessions Act, except such of the said regulations 
as are repealed or altered by this Act. 

XIII. And be it enacted, that all sums of money 
granted or payable under this Act, or under the Posses- 
sions Act, as duties, penalties, or forfeitures, in the 
British possessions in America or the Mauritius, shall 
be deemed, and are hereby declared to be, sterling 
money of Great Britain, and shall be collected, reco- 
vered, and paid to the amount of the value which, such 
nominal sums bear in Great Britain; and that such 
moneys may be received and taken in sterUng money of 
Great Britain, or in foreign coins, at such rates as shall 
be equivalent to sterling money of Great Britain, and 


which shall have been fixed by any proclamation issued 
by Her Majesty; that all duties under this Act shall be 
paid and received in every part of the British posses- 
sions in America and in the Mauritius according to the 
imperial weights and measures now by law established ; 
and that in all cases where such duties are imposed 
according to any specific quantity or any specific value^ 
the same shall be deemed to apply in the same propor- 
tion to any greater or less quantity of value ; and that 
all such duties shall be under the management of the 
Commissioners of the Customs. 

XIV. And be it enacted^ that the net produce of the 
duties so received by the means and powers of this Act, 
shall be paid by the Collector of the Customs into the 
hands of the Treasurer or Receiver-general of the colony, 
or other proper officer authorised to receive the same in 
the ^lony in which the same shall be levied, to be 
applied to such uses as shall be directed by the local 
legislatures of such colonies respectively; and that the 
produce of such duties, so received as aforesaid in the 
colonies which have no local legislature, shall and may 
be applied in such manner as shall be directed by the 
Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury. 

XV. And Ife it enacted, that goods, the produce or 
manufacture of the islands of Guernsey, Jersey, Alder- 
ney, or Sark, when imported from such islands into the 
British possessions in America, or the Mauritius, shall 
be admitted to enter upon payment of the same duties 
as are payable upon the like goods, the produce or manu- 
facture of the United Kingdom, or of any of the said 
Possessions, upon production to the principal Officer of 
Customs at the port of importation of the proofs now 


required by law that such goods are the production or 
manufacture of the islands aforesaid. 

XVI. And whereas the hereinbefore recited pro- 
visoes contained the said Possessions Act^ which 
provide that no greater proportion of the duties im- 
posed by that Act^ shall be charged upon any article 
which is subject also to duty under any of the Acts 
therein referred to^ and subject also to duty under any 
Colonial law, than the amount, if any, by which the 
duty charged by the said Possessions Act shall 
exceed such other duties, and that the full amount 
of the duties mentioned in the said Possessions Act, 
whether on account of such former Acts, or on account 
of such Colonial law, or on account of the said Pos- 
sessions Act, should be levied and recovered and 
received under the regulations and by the means and 
powers of the said Possessions Act have been 
understood and acted on in divers different senses in 
the several British possessions in America and the 
Mauritius, and in some of the aforesaid possessions 
certain duties have been imposed by the Colonial 
Legislature or other Authorities having the power to 
impose duties, which duties have been expressly 
directed by the Colonial Acts, or Ordinances imposing 
the same, to be in addition to or over and above the 
duties imposed by the said Possessions Act, and in 
those and others of the aforesaid possessions the duties 
respectively imposed upon articles by the said Posses- 
sions Act, and by the Colonial Acts and Ordinances in 
such possessions, have, notwithstanding the aforesaid 
provisoes, been collected in fiill without any such 
abatement as in the said provisoes is contemplated; 


And whereas it is expedient that such collection ixx full 
of the said Imperial and Colonial duties shall be held 
to be good in law^ notwithstanding the aforesaid pro- 
visoes : And whereas doubts have been entertained 
whether the duties imposed on the importation of 
goods^ wares, or merchandize into the West Indies by 
the said Possessions Act are, under the provisions of 
that Act, leviable upon the like goods, wares, and mer- 
chandize imported into the Mauritius from the United 
Kingdom : And whereas notwithstanding such doubts, 
the aforesaid duties have been levied upon goods, wares, 
and merchandize so imported into the Mauritius from 
the United Kingdom, and it is expedient that the 
levying of the same should be held good in law : Be it 
therefore enacted, that from and after the passing of 
this Act, no personal action, suit, or other proceeding 
shall be prosecuted or commenced against any Officer 
of Her Majesty^s Customs, or any Officer or other 
person authorized by the Legislature, or other proper 
authorities of any of the aforesaid British possessions, 
for or in respect of such Officer or person having levied 
duties imposed by the said Possessions Act upon the 
importation of any article in full, without making any 
deduction therefrom in respect of duties imposed by 
any Colonial Law or Ordinance upon the same article, 
or for or in respect of such Officer or other person 
haying levied duties imposed upon the importation of 
any article, by any Colonial Law or Ordinance in full 
without making any abatement or deduction therefrom, 
in respect of the duty imposed by the Possessions Act, 
upon the same article; and that no personal action, 
suit, or other proceeding, shall be prosecuted or com- 


menced against any OfiBcer of Her Majesty^s Customs^ 
or any other Officer or other person empowered by the 
proper authorities to collect duties in the Mauritius for 
or in respect of such Officer or other person having 
levied the like duties upon the importation of goods^ 
wares, or merchandize into the Mauritius from the 
United Kingdom as are imposed by the said Posses- 
sions Act upon the importation of goods, wares, or 
merchandize into the West Indies ; and if any action or 
suit or other proceeding whatsoever, shall be prosecuted 
or commenced against any Officer of Customs, or other 
Officer or person as aforesaid, by reason of anything 
done as aforesaid, it shall be lawful for the defendant in 
any such action or suit, or other proceeding as afore- 
said, to apply to the Court in which such action shall 
be brought during the sitting of such Court, or to any 
Judge of such Coxirt during vacation for stay of proceed- 
ings, and such Court and such Judge respectively shall 
stay such proceedings accordingly; and all payments 
which may have been made in respect of the duties, so 
levied in full, or without abatement or deduction as 
aforesaid, or in respect of such duties so levied upon 
the importation of such goods, wares, and merchandize 
into the Mauritius as aforesaid, shall be held to have 
been good and shall not be recoverable at law from any 
person or persons who may have received the same. 

XVII. And be it enacted, that in any British 
possession in America in which the imperial duties, 
imposed by the said Possessions Act, and the 
Colonial duties, imposed by the laws of such Pos- 
session, have both been customarily levied in fiill, 
without making any deduction from the Imperial 



duties^ in respect of the Colonial duties^ or from the 
Colonial duties in respect of the Imperial duties^ it 
shall be lawful^ from and after the passing of this 
Act, for the officers of the Customs, and other officers 
duly authorised, to continue so to levy, in fiill, such 
Imperial and Colonial duties respectively, during the 
continuance of the said Possessions Act, anything 
in the said Possessions Act contained in anywise 

XVIII. And be it enacted, that this Act may be 
amended or repealed by any Act to be passed in 
this present session of ParUament. 

Commercial Relations oi* Quebec with Gbeat 
Britain and the Colonies. 

Statement of the number of vessels and tonnage, 
cleared at the Quebec Custom House, for each port 
in Great Britain, &c., during the year 1842. 

No. rf Ton- 
Vessels, nage. 

No, qf Ton- 
Vessels, nage, 




Cleared for 

Aberswith 5 

Aberavon 1 

Ardrossan 1 

Aberdeen 10 8159 

Ayr 8 608 

Barnstable 1 283 

BeaumariH 2 1247 

Bideford 8 689 

Bridgewater 23 6749 

Bristol 19 9435 

Banff. 1 282 

Boon 1 347 

Ballyshannon .... 1 93 

Bantry 1 245 

Blyth 2 522 

Belfast 24 10969 

Brest 1 279 

r Cleared for 

Berwick 1 332 

Cardigan 4 902 

Colchester 2 592 

Carlisle V 193 

Chester 1 299 

Carmarthen 1 316 

Cambwick-PiU ... 4 1057 

Cardiff 8 1024 

Conway..... 1 809 

Chatliam 4 1319 

Cork 29 10881 

Clare 1 237 

Dartmouth 1 203 

Donegal 2 275 

Drogheda 2 482 

Dover 2 267 

Downpatrick .... 1 190 



^ rt^n^Af^ JVb. ^ Ton- 
Cleared for y^^ ^^^ 

Dublin 18 6124 

Dundee 1 S86 

Ennis 1 158 

Exmouth 1 336 

Exeter 3 713 

Falmouth.. 9 3163 

Fowey 2 818 

Feversham 1 239 

Glasgow ........ 4 1857 

Greenock 2 1467 

Garleston 1 194 

Gloucester 7 2532 

Grangemouth .... 8 1228 

Galway 1 347 

Glandore 1 294 

Hull 22 9964 

Hartlepool 1 315 

Holyhead 4 838 

Irvine 1 238 

Kinsale 1 381 

Kilrush 1 238 

Xillala 1 203 

Kirkaldy 4 298 

London 125 51679 

Liverpool 88 50852 

Lancaster 1 378 

Llanelly 2 454 

Lynn 4 1004 

Londonderry .... 6 3102 

Laine 2 1210 

Limerick 23 7889 

Leith 6 2253 

Loch Ryan 1 439 

L'Oricnt 2 1029 

Milford 6 1534 

Mumbles 4 1324 

Menai Bridge .... 2 919 

Minehead 1 204 

Maryport 1 180 

Maldon..k 2 530 

Montrose 2 546 

Newcastle 23 7276 

Cleared for ^^- f ^*«- 

'' Vessels, nage, 

Neath 3 568 

Newport 6 2039 

Newry 4 1914 

New Ross 5 1931 

Plymouth 14 6511 

Portsmouth 5 2506 

Portrush 2 750 

Padstow 4 1431 

Portsea 1 289 

Poole 6 1568 

Pembroke 4 1691 

Preston 2 386 

Port Madock 1 255 

Peterhead 3 874 

Penzance 4 1064 

PwlhelU 2 574 

Rye * .. 1 210 

Rochefort 2 1184 

Sunderland. 20 5531 

Southampton 8 2972 

Seaton.. 1 147 

Sheemess 2 1140 

Swansea 5 1297 

Strangford 3 610 

Stocron 3 784 

Sligo 7 1998 

St. Ives 1 807 

Tralee 3 901 

Tenby 8 800 

Voyd 1 244 

Woolwich 2 785 

Weymouth 2 622 

Wicklow 2 504 

Whitby 1 235 

Westport ........ 3 641 

Whitehaven 6 1356 

Waterford 16 4734 

Wexford 1 250 

Yarmouth 3 819 

Youghall 2 568 

Total 714 2724Q0 



Statement of the number of vessels, with their Tonnage 
cleared at the Quebec Custom House during the year 
1842, for each port in the Lower Provinces, the 
West Indies, South America, &c., &c. 

No. o/ Ton- 
Vessels, nage. 

Cleared for 

No, of Ton- 
Vessels, nage. 

Jamaica 12 1760 

PortoRico 1 179 

St Michael's 1 56 

Rio Janeiro 1 388 

Bio de la Plata .... 1 332 
Buenos Ayres .... 1 200 
St John's, New- 
foundland 1 88 

St George's Bay .. 8 174 

Labrador 2 99 

Ungaya Bay 1 107 

Halifax 26 1475 

Miramichi 21 1036 

Pictou •15 6219 

Arichat 8 380 

Cleared for 

Sydney, C B 1 

St John, N. B 1 

Cambelton 1 

Dalhousie 9 

Bathurst.... 1 

Little Bay, New- 
foundland 1 

Guysborough 4 

Restigouche 7 

Canso I 

Sbippigan 3 

Garaquet . .' 1 

Richibucto 1 









Total 125 13090 

• Steam-ship Unicom, 12 trips, —Quebec Gazette. 


Mr. Merritt. — I am happy to find a warm in- 
terest is manifested on this subject. That it is the 
most important that can be brought under con- 
sideration during the present session no person can 
doubt : of all others it should be fully discussed, 
as I much fear, from the observations of some honour- 
able members, its object and design are but imper- 
fectly understood. It is scarcely necessary to enter 
on political economy. The theory advocated by the 
honourable and learned member for RicheUeu is un- 


doubtedly correct; free trade is the only true prin- 
ciple, and well would it be for mankind if all Gro- 
vemments would act upon that principle; but as 
they do not, and will not, it is idle for us to attempt 
it. I was not a little surprised to hear the opinions 
entertained by the honourable the Inspector-general, 
and by the honourable member for the city of Mon- 
treal; they apprehend that it is not the intention of 
the Government of the mother country to admit 
wheat and flour from the Western States into the 
ports of Great Britain through Canada, after paying 
the proposed duty. As I entertaiii a very different 
opinion, it will be necessary, in order to explain the 
question fully, to go back and examine the changes 
which have taken place in the policy of the mother 
country ; and I trust the Chairman of the Committee 
will bear with me in taking up more time on this 
occasion than ordinary on other subjects. 

Heretofore, the trade of all Colonies was subject 
to restrictions, under the erroneous impression, that 
the subjects of the mother country were alone en- 
titled to benefit by it. The universal discontent 
occasioned by an adherence to this poUcy in all 
Colonies invariably led to separation so soon as 
they were sufficiently numerous to effect it. After 
the loss of the American Colonies, a gradual change 
commenced in the colonial policy of Great Britain. 
In 1825, the late Mr. Huskisson introduced his 
system of discriminating duties, under which, articles 
grown in this country were admitted into Britain at 
A less rate of duty than from foreign countries, 
although at a higher duty than similar articles 


grown by our fellow-subjects in Britain. It placed 
us in a better situation than foreigners, but it did 
not fully establish the great principle for which 
we contend, and recognise us as subjects; it placed 
us in a medium between the two, and was at least 
one step in advance. This change was hailed by 
the inhabitants of Canada as a great boon, and 
the most sanguine expectations were formed; many 
individuals embarked their capital — ^their all, under 
this hazardous and uncertain system. The temporary 
protection thus afforded by the Home Government 
was suddenly withdrawn, and wide-spread ruin is 
the consequence. It is notorious, that neither the 
grower, miller, merqhant, nor shipper has ever real- 
ised a profit out of the productions of the soil 
when sent to the British market; that capital in- 
vested in land will not yield an interest; and we 
can never hope to see the country prosper under 
the present system. Notwithstanding the universal 
dissatisfaction which prevails throughout the country, 
the repeated appHcations which have been made 
by addresses from the Legislature, and petitions from 
the agricultural population, no change had been 
attempted until the last session of the Imperial 
Parliament, when the average price at which colonial 
grain could be admitted was reduced from 678. to 
SSs. per quarter. This alteration was also intended 
for our benefit, but it has, in fact, placed the grower 
in Canada in a nuch worse situation. Owing to 
the distance at which he is situated from the home 
markets, and to the time required after .the grain 
is harvested before it can reach the consumer, he is 


subjected to the highest duty named^ as well as all 
other charges; and were the averages lowered even 
to 40^., it would produce the same eflfect. It is, 
however, apparent, that after the Corn-bill was deter- 
mined on, very great changes took place in public 
opinion, as well as in the Cabinet. The efforts made 
by the British North American Committee, and various 
individuals in London, to second the efforts of the 
colonists, as witnessed by the memorial from Lord 
Mountcashell and others, afford the best evidence 
of the one, and the declaration of Sir Robert Peel 
and Lord Stanley, of the other. It is the first time 
that you have heard a minister declare, that you 
should treat Canada as if she were an integral 
part of the kingdom. In what way, or in what 
manner is this great and all-important principle to 
be carried into effect for the mutual benefit of this great 
kingdom, of which we are hereafter to form a part ? 
Surely not by the views and opinions expressed by the 
Inspector-general, which would, instead of increasing, 
annihilate the trifling trade we at present possess. AH 
the grain grown in Canada^ does not supply the con- 
sumption of British North America. The quantity 
which could be exported to Britain, admitting that 
the entire population in all our commercial towns 
consumed American flour, would be trifling in the 
extreme. Can any person for a moment suppose that 
after lending us the credit of the nation for a million 
and a half, for the express purpose of completing our 
great leading communications from the great Western 
part of this continent to the ocean ; after placing pro- 
tecting duties on flour and wheat in their ports, to give 


a preference to her vessels and seamen to convey the 
same ; and after securing by this poUcy a vent for her 
manufactures for the consumption of millions of people 
already inhabiting the great western coimtry above 
us — that a measure would be recommended by' that 
cabinet^ the eflFect of which would be to render those 
communications useless ; to lay up our ships and 
vessels, or rather send them to seek employment in 
the American trade to Liverpool, and drive British 
manufactures from the greater part of the continent of 
America. The price of conveying a barrel of flour 
from Cleveland (Ohio) to Liverpool, during the^ pre- 
sent fall : — 

£ s, d. 
By way of Quebec, has been per barrel .... 1 12 7 
By way of New York, ditto, ditto 1 8 7 

In favour of thie Erie Canal and New York 4 
When the average price of wheat in Britain 

is 64^. per quarter, foreign duty is 5*. 5rf. 

sterling, colonial duty 7|rf. or 8rf. 5 4 

Leaving a balance in favour of Canada .... 1 4 
Suppose to this we add the 3^. per quarter 

now proposed, equal to, per barrel 2 1| 

Suppose we place in favour of New .York, 

per barrel 7| 

which will effectually prohibit the transit of a single 
barrel of flour through Canada, and wiU prove an 
efiectual protection for the English grower, and remove 
all apprehension of successful competition, through 
Canada. It is also apparent that the mother country 


has also in view the immense trade of the western 
part of the United States, — ^which will be conveyed by 
her ships and seamen paid with her manufactures, and 
will in a short time enable the province to realize a 
sufSicient revenue from the tolls on our canals and the 
revenue on articles from foreign countries, to enable 
us to remove all duties on articles from Britain, and 
establish free trade in every sense of the word between 
the mother country and this colony, or in the words of 
Sir Robert Peel, between diflFerent parts of the same 
kingdom. One word as to the effect on the popula- 
tion of Canada. Admit that the duty so raised is for 
the purposes of revenue — every shilling so raised will 
be remitted on the articles now consumed from Britain, 
so that in the aggregate the burden will not be 
materially increased ; it will transfer the duty now 
collected from our fellow subjects in Britain to our 
competitors in the neighbouring States. — It will also 
possess this double advantage — a bounty by removing 
the duty in England, and a protection by imposing 
2^. to 3^. per barrel duty on flour for our home con- 
sumption. Every man in Canada will see the value 
of his productions increased, and the value of his pro- 
perty, the effect of which need not be again repeated. 
It will soon make Canada the envy and admiration 
of our neighbours, and infuse new life and vigour 
throughout the whole Province, and by the effects 
produced prove the present pofUcy fraught with wisdom 
and justice, and worthy of the enlightened statesmen 
who preside over the councils of the kingdom. 


Cost of conveyance of one barrel of flour from Cleve- 
land^ Ohio^ to Liverpool^ vid Montreal^ including all 


"Wheatat Cleveland^ five bushels at 80 cts 4 00 

Freight to St. Catharine's 8 40 

Insurance and purchasing 2 10 

5 bushels to the barrel at 90 cts 4 50 

4 50 dols. cost at mill. 

Freight per barrel flour to Kingston 15 

Ditto ditto to Montreal 40 

Six months^ interest on 5 dols 15 

One per cent. com. at New York on drafts on 

London 05 

Cooperage to put in shipping order 02 

At Montreal 5 82 

Shippmg charges at Montreal, say 05 

Insurance to Liverpool, 4 per cent, on 7 dols. 28 

Freight to Liverpool, 4*. sterling 88 

6 53 

Less 8 per cent. Exchange 52 

Actual cost of a barrel of flour at Liverpool 6 01 

Charges in Liverpool : 


Bond, cartage, cooperage 3 

Portage at quays ^ f. shed dues 2J 6 

Portage, receiving and deUvery dues. . 1, 2 
Store rent 10 cents., cooperage dues J, lOJ 
Stamps 1, insurance against fire 1^ • . 2| 


Cents. Dollars. 

Interest on charges^ short wt. & damage 2 
Commission and guarantee^ 4 per cent. 28 — 54 

Without duty the consumer would pay 6 65 

Against Canada route 83 cents. 
Colonial duty 22 

6 77 
In favour of Canada route without duty 15 

6 92 

Cost of the conveyance of one barrel of flour from 
Cleveland, Ohio, to Liverpool, vid New York, in- 
cluding all charges. 
Wheat in Cleveland, 5 bushels at 80 cts. ..... 4 00 

Freight to BuflFalo '. 5 25 

Insurance and purchasing 2 10 

At Buffalo 4 35 

Freight to New York 52i 

One per cent, commission at New York 05 

Five months' interest 12^ 

At New York 5 15 

Shipping charges at New York 05 

Cooperage to put in shipping order. 02 

Insurance to Liverpool, 1 per cent 07 

Freight to Liverpool, Is, Sd, sterling 28 

5 57 

Less 7 peF cent. Exchange 89 


Actual cost of a barrel of flour at Liverpool. ... 518 
Sundry charges after reaching port 54 

Brings the article to consumer without duty . . 5 72 
Duty on foreign flour at this moment, average^ 
being per quarter 5^. 6^. 1 20 

6 92 

In favour of New York route 83 cents per barrel with- 
out duty 
Against it, including duty, 22 cents per barrel. 

I now give the political economist and the mercantile 
reader an opportunity of viewing the American opinions 
upon the subject of Canadian prospects in the grand 
canal scheme of opening Lake Huron to the Atlantic. 
It is extracted from the Patriot, an able Ultra-Tory 
paper of Toronto, on account of the commentary on the 
statement of the New York Journal of Commerce : 


We would recommend a very careful perusal of the following very 
plain and logical article, from the New York JoumcU qf Commerce, on 
the subject of Ship Canals, especially that of the St Lawrence. 

We do not pretend to any accurate knowledge of these matters, Imt 
confess that we have never been able to imderstand what benefits the 
Province is to derive from the gigantic line of artificial navigation 
now advancing to surmount the mighty rapids of the St Lawrence ; 
or from what source, apart from -direct taxation, the interest of the 
enormous sum there to be buried, is to be paid. 

At present, every pound of wheat and flour which the Province 
and the neighbouring States have to export, can be floated down the 
broad river itself, with comparatively slight risk, and the vessels 
return by the Rideau Canal, — and so, with some moderate local 
improvements, could continue to do, until Canada was traversed in 
every direction by good roads, and had a population some six or 
ten times greater than she has at present 


We may be wrong, and very probably are; but, Tiewing these 
public works pretty much in the spirit in which they are viewed by 
the great mass of the agricultural population, we feel very uneasy as 
to the wisdom of burying our half a million of hard-got money in 
making what we fear will be a useless Ship-canal, alongside of a 
splendid river which can readily carry all our produce for the next 
half century. 

We know that the awful outlay on this canal would have furnished 
Canada with excellent roads, traversing her forests in every direction, 
and giving her hard-working yeomanry a chance of bringing their 
now-often-useless produce to market We know that, had this sum 
been so spent, the population of Canada would probably be quad- 
rupled, and a practical good done to her agricultural population, instead 
of a possible evil in the shape of a gigantic ship-canal, which may 
be only a yawning chasm, into which the spare capital of this young 
and struggling country has been too inconsiderately cast 

We will be very glad to receive any information on this subject, 
and our columns will ever be open to its fair discussion; but our 
motto has ever been, " Good roads for the Canadian farmer before 
ship-canals for the Americans." 

The Welland Canal is an indispensable work and must be main- 
tained, if it did not pay one per cent interest 


" As flour is the great staple of the West, and as the freight of this 
article is generally regarded as the standard of the cost of transporta- 
tion from the West to the seaboard, the rates per barrel by the 
different routes should be carefully noted. And first we may remark 
that flour from Lake Erie is delivered at the same rates at Kingston 
and Oswego. From the former place to Montreal, the regular average 
cost is 35 cents per barrel, though for some time during last summer 
it was carried for 25 cents. Tlie distance by stages and steamboats is 
180 miles ; by the river above 200 miles. Hence, the cost being 35 
cents, the rate is one mill and three-fourths per barrel per mile. The 
average rates from .Oswego to New York are about 55 cents per 
barrel, making a difference of about 20 cents in favour of Montreal. The 
average charge for freight from the latter port to England is frt>m 
3s. to 4*. sterling ; from New York not more than half those rates, — 
omitting, of course extreme cases, where Is, sterling per barrel has 
been accepted here, and 5s, and 6s, sterling demanded at Montreal, 
and we believe paid in November last Without the English corn- 
laws, then, competition with New York would be as hopeless for 
Montreal, as with the English corn-laws, carefully graduated so as to 


turn the scale in favour of Montreal, competition is now hopeless for 
New York, in reference to the supply of the British markets. The 
greatest anticipated diminution in the cost of transportation by reason 
of the enlargement, is stated to be 22 cents, or It. sterling per barrel, 
(Sen. doc. 61, 1841, p. 12) ; though with the immense debt thereby 
created, an increase of cost is far more probable than a diminution ; 
but, admitting a reduction of 22 cents per barrel on flour, can this 
difierence be sufficient to counterbalance the great advantages yielded 
to the Colonies by Great Britain ? Can it have any sensible effect in 
increasing the export of flour hence to that coimtry, as long as the 
** sliding-scale " and differential duties favouring the North American 
Colonies, exist? Or, to come nearer home, is it — we will not say 
necessary or proper — but is it just, to tax the citizens of New York, 
in order that the property of the inhabitants of other States, or of 
Canada, may be carried to and from the seaboard more cheaply than 
at the present low rates ? The capacity of the present canal is noto- 
rious to all acquainted with the trade of the West ; and by means of 
the railroads alongside, almost any amount of freight may be carried 
to the Hudson, as cheaply as 6n the canaL In proof of this, we refer 
to the average rates for flour on the canal, from Bufialo to Albany, as 
given in the Report quoted-above, viz., 79 88-100 cents for a distance 
of 368 miles, equal to 2 18-100 mills per barrel per mile, as contrasted 
with the rates between Albany and Boston, viz., B5 cents for a dis- 
tance of 200 miles, or 1 75-100 mills per barrel per mile. The railway 
over the mountains to Boston carries, therefore, at lower rates than 
does the canal to Albany, and- at about the anticipated rates on the 
enlarged canal, with the advantages of four or five times the speed, 
and throughout the year. The people of New York have consequently 
nothing to gain by the enlargement, either as regards a diversion of 
the traffic from the St. Lawrence, or as a means of increasing the 
facilities or cheapness of communication with the Western States, or 
with the interior of this State, either in winter or summer. 

" The so-called * ship canal ' around the rapids of the St Lawrenpe, 
is 10 feet deep, locks 55 feet wide, and 200 feet long. Of this about 
12 miles are nearly done, at a cost of 150,000 dollars per mile ; and. 
as about 28 miles more will be required, the entire cost of the ' Im- 
provement of the St Lawrence ' above Montreal, may be put down 
at 6,000,000 of dollars. The present trade is carried on in ' barges,* 
which take 1,500 barrels of flour at high-water, and 1,000 barrels at 
low-water from Kingston to Montreal by the river, paying no toll, 
and return by the Rideau Canal, the tolls of which route do not 
exceed those by the Erie Canal. The present boats on the Erie 
Canal carry about 50 tons. The * Improvement of the St Lawrence ' 


is intended to cheapen transportation by the introduction of a different 
class of vessels for the Western trade ; but we are informed that no 
precise dimensions of these vessels, nor any statements of the con- 
templated tolls on these canals, have been made public, and that the 
locks on different parts are to be of different widths — diminishing, 
perhaps, with the means of. the province, or rather as John Bull may 
feel inclined to * fork out,' or otherwise. 

** The improvement of the river itself between the points connected 
by the canals, is also to be undertaken ; and it is now said that a 
trifling sum will remove all obstructions to vessels of 150 tons 
burthen in the lowest. water, and t^us reduce the cost from Kingston 
to Montreal, to about half that from Oswego to New York. But, 
even with this reduction, how are the Canadians to divert the flour 
and pork for the people of New York, New Jersey, and the Eastern 
States from the Erie Canal and Hudson to the St Lawrence ? It 
may be very easy to carry the produce to Montreal, but hoW is it to 
be carried thence to Albany, New York, Newark, Hartford, Boston, 
&c. ? — The present trade of the St Lawrence arises from the demand 
for flour in England, which, if furnished by this continent must go 
by way of the St Lawrence. The present trade of the Erie Canal 
rests mainly on the demand for consumption in this country. Were 
flour carried for 20 cents, per barrel from Kingston to Montreal, the 
consumers in the Atlantic States and the marine, would not receive a 
barrel less than they now receive vid the Erie Canal ; and, on the 
other hand, were flour carried from Oswego to New York for 80 
cents, per barrel, the merchants of Quebec and Montreal would not 
ship a barrel more or less to England, notwithstanding these assume4 
rates are much lower than can ever be expectd. 

" So far are we from fearing the ' ship canals ' of Canada, that we 
believe the enormous debt they are now running up, will, by render- 
ing the highest toll indispensable, tend rather to divert than to attract 
the western trade. Had the present Erie Canal been 'let alone,' 
the tolls might have been reduced one half, and thus all the antici- 
pated advantages of the enlargement would have been secured some 
years since, without any cost to the state. Indeed, at this moment, 
the rates from Buffalo to Albany are 25 per cent lower than the 
average rates given above from official documents, and are not three 
cents, per barrel higher than the lowest rates ever contemplated by 
the friends of the enlargement ; that is, 57 38*100 cents. — (See doc. 
No. 51, 1841, p. 12) ; yet we do not perceive the magical effects on 
the prosperity of the country so confidently predicted, nor have we 
heard that the low freights of last summer on the St. Lawrence— 
25 cents, per barrel of flour from Kingston to Montreal ~have done 


anything for the commercial interests of our northern neighbours. 
Hence we conclude, that no large amount of additional capital can be 
now safely invested in improving these thoroughfares, but that the 
true policy is to reduce the tolls, and if the canal be crowded beyond 
a few days in the season, to build extra locks and reservoirs when and 
where wanted only, or permit the railroads to carry freight, or both. 
Of the St Lawrence — being out of our jurisdiction — we shall merely 
say, that, as the Lachine Canal is nearly three times the size of the 
Erie Canal, and as the tolls increase in a still greater proportion — 
being four times the tolls and 70 per cent more than the total cost 
of transportation on the Erie Canal ! — we do not very clearly see by 
what process of reasoning a canal ten times larger, is to reduce the 
cost of transportation. Experience and proper caution are however 
scouted by politicians and adventurers, who, having everything to 
gain by the extravagance of the Government, clamour loudly, and 
too often successfully, for the immediate construction of the most 
visionary undertakings. — Still, we venture to predict, that the 
enlargement of the Erie Canal will not be completed for many 
years { — these very formidable advocates of the measures to the 
contrary notwithstanding ; that the future expenditures of this state 
will bear a more reasonable proportion to her income than hitherto ; 
and, lasUy, that the construction of the St Lawrence Canal, on its 
present gigantic scale, will do as little to injure, as will the enlarge- 
ment of the Erie Canal to foster and increase, our western trade. 
In other words we fear the enlargement much more than the ' ship 
canals.' " — New York Journal of Commerce. 






Under the Act 12 Victoria^ cap, 1. 

Animals, specially imported for the improTement of stock Free. 

Animals and Utc stock— all 

Anatomical preparations 


Apples, green Gt dried 

Ashes, — ^pot, pearl, and soda 


Barley, beans, here, and bigg 


Berries used in dyeing . 


Books, printed . 

Books, reprints of British copyright works 

Books, blank . . . 

Books and drawings of an immoral or indecent character 

Boots and shoes 

Bran and shorts 

Brandy . . 2s. per galL and 25 

Bristles . 


Brooms . 



Bulbs, roots, and trees 

Burr stones 

Burr stones, wrought 

Busts and easts of marble, bronze, alabaster, or plaster 
of Paris 

Butter ..... 

Cabinets of coins, medals, or gems, and other collec- 
tions of antiquity 

Candles ..... 

Castings . . . 

Chain cables, not less than 15 fiithoms, and links five- 
eighths of an inch thick . 

Cheese ..... 

Cider . . . . ^ 


20 per cent. 

2^ per cent 
30 „ 

20 per cent. 


12* ,, 
Free. * 

12i ,. 
12* per cent 








2* per cent. 








20 per cent. 


12* per cent. 





Clockn . .12^ per cent. 

Coals and coke .... 2^ 


Coffee, green , 48. 8d. per owt. and 12^ 


Coffee, roasted or ground lis. per cwt. and 12| 


Coin and bullion .... Free 


Coin, base or counterfeit Prohibited. 

Cordials . , 3s. per gallon and 25 per cent. 

Cottonwool Free 


Cotton manufactures , . . . 12^ per cent 

Drugs . , , . . 12^ 


Drugs, used solely in dyeing .2^ 


Dye woods .... 2^ 


Earthenware . . . . , 12| 


Engravings, etchings, and drawii^gs , Free 


Feathers 12^ per cent. 

Fisk . . 12i 

Flax and tow, undressed « . 2^ 

Flou^ , , . . . 20 

Fruits, all kinds , . ^ 30 

Furs ..... 12^ 

Furniture 12^ 

Oin . . 28. per. gall, and 25 

Ginger .30 

Glass, and manufactures of . . 12^ 

Glue . . 12i 

Ghrease and scraps ... 2^ 

Hair, and manu&ctures of . .12^ 

Hams 20 

Harness .12^ 

Hardware .... 12^ 

Hats .12^ 

Hemp ..... 2^ 

Hides ^ 

Honey ^ . . . . 12^ 

Hops . .20 

Indian com .... Free. 

Indian-rubber and manufactures . . 12^ per cent. | 

Indigo ..... .2^ 

Ink . 12^ 

Iron — Bar and rod not hammered 2^ 

Sheet, not thinner than sixteen wire gauge 2^ 

Hoop, not oyer 2 inches broad . 2^ 

Charcoal-made or refined .2^ 

Boiler plates .... 2^ 

Bailroadbars ... - H 

Spike rods .... 2^ 




Iron — ^pig «]id scrap 

2* per cent. 

Jewelry . 


12i „ 

JuDk or Oakum 

2i „ 

Lamps , . . 

« « 

12i ,. 

Lard . 

2i „ 

Lead, pig aad sheet 

• • 

2i „ 

Lead manufactures 

. 12i „ 

Leather, and manufactures of 

• • 

12i ,, 

Lemon syrup . 

. 12i „ 

Tiinen, and manufactures of ^ 

b % 

124 „ 


3b. per gaU 

. and 2d „ 

Macaroni ■, >. ^ 


30 „ 

Machinery, all . 

, 124 „ 


« • 

124 ,. 

Manures, all kiads 



• « 


Marble, in blocks unpolished 

24 per eenu 

Marble, all others . 


124 „ 

Meal, Indian 

- 124. „ 

Meal, other 

• • 

20 „ 

Meats, all, except mess pork 

. 20 „ 


■♦ • 

124 „ 

Models of machinery and other inventions and im 

proTcments in the arts 

• • 



38. per cwt. 

and 124 per cent. 

Musical instruments 

■• « 

124 „ 


• 124 ,; 


• ■• 

30 „ 

Nuts used in dyeing 

24 „ 


k • 

20. „ 

Oil — ^palm and cocoa-nut 

24 „ 

Oil — all other 

■ « 

124 » 

Oranges and lemons 

30 „ 

Ores of all metals 

• ■ 

24 ,, 

Oysters . 

124 .,, 


• « 

124 » 



Paper and paper manufactures 

• • 

124 per cent 

Peas . 

. 20 „ 

Pepper and pimento 

• ■ 

30 „ 


• ^ 

, 124 „ 

Philosophical instruments and apparatus 


Pickles and sauces 

• • 

124 per cent. 


« • 

24 „ 

Pipes, smoking 


124 „ 


2 p 

24 „ 

12) per eent 


>» ~ 

































Fork, ineflB 
Pork, all other 

Preserved fruits .... 


Quiaees ..... 

Baisins' ..... 
Resin or rosin . . > ^ 

Rice . . • . - 

Rope . . • * . 

Rope, tarred — when imported hy shipbuilders for rig- 
ging their ships .... 
Rum, at proof, by Sykes' hydrometer, Is. 3d. per gall, and 
x*ye .«•••. 
Saleratus ..... 
Salt . .Id. per bushel and 12( 

Saw 1<^ , . . • . 

Seeds .... 

Segars ... Is. 6d. per lb. and 12^^ 

Ships' water casks in use . . . 2^ „ 

Snuff , . . 4d. per lb. and 12^ „ 

Soap . . . . . 12^ „ 

Specimens of natural history, mineralogy, and botany Free. 
Spices, all ..... 90 per cent. 

Spikes . . . . 12^ „ 

Spirits, except nun and whisky, at proof, 28. per gall, and 25 
Spirits or cordials, sweetened so that the strength cannot 

be found by the hydrometer . Ss. per gall, and 25 

Spirits of turpentine .... 12^ 

Steel . . ' ^ 

Steel manu&ctures .... 12^ 

Sugar, refined, In loayes or crushed, and candy 

148. per cwt. and 12| „ 





Sugar, bastard and other kinds 

9s. per cwt. and 12^ 

Sumach . 



. 12i 



Tar . . . . 


Left • • • 

Id. per lb. and 12^ 

X GaSCXS • • « 


Tin and tin-ware 


Tobacco, manufactured . 

Id. per lb. and 12^ 

Tobacco, unmanufactured 

^d. per lb. and 12^ 

Tow, undressed 




Type metal, in blocks or pigs 


Types . . . . 




12^ per cent 













Vegetables used in dyeing 
Veneers . 
Vermicelli . - 
Vinegar . 

Wheat . 

Whisky, at proof 3d. per gall, and 

Wine, in wood, value £15 the pipe of 126 gallons or under, 

6d. per gall, and 
Wine, value over £15 the pipe Is. 6d. per gall, and 

Wine in bottles . 4s. per gall, and 

Wood and lumber 

Wood used in making carpenters* tools 
Wool ..... 

Wool manufactures > 

All goods, wares, and merchandise, not enumerated . 


Arms, clothing, cattle, provisions and stores of every description, which 
any commissary or commissaries, contractor or contractors, shall 
import or bring, or which may be imported or brought by the prin- 
cipal or other officer or officers of Her Majesty's Ordnance into the 
province for the use of Her Majesty's army or navy, or for the use of 
the Indian nations in this province; provided the duty otherwise 
payable thereon would be defrayed or borne by the treasury of the 
United Kingdom of this province. 

Horses and carriages of travellers ; and horses, cattle, and carriages and 
other vehicles, when employed in carrying merchandise, together 
with the necessary harness and tackle, so long as the same shall be 
bonajide in use for that purpose, except the horses, cattle, carriages, 
vehicles and harness of persons hawking goods, wares, and mer* 
chandise through the province for the purpose of retailing the same, 
and the horses, cattle, carriages, and harness of any circus or eques- 
trian troop for exhibition. The horses, cattle, carriages and harness 
of any menagerie to be free. 

Donations of clothing specially imported for the use of, or to be di^^tri- 
buted gratuitously by any charitable society in this province. 

Seeds of all kinds, farming utensils and implements of husbandry, when 
specially imported in good faith by any society incorporated or esta- 
blished for the encouragement of agriculture. 

Salt for the use of the fisheries, and wine for the use of regimental 


The following articles in the oceapation or employment of persons 
coming into the province for the purpose of actually settling 
therein, yiz. : 
Wearisg-^pparel in actual use, and other personal effects not mer- 
chandise ; horses and cattle ; implements and tools of trade of handy- 
The personal household effects, not merchandise, of inhabitants of this 
province, being subjects of Her Majesty, and dying abroad. 
And the followiug articles, when imported directly from the United 
Kingdom, and being the growth, produce, or manufacture of the 
said United Kingdom, Tiz. : 
Animals, beef, pork, biscuit, bread, butter, coooa-paste, corn or grain of 
all kinds; flour; fish, fresh or salted, dried or pickled ; fish oil; furs 
or skins, the produce of fish or creatures Hying in the sea; gypsum, 
horns, meat, poultry, plants, shrubs and trees, potatoes and yegetables 
of all kinds. Seeds of all kinds, skins, pelts, furs or tails imdresaed. 
Wood, Tiz., boards, planks, stares, timber, and firewood. 
And the following articles when imported direct from the proTuio^ 
of Noya Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward's Island, 
and being the growth, produce, or manufacture of said piovinces 
respectively, viz. : 
Grain and breadstuff} of all kinds, vegetables, limits, seeds, hay and 
straw, hops, animals, salted and fresh meats, butter, cheese, chocolate 
and other preparations of cocoa, lard» tallow, hides, horns, wool, 
undressed skins, and furs of all kinds, oxen of all kinds, iron in pigs 
and bloom, copper, lead in pigs, grindstones and stones of all kinds ; 
earth, coals, limO, ochres, gypsum, ground or unground ; rock-salt, 
wood, bark, timber and lumber of all kinds, firewood, ashes, fish, fish* 
oil ; viz., train-oil, spermaceti-oil, head matter and blubber, fins and 
skins, the produce of fish or creatures Hving in the sea. 

Amount of Revenue and Exjpenditure. £ s. d, 

1850: Total expenditure .... 532,063 12 4 

Excess of revenue over expenditure . 172,170 10 1 

Total currency . 

1850 : Nett revenue of Customs* duties 

Statement of Imports. 

1850 ....... 

Tonnage of Vesaele hy Canals. 
1850: Welland .... 587,100 tons. 

St. Lawrence .... 460,180 „ 
Chambly . 143,194 „ 

£704,234 2 


581,132 12 

444,547 5 
615,694 13 



BcceipU of ToUs by Canals. 

1850: Welland 

St. Lawrence . 

Burlington Bay Ccmal 
St. Ann's Lock 

Total by canals 


£ 8, d. 

37,742 17 2i 

19,730 13 7 

2,956 7 4i 

3,679 6 2 

807 6 7i 

£66,772 10 6i 

Number and Tonnage of Vetsels registered in the Province of Canada 

in 1850. 
Steamers .... 31 

Tonnage of ditto 2,985| 

Sailing Teasels .... 213 

Tonnage of ditto 33,148 

1850: Value of dutiable and free goods imported £4,245,517 3 6 
Duties collected . . 615,694 13 8 

Total value of Canadian produce and manufac- 
ture exported from sea and inland ports in 1850 £3,235,948 15 9 

Number of Vessels inward and outward in 1850. 

Quebec . 
Total tonnage 





In 1851, 95 more vessels than in 1850. 

Population of Upper and Lower Canada is now about equal, and may 
amount, conjointly, to 1,582,000 souls. 

Schools^^^t. Ryerson, the able superintendent of education, reports 
that in 1850, 259,258 children attended school in Western Canada. 
There are besides in each district a grammar-school, various model- 
schools, and at Toronto an excellent Normal school. 

Amount of crops^ showing that Canada is a more agricultural country 

than the United States, 
In 1847 population of Canada West .... 723,332 
Ditto ditto United States .... 20,746,400 

Canada West. 

Quantity to 
each inhabitant 

United States. 

Wheat 7,558,773 
Oats 7,055,730 
.Maize 1,137,555 
Potatoes 4,751,331 


114,246,500 550 
167,867,000 809 
539,350,000 2.601 
100,965,000 486 




List of economic Minerah and DeponU of Canada exhibited by W. JS. 
Logany Esq.. F.R,S.f Provincial Geologist, at the Great Exhibition 
in London, 1851. 

Iron, magnetic. 



Zinc, Bulphuret. 

Silyer, native. See. 
Gold, in gravel, &c. 

Chemical Matebials. 





Iron pyrites. 



Stone Paints. 
Iron ochre. 

Talcose slate. 



Ferruginous day. 

Materials applicable to the 
Lithographic stone. 

Matebials applicable to 
Jewellebt, &c. 
Oriental rubies. ) 
Sapphires. ] 

Ribboned Chert. 

Materials fob Glassmaking 
White quartz sandstone. 
Pitchstone, basalt, &c. 

Retbactobt Matebials. 

Phosphate of lime. 
Shell Marl. 

Gbindino and Polishing 
Grindstones < 

Matebials fob Paving, 
Tiling, &c. 
Slates, roofing. 

Building Matebials. 
Granite, superior. 
Calcareous ditto. 

Combustible Matebials. 



Moulding sand. 

Note. — No coal has been found in Canada ; but the Halifax and 
Quebec railroad, if completed, will supply it abundantly from Nova 
Scotia and New Brunsiivick. Mr. Logan recently put into my hand a 
glass bottle full of Canadian gold, about £450's-worth, from the 
Kivi^re du Loup, a branch of the Chaudiere. 

J. E. Alexandeb, A.D.C. 

Montreal, Christinas, 1851. 



London : Printed by William Tyler, Bolt-court. 

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more refined researches of literature afford pleasure and instruction. The whole work 
should be read, and no doobt will be iBad, by all who are anxious fi)r information. It is a 
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crowned heads." — Tmea. 

" Ajremarkable and truly great historical work. In this series of biographies, in which, 
the severe truth of history takes almost the wildness of romance, it is the singular meH^ 
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as well as of scrupulous justice and honesty of purpose." — Morning Post 

" Miss Strickland has made a very judicious use of many authentic MS. authorities not 
previously collected, and the result is a most interesting addition to our biographical 
libraiy.**— (ftiorfer^y Renew, 

" A valuable eontributioii to historical knowledge. It contains a mass of every kind of 
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2 vols. Syo, with Portraits, 28s. bound. 

Perhaps no name of modern times is productive of so many pleasant 
associations as that of ** Horace Walpole," and certainly no name was ever 
more intimately connected with so many diffbrent subjects of importance 
in connexion with Literature, Art, Fashion, and Politics. The position of 
various members of his family connecting, Horace Walpole with the Cabi- 
net, the Court, and the Legislature — his own intercourse with those cha- 
racters who became remarkable for brilliant social and intellectual quali- 
ties^and his reputation as aWit, a Scholar, and a Virtuoso, cannot fail, it is 
hoped, to render his Memoirs equally amusing and instructive. 


*' The biography before us is in all respects eminaitly satisfactory/' — Morning 

*^ These Memoirs offer a good subject, well treated, and indeed a necessary 
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political, and literary history, commencing with * Evelyn' and * Pepys,* carried 
forward by ' Swift's Journal and Correspondence,' and ending almost in our 
own day with the histories of Mr. Macaulay and Lord Mahon. Besides its 
historioEd value, which is very considerable, it cannot be estimated too highly 
as a book of mere amusement." — Standard, 

*'Two more interesting or entertaining volumes than these * Memoirs of 
Horace Walpole' may be searched for for a long time before they will be found. 
The writer has woven into his narrative a rich fhnd of contemporary anecdote 
and illustration. Most of the nobles, wits, and literati of the period are judi- 
ciously introduoed." — Morning Post, 

*' Horace Walpole was the most remarkable man of his time ; and posterity 
will do him the justice, now that hii career is fully elaborated, to place him 
in the niche which belongs to him, as one whose influence in the affairs of his 
country has been tax beyond the average of otiier men." — Messenger, 

« Thia life of Horace Walpole is a very valuable and interesting addition to 
the historical library. We should be glad to see eveiypart of our later history 
illustrated with equal clearness and impartiality." — Weekly Chronicle. 

<* Few works of the present day contun more matter fitted for entertainment 
and instructioa"-— itfomtn^ Herald, 

- - • - ^^_-__— _^-^--^^„-^^___— »^.^»^.^^ 

B 2 



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With the ARMS (1500 in number) tocnntely engnred, and incorporated with the Text. 
Now ready, in 1 toL (comprising as much matter as twenty ordinary volnmes), 38s. bound. 

The following is a Bist of the Principal Contents of this Standard Work: — 

I. A fall and interesting history of each 
order of the English Nobuity, showing its 
origin, rise, titles, imrnxmities, nriyileges, &c 

n. A complete Memcnr of tne Queen and 
Boyal FamQy, forming a brief genealogical 
History of the Sovereign of this country, and 
deducing the descent of the Plantagenets, 
Tudors, Stuarts, and Gudphs, throngh theur 
varions ramifications. To this section is 
appended a list of those Peers who inherit 
the distinguished honour of Quartering the 
Boyal Arms of Plantagenet. 

in. An Authentic table of Precedence. 

IV. A perfect Histobt of All thb 
Pkebs and Babohiets, with the fullest 
details of their ancestors and descendants, 
and particulars respecting eyeTT collateral 
member of each &mily, and all intermar- 
riages, &c. 

V. The Spuntnal Lords. 
VL Foreign Noblemen, subjects by birth 
of the British Grown. 

VII. Peerages claimed. 

VIII. Surnames of Peers and Peeresses, 
with Heirs Apparent and Presumptive. 

IX. Courtesy titles of Eldest Sons. 

X Peerages of the Three iCmgdoms in 
order of Precedence. 

XI. Baronets in order of Precedence. 

XII. Privy Councillors of England and 

XIII. Daughters of Peers nuuried to 

XIV. All thk Obdebs of Knight- 
hood, with every Knight and all the Knights 

XV. Mottoes translated, with poetical 


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The Landed Gentry of England are so closely connected with the stirring records of its 
eventful history, that some acquaintance with them is a matter of necessity with the leg^- 
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It embraces the whole of the landed interest, and is indispensable to the library of every 
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heraldic rights, aa the peerage and baronetage. It wifi be an enduring and trustworthy 
• record."— 3for»Mi^ Post 

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This woi^ oompriseB a complete pictwe of tlie wmaoB courts and 
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of. She succeeded in penetrating into provinces and localities rarely 
visited by tourists, aikl still glowuigwi^ the embers of civil var, and fol- 
lowed the army of Prussia in Germany, of Bussia in Hungary, and of 
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all tike illostrioas dbaracters, mule and female, whom the ev^its of the 
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"We unhesitatingly dscacterise tiiia journal as thd moit remarkable produetion oT 
Um kind which has ever been given to the world* F^js ]>aints the Court, the Mo- 
narchs, and the times, in more vivid colours than any one else. His Diary makes us 
comprehend the great historical events of the age, and the people who bore a part in 
tbeni, and gives us more dear gUmpaet iato the true English life of the times than all 
the other memorials of tbaa that hare eome down to our own." 


"The best book of its kind in the English language. The new matter is extremely 
curious, and eocasioiiaUyfar more clianoteristic and entertaining than the old. The 
writer is seen in a clearer light, and the reader is taken into his inmost soul. *Fepys' 
Diary' is the ablest picture of the age in which the writer lived, and a work of standard 
importaBfle in Eni^ish Ittentnre." 

"'Pepys* Diary* throws a distinct and vivid light over the picture of England and 
its government during the period succeeding the Bestoration. If, quitting the broad 
path of history, we look for minute information oonoeming ancient manners and customs, 
the progress of arts and setenoes, and the various branches of antiquity, we have never 
seen a mine so rich as these volumes. The variety of Pepys' tastes and pursuits led 
him into almost every department of life. He was a man of business, a man of informa- 
fefon, a man of whim, and, to a certain degree, a man of pleasure. He was a statesman, 
a bel-eaprit, a virtuoso, and a connoisseur. His curiosity made him an unwearied, as 
well as an universal, learner, and whatever he saw found its way into his tables." 





2 Tolfl., Syo, unifonn with the " Curiosities of Literature," 28s. bound. 


^By&x the most important work on the important age of Charles I. that 
modem times have produced." — Quarter^ Review* 

" Mr. Disraeli has conceiyed that the republication of his father's < Commen- 
taries on the Life and Reign of Charles L' is peculiarly well timed at the present 
moment ; and he indicates the well-known chapters on the Genius of the Papacjr, 
and the critical relations of Protestant sovereigns with Roman Catholic sub- 
jects, as reflecting, mirror-like, .' the events, thoughts, passions, Imd perplexities 
of the present agitated epoch.* In particular, he observes, that the stories of 
conversions to the Romish faith, then rife, seem like narratives of the present 
hour, and that the reader is almost tempted to substitute the names of his 
personal acquaintances for those of the courtiers of Charles. No apology was 
needed for reintroducing to the world so instructive and original a work as that 
of Isaac Disraeli." — Times. 

** At the end of 250 years, Rome and England are engaged in a controversy 
having the same object as that in which they were committed at the commence- 
ment of the seventeenth century; and no where wiU the reader find the cir- 
cumstances of that controversy, its aims, the passions which it evoked, the in- 
struments which it employed, and its results, better described than in this ex- 
cellent book." — Standard, 

<<The position attained by the late Mr. Disraeli's admirable and learned com- 
mentaries on the great events of the Revolution, and the times that led to it, 
would at any period have warranted its republication. To those, however, to 
whom the bearing of its remarks, and the effect of the author's researches are 
known on the religious question of that day, their apt and effective bearing on 
the most vital topic of our present religio-political existence, will give the reap- 
pearance of the work an additional value." — Britannia* 

'* The history of Charles I. required a Tacitus, and, in our opinion, this work 
ought to have that standard character." — Gentleman*8 Magazine, 





3 vols., post 8yo, with Illastrations, 10s. 6d. each, bound. 


** A most agreeable book, forming a meet companion for the work of Miss Strickland, to 
which, indeed, it is an indispensable addition. The anthoress, already favonrablj known 
to the learned world by her excellent collection of * Letters of Royal and Ulostrioas Ladies, 
has executed her task with great skill and fidelity. Every page displays careful research 
and accuracy. There is a gracefol combination of sound, historical erudition, with an air 
of romance and adventure that is highly pleasing, and renders the work at once an agreeable 
companion of the boudoir, and a valuable addition to the historical library. Mrs. Green 
has entered upon an untrodden path, and gives to her biographies an air of freshness and 
novelty very alluring., The first two volumes (including the Lives of twenty-five Princesses) 
carry us from the daughters of the Conqueror to the family of Edward I. — a highly inte- 
resting period, replete with curious illustrations of the genius and manners of the Middle 
Ages. Such works, from the truthfulness of their spirit, furnish a more lively picture of 
the times than even the graphic, though delusive, pencil of Scott and James.'* — Britanma, 

" The vast utility of the task undertaken by the gifted author of this interesting book 
can only be equalled by the skill, ingenuity, and research displayed in its accomplishment. 
The field Mrs. Green has selected is an untrodden one. Mrs. Green, on giving to the world 
a work which will enable us to arrive at a correct idea of the private histories and personal 
characters' of the royal ladies of England, has done sufficient to entitle her to the respect 
and gratitude of the country. The labour of her task was exceedingly great, involving 
researches, not only into English records and chronides, but into those of almost every 
civilised country in Europe. The style of Mrs. Green is admirable. She has a fine per- 
ception of character and manners, a penetrating spirit of observation, and smgular exactness 
of judgment. The memoirs are richly fraught with the spirit of romantic adventure." — 
Morning Post, 

''This work is a worthy companion to Miss Strickland's admirable 'Queens of 
England.' In one respect the subject-matter of these volumes is more interesting, because 
it is more diversified than that of the ' Queens of England.' That celebrated work, although 
its heroines were, for the most part, foreign Princesses, related almost entirely to the his- 
tory of this country. The Princesses of England, on the contrary, are themselves English, 
but their lives are nearly all connected with foreign nations. Their biographies, conse- 
quently, afford us a gfimpse of the manners and customs of the chief European 
kingdoms, a circumstance which not only gives to the work the charm of variety, but 
which is likely to render it peculiarly useful to the general reader, as it links together by 
association the contemporaneous history of various nations. The histories are related 
with an earnest simplicity and copious explicitness. The reader is informed without 
being wearied, and alternately enlivened by some spirited description, or touched by 
some pathetic or tender episode. We cordially conmiend Mrs. Everett Green's production 
to general attention ; it is (necessarily) as useful as history, and fully as entertaining as 
romance." — Sun. 



Comprising FoU and Interesting Details of 


With an Historical IntrodacUon hpr FRANCIS PULSZKY, Late Under- 
Secretary of State to Ferdmand, Emperor of Austria and 

King of Hnngarr. 

2 Tolfty post 8TO, 21 s. bonnd. 



The uati&ntlil7 of the people, their martial prowess, and present imhappy fitte, have 
invested Hungary with the Interest of a. seeoud Poland, and Western Bnrope must 
henaturalljr desirons to lesm something of their etril and sodal life. These Totmiifli are 
the joint produetion oC M. and Madsme Potesky. 'While the latter reeovda her imprea- 
sions and reooUeotions of Hungarian Ufe, we have to ^hsnk M. Pulsaky for a very ablo 
summary of the history of Hungsiy, ftrom the days of Arpad to the reign of PbrcBnand 
the PIrst, and the reform morement— a history which abounds in interesting inc idcalis 
and Qseftil leasoas for the statesman and the philosophio hlstarisa. Maitiamci Tiililjili 
narrative of her wanderings and dangers is agreeably ^versified with sketches and auec* 
dotes firom Magyar liib, as well as Mdth ancient legends from Hungarian Ustery and 
modem pansagai in the lata war of Independence. ItcannotiriltoeMtteaninteaas t in 
all classes of readers— ^in those who open a book only for anuisemfint, as well as ia those 
who look for something more enduring."— JS%2ta6«r^A Mevieta, 

** We need hardly inform our readers that the authoress of this work is the accomplished 
wife of the gentleman who was originally accredited to the Ei^Ush cabinet by the 
provisional government of Hungary. The private interest attaehhig to the vseital of 
events whidi have become So fiMnovs wouldinsure a wide pcq^nlarity f»r Madane Pulaaky'a 
book. But we should very much under^estimi^ its vahie if we so limited our praise. 
The memoirs, indeed, contain sketches of social life which are worthy of a place by the 
side of Madame de BtaSl de Launay and Madame Osmpan. Bat they are also vicb 
in political and topographical inlbnnallen of the ftrat chaiaetar. Madame PidsAy was 
in the habit of direct intercourse with the foremost and most distinguished of the 
Hungarian generals and statesmen, and has given a complete summary of Uie political 
events in Hungaiy, from the arrival of the Hungarhoi deputatloB in 184B,to the treason 
of General GkMVST on thsiath of i«««st, 1840. M. Pulsaky has also pieflzed a valuable 
introduction, which gives the most ouoplete histoiyaf Hnngaiy that has ever issued fhom 
the English press."— Olobe. 

" With all the charms of romance, these volumes possess the graver interest of his- 
tory. Full of personal anecdotes, historical reminiscences, and legmndaiy associations; 
teeudag with interesting uimatarm, rich in sodal illustration and t<vogn4>hiGai 
description, the memoirs present to all classes of readers an attraction qiiite indepen* 
dent of the recent important events, of which they give so clear and connected a narra- 
tive."— Iforaiiv Potf. 

"In this most interesting hook we have rerealed in the characteristic memoirs of an 
eye-witness the whole story cf Hungary and its revolution. Tkub intrignes of Tatrmr 
with JelUMddeb, the treaeherf ^ tiie court, the pert tsken bj Kossuth snd other 
eminent diaracters* the Hungarian deputation to the Emperor, and the final breach 
between Hungary and Austria^ are told as forcibly as simply."— 2)a»2^ yew$. 

" It is impossible that the great Hungarian struggle for freedom can ever find a hlato- 
rian more honest in point of narrative, more sincere in oonviction, or more M»-rfnMg to 
1 do fUllJustioeto the truth than Madame Pulssl^."— Odsero^r. 





Author of " Sylva," &c. 


In 4 YoI&^pQst 8to, price 10s. 6d. each, vith Hhistratiaiui. 

N.B. — The First Two Volumes, comprising " The Diary," are now ready. 

The Diary and Correspondence of John Evelyn has long heen r^srded as an 
invalaable xeoord of opinions and events, as well as the most interesting expo- 
sition we possess of the manners, taste, learning, «od religifln of fhia ooantry, 
during the latter haJf of the seventeenth century. The Diary comprises olwer* 
vtttkna oo the politics, literature, and science of his age^ duxtog his travels in 
France and Italy ; his residence in England towards the latter part of the 
Protectorate, and his e<»mexioa with the Courts of Charles IL tad the two 
subsequent reigns, interspersed with a vast number of original aneodotes cf €be 
most celebrated persons of that period. To the Diary is subjoined the Cor- 
respondence of Evelyn with many of his distinguished contemporaries; also 
Original Letters from Sir Edward Nicholas, private secretary to Song Charles I., 
during some important periods of that reign, with the King's answers; and 
numerous letters firom Sir Edward Hyde (Lord Clarendon) to Sir Edward 
Nicholas, and to Sir Richard Brown, Ambassador to France, during the exile 
of the British Court. 

A New Edition of this interesting work having been long demanded, the 
greatest pains have been taken to render it as complete as posable, by a careful 
re-examination of the original Manuscript, and by illustrating it with such 
annotations as will make the reader more convezsant with the mimcffous sub- 
jects referred to by the Diarist. 

"It has been justly observed that as long as "Virtue and Science hold their 
abode in this island, the memory of Evdyn will be held in the utmost venera- 
tion. Indeed, no change of &^hioB, no alteration of taste, no revolution of 
science, have impaired, or can impair, his celebrity. The youth who looks 
forwtfd to an iiiheritanee which he is imder no temptation to increase^ will do 
well to bear the example of Evelyn in his mind, as containing nothing but what 
is imitate, and nothing but what is good. All perscms, indeed, Biay find in 
his character something for imitation, but for an English gentleman he ia the 
perfect model." — Quarterly Review, 






Beautifollj prmted, in 1 toI. 8to, contiuiimg 800 doable^soliuim pages, 21a, bound. 

This work, fonned on a plan precisely similar to that of Mr. Bulge's popolar Dictionary 
of the present Peerage ana Baronetage, comprise^ those peerages which hare been sus- 
pended or eztingnished since the €k>nquest, particnlarising the members of each family in 
each generation, and bringing the lineage, in all {possible cases, throngh either collaterab or 
females, down to existing houses. It connects, in many instances, the now with the old 
nobility, and it will in all cases show the cause which has influenced the revival of an 
extinct dignity in a new creation. It should be particularly noticed, that this new woric 
appertains nearly as much to extant as to extmct persons of distinction; for though 
d^nities pass away, it rarely occurs that whole families do. 


1. Peerages of England extinct by failure of 

issue, attainder, &c., alphabetically, ac- 
cording to Surnames. 

2. Baronies by Writ— England— in abey- 

ance, and still vested probably in exist- 
ing heirs. 
8. Extinct and Abeyant Peerages of Eng- 
land, according to titles. 

4. Charters of Freedom — ^Magna Charta-^ 

Charter c^ Forests. 

5. Boll of Battel Abbey. 


6. Peerages of Ireland, extinct by £ulure of 

issue, attainder, &c, alphabetically, 
according to Surnames. 

7. Baronies by Writ — Ireland — ^in abey- 


8. Peerages of Ireland, extinct and abey- 

ant, alphabetically, according to Titles. 

9. Peerages of Scotland, extinct oy feilure 

of issue, attainder, &c., alphabetically, 
according to Surnames. 
10. Extinct Peerages of Scotland, alpha- 
betically, according to Titles. 




Cheaper Edition, 2 vols. 8vo, 12s. bound. 

The leading feature of this important work is its application to the great question now 
at issue between our Protestant and Catholic fellow-subjects. It contains a complete 
expose of the Romish Church Establishment during the eighteenth century, and of the 
abuses of the Jesuits throughout the greater part of Europe. Many particulars of the 
most thrilling kind are brought to light. 



Cheaper Editbn, 2 vols. 8vo, with Portraits, price only 12s. — The same in French. 

'* We have seldom perused so entertaining a work» It is as a mirror of the most splen- 
did Court in Europe, at a time when the monarchy had not been shorn of any of its beams, 
that it is particularly worthy of attention."-— C%romc/is. 





Author of " The History of the Landed Gentry," ** The Peerage and Baronetage," &c. 
Second and Cheaper Edition, 2 vols., post Svo, 21s. bound. 

The memoirs of our great families are replete with details of the most 
striking and romantic interest, throwing light on the occurrences of public 
as well as domestic life, and elucidatmg the causes of many important 
national events. How little of the personal history of the Aristocracy is 
generally known, and yet how full of amusement is the subject ! Almost 
every eminent family has some event connected with its rise or great- 
ness, some curious tradition interwoven with its annals, or some calamity 
casting a gloom over the brilliancy of its achievements, which cannot fail 
to attract the attention of that sphere of society to which this work more 
particularly refers, and must equally interest the general reader, with 
whom, in this country, the records of the higher classes have always pos- 
sessed a peculiar attraction. The anecdotes of the Aristocracy here re- 
corded go far to show that there are more marvels in real life than in the 
creations of fiction. Let the reader seek romftuce in whatever book, and 
at whatever period he may, yet nought will he find to surpass the unex- 
aggerated reality here unfolded. 


" Mr. Burke has here given us the most curious incidents, the most stirring tales, and 
the most remarkable circumstances connected with the histories, public and private, of our 
noble houses and aristocratic families, and has put.them into a shape which will preserve 
them in the librarj, and render them the favourite study of those who are interested in 
the romance of real life. These stories, . with all the reahty of established fact, read with 
as much s^orit as the tales of Boccacio, and are as full of strange matter for reflection and 
amazement.** — Brikamia, 

" We cannot estimate too highly the interest (^ Mr. Burke*s entertaining and instructive 
work. For the curious nature of the details, the extraordinary anecdotes related, the 
strange scenes described, it would be difficult to find a parallel for it. It will be read by 
every one." — Sunday Times, 



Being the Second Series of '* Anecdotes of the Aristocracy." 

By J. B. BURKE, Esq. 

2 vols., post 8vo, 21s. bound. 

** From the copious materials afforded by the historv of the English Aristocracy, Mr. 
Burke has made another and a most happy selection, adding a second wing to his interest^ 
ing picture-gallery. Some of the most striking incidents on record in the annals of higli 
and noble families are here presented to view."'--JbA» Bull. 




Author of ^^ Lives of the QveeEiif of EBgUmd," &c. 1 toL, posCt 870, elegantly 

bound, with Portrait of the Author, lOs. 6d. 

** This attractive volniae is replete wkk loteMst; Iik» Uiis Slriekhmd's former works) 
it will be found, we doubt not, in the hands of youthful branches of a family, as wdU as 
in those of their parents, to aH and each of wiiom it eannot fiul to be alike amnsiDg and 
instructive." — Britannia. 

** This delightful book will speedily become a reigning favounte. These deeply in- 
teeatiof; oompasiticna abound in delicate asd^ renoed Bentimpnt,. gjkming fiig|bl»> of 
iinnji fciafiftn «ul the utmost poetic beautj." — WedcUf Chromde, 




Now first published firom the Originals, with Introductory Noti«e9. 


Author of ^^ Lives of the Princesses of En^nd.*^ 
Cheaper Edition, 3 wola^ with !F)u«mil6 Antogmph% fe, Ua. 




Now flrtt ptthHdied-frwi tJie«acaalItjUi«i KMHunriirfc, 
Svdlk, peat Svo, Sis. bouad. 

" The grand features of the recent Italifoi morement in faroixr of s Bstfoml enstmee 
have haid no other such authentic portraiture as these volwnes convey. Tli» Slafee 
documents and letters which the work contains make it indispensable to the historian 
of these times. The whole panorama of the Revolution is here gone over^tbe refonn 
movement bcffinninff at Borne— the agitation caused thweby in jnoraooe and Kayles, 
thence spreading to Sicily, Piedmont, and Austrian Italy— the threats and hoallle atti- 
tude of the Court of Vienna— the spirited revolt d tiie Sicilians— the incrcAsed tynuiny of 
German generals in Lombardy— the crash ot tb& Parisian Revolution— the nse of the 
populace of Milan against B4idet2ky, the declaration of Charles Albert, and advance of the 
Sardinian troopfr— the battle of Qmlo— ihe exoltatiDn of feelinx in Some wad. florenoe — 
the flight of the Grand Duke of Tuscany— the revolution in Naples— the treachery of 
Pope and Sing— the dreadftd maimacrei nt Naples-^the dianters of Charles Albert— the 
bombardment of Brescia— the glorious defence of Yenico— the flight of the Pope firom ! 
Home— the arrival of Mazzini— the procfawatioa of the Sepublic from the Capitol — 
the invasion of the Roman States by the armies of Spain, Austria, France, and Naples — 
the fall of Venice and of Bcane— and the whole efaain of events down to the Mitiirs 
return."— ^^ftMKMMn. 

"We predict that, posterity win accept General Fepe as the historian of tha gveat 
Italian movement of the nineteenth century. His work is worthy of aU oamnMBda* 





2 yaU^ post five, 21s. bonnd. 

"Mr. Milman's book has considerable merit. He has evidentlj, in his interesting 
biography of TassOy imdMrtaken a laboar of Ioycw His diligenee Ims been great, his ma- 
terials are copions and well-arranged, and hb sketches of the poet's contemporaries form 
agiteahk episodea in Ike narcatife of Tasso'i works and woes.*^-— £^tn&iify4 Remeur,^ 

** The present wozdc, firamthe tondnng iatex^ of its snbjeet, is likelj to be eziensirelj 
read." — Athenceum, 

" Mr. Milman's biography is a very good one. The work will find a place in every 
library." — Britannia, 

" A most valaable addition to our literary treasures — ^fraught with deep and thrilling 
interest." — Morning Post 

" Mr. Mihnan's Memoir «f Tasso it a work of considerable interest; enteiiag fully into 
the pfBTtienhrf of th« ffoA poet's life^ and gmag a general reiiew cf Jm iTCn"--JoAn 



Minister Plenipotentiary at the Courts of Dresden^ Copenhagen^ and Vienna^ 
from 1769 to 1793 ; toith Biographical Memoirs of 


2 Tols., pMt 8^0^ with Partiaits, 21s. b«imd. 

Sir Bobert Morzay Keith, it will be recollected, was one of the ablest diplomatists of 
the last century, and Jield the post of Ambassador at the Coart of Copenhagen, when 
Caroline Matilda, Queen a^ Dcnaaik, the unfovtiinate sistar of George III., was inyolved in 
the conspiracy of Stmensee, and was only sayed from the severest pnnishment her vindic- 
tive enen^ tbs Qiieenp«Moiher could infliet, by the i^inted inteiposiijon of the British 
Ambassador. Su: Bobert Keith also for a long period represented his Sovereign at the 
Courts of Dresden and VitBU; aui his papers, edited by a mcraber of his ftmily, throw 
considerable light on the diplcmatie history ef the reign of George in., besides conveying 
many curious particulars of the great men asnd events of the period. Among the variety of 
interesting documents oomfrised in these velnmeS) will be found — Letters from FredericJ^ 
King of Pmssiaf Caroline Matilda, Queen of Demouvk; PrineesFerdinaiMlofBmsewick, 
Kaunitz, and Czartoriski y the Dukes of Cumberland, Tork, Queensbnry, Montagu, and 
Newcastle; Lorda Stonnoot, St. Asaph, Heathfield, Hardwkke, Darlington, Auckland, 
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shals Conway and Keith; Srs Walter Scott, Joseph Yoorke, Nathaniel Wrazall, John 
Sebright \ Dr. Bobertsoo, Mr. Fitt| Howard, Mhk PSozzi, Mrs. Montagu, &c., &c. 

" A large portion of this important snd highiT iBterestme work conasts of letters, that 
we venture to sav will bear a comparison for sterling wit, lively humour, entertaming^sip, 
IMiiiaBt personal aneedotes, aad briUisnt pictures of social life, in its highest phases, Mth at 
home and abroad, with those of Horace Walpole himself.^* — Couri JoumaL 





2 Tols^ post 8yo, with Portraits, 21s. bound. 

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Kavy.**— P/iymotf (A Herald, 




Second Edition, 1 yolnme, post 8yo, with Portrait, 10s. 6d. bound. 

** A more interesting work has not issued from the press for many years. It is in tmth 
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Now ready, Voujmb XI., price 78., of 




Haying filled at different times the high offices of Minister of the Interior, of Finance. 
of Foreien AfEairs, and President of the Council, M. Thiers has enjoyed facilities beyona 
the reacn of every other biographer of Napoleon for procuring, from exclusive and 
authentic sources, the choicest materials for his present work. As guardian to the 
archives of the state, he had access to diplomatic papers and other documents of the 
highest importance, lutherto known only to a privileged few, and the publication of which 
cannot fafl to produce a great sensation. From ]>rivate sources, M. Thiers, it appears, has 
also derived much valuable information. Many interesting memoirs, diaries, and letters, 
all hitherto unpublished, and most of them destined for political reasons to remain so, 
have been placed at his disposal; while all the leading characters of the emjnre, who were 
alive when the author tmdertook the present history, have supplied hinuwith a mass of 
incidents and anecdotes which have never before appeared in print, and the accuracy and 
value of which may be inferred from the fact of these parties naving been themselves eye- 
witnesses of, or actors in, the great events of the period. 

♦,♦ To prevent disappointment, the public are requested to be particular m giving th^ 
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Becorder of Macclesfield. 2 vols. Syo, 128. bound. 

" We haye here a collection of biographical notices of all the Speakers who hayd presided 
daring the hundred and fort}r-foar years aboye defined, and of seyeral Members of Parlia- 
ment the most distinguished in that period. Much useful and curious information is scat- 
tered throughout the yolumes." — Quarterly Review, 



Now first published from the Originals. 
Cheaper Edition, 2 yols., 8yo, with Portrait, 12s« bound. 

'* A work ivboundins in the ronumce of real life.** — Mestenaer. 

" A bo^ of maryelms reyelations, establishing beyond all doubt the perfect innocence 
of the beautiful, highlj-^fted, and inhtfmanly-treated Sophia Dorothea.*'— iVam7 and 
Military Gazette. 


Rlustratiye of Her Personal History. 

Edited, with an Historical Introduction and Notes, 

Cheaper Edition, with numerous Additions, uniform with Ifiss Strickland's *^Liyes of the 
Queens of England." 2 yols., post 8yo, with Portrait, &c, 12s. bound. 

" The best collection of authentic memorials reUtiye to the Queen of Soots that has 
eyer appeared."— Ifomn^ Chronicle, 


Written by HEBSELF. 8 yols., post 8yo, with Portrait 

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Cheaper Edition, in 8yo, embellished with Portraits of Lady Blessington and Lord Byron, 

price only 7s. bound. 

'* The best thing that has been written on Lord Byron." — Spectator. 
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^JribeB0r. J«P.¥JUE:TCH£B. Two vois^ post 8y^, 21s. bound. 

These Travels embrace not only Nineveh and its antiquities, but various new 
and interesting particulars respecting the Tezidees, the Nestorians, and Orien- 
tal Christiiuuiy as well as notices of the country between Mosul and Aleppo, 
wlijksh has been etxpkved by few Eurc^an travellers. The intimate relations 
vrith the natives of the country entered into by Mr. Fletcher, who resided some 
years at Mosul, during his inquiries into the condition of the Oriental Churches, 
have fiimished him with a vast fund of anecdote and illustcstion. The work 
also comprises disquisttaons on the ancient cities of Meaopotanua^ and on the 
suGcessiye empires established between the Tigris and Euphrates, with lemarks 
on the hypothesis advocated by Major Bawlinson as regards the early Assyrian 


" A work of great mnit— the vflmarira of a highly kiteUiseiit and acute observer. 
The work is not less acceptable as a book of travel inan it is valuable as an awdliaiy 
to the archeeologyoftheHoIy BcriptiuM."— ^Stondoml. 

" At a time when the startling discoveries of Mr. Layard have called public attention 
to the cradle of Asiatic civilisation, the notes of a two years' residence on the mighty 
plain of Nineveh, and of excursions into the remotest parts of Assyria^ fhm the pen 
of another traveller, cannot fail to excite more than ordinary interest. Mr. Fletcner, 
well versed in the questions connected with the geography of Scripture, and with, the bis. 
tory and position of the different Chnrches of the East, made his ofaservalaoiis <m the 
countries which he visited, not as an ordinary traveller who picks np his knowledge 
casually, here and there, but as an experienced student, who knows beforehand upon what 
points ne is to direct his inquiries. His volumes form an instructive and agreeable pen- 
dant to Mr. Layard's more exclusively antiquarian researches. The reaaer will meet 
vrith much valuabl 3 information which he would look for in vain elsewhere."— tToAn JBvU. 

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